OpenJurist

21 USC 352 - Misbranded drugs and devices

A drug or device shall be deemed to be misbranded
(a) False or misleading label 
If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular. Health care economic information provided to a formulary committee, or other similar entity, in the course of the committee or the entity carrying out its responsibilities for the selection of drugs for managed care or other similar organizations, shall not be considered to be false or misleading under this paragraph if the health care economic information directly relates to an indication approved under section 355 of this title or under section 262 (a) of title 42 for such drug and is based on competent and reliable scientific evidence. The requirements set forth in section 355 (a) of this title or in section 262 (a) of title 42 shall not apply to health care economic information provided to such a committee or entity in accordance with this paragraph. Information that is relevant to the substantiation of the health care economic information presented pursuant to this paragraph shall be made available to the Secretary upon request. In this paragraph, the term health care economic information means any analysis that identifies, measures, or compares the economic consequences, including the costs of the represented health outcomes, of the use of a drug to the use of another drug, to another health care intervention, or to no intervention.
(b) Package form; contents of label 
If in package form unless it bears a label containing
(1)  the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and
(2)  an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count: Provided, That under clause (2) of this paragraph reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages shall be established, by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(c) Prominence of information on label 
If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness (as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.
(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 126(b), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2327 
(e) Designation of drugs or devices by established names 

(1) 
(A) If it is a drug, unless its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name (except the applicable systematic chemical name or the chemical formula)
(i) the established name (as defined in subparagraph (3)) of the drug, if there is such a name;
(ii) the established name and quantity or, if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, the proportion of each active ingredient, including the quantity, kind, and proportion of any alcohol, and also including whether active or not the established name and quantity or if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, the proportion of any bromides, ether, chloroform, acetanilide, acetophenetidin, amidopyrine, antipyrine, atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine, arsenic, digitalis, digitalis glucosides, mercury, ouabain, strophanthin, strychnine, thyroid, or any derivative or preparation of any such substances, contained therein, except that the requirement for stating the quantity of the active ingredients, other than the quantity of those specifically named in this subclause, shall not apply to nonprescription drugs not intended for human use; and
(iii) the established name of each inactive ingredient listed in alphabetical order on the outside container of the retail package and, if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, on the immediate container, as prescribed in regulation promulgated by the Secretary, except that nothing in this subclause shall be deemed to require that any trade secret be divulged, and except that the requirements of this subclause with respect to alphabetical order shall apply only to nonprescription drugs that are not also cosmetics and that this subclause shall not apply to nonprescription drugs not intended for human use.
(B) For any prescription drug the established name of such drug or ingredient, as the case may be, on such label (and on any labeling on which a name for such drug or ingredient is used) shall be printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used thereon for any proprietary name or designation for such drug or ingredient, except that to the extent that compliance with the requirements of subclause (ii) or (iii) of clause (A) or this clause is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(2) If it is a device and it has an established name, unless its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name, its established name (as defined in subparagraph (4)) prominently printed in type at least half as large as that used thereon for any proprietary name or designation for such device, except that to the extent compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(3) As used in subparagraph (1), the term established name, with respect to a drug or ingredient thereof, means
(A)  the applicable official name designated pursuant to section 358 of this title, or (B), if there is no such name and such drug, or such ingredient, is an article recognized in an official compendium, then the official title thereof in such compendium, or
(C)  if neither clause (A) nor clause (B) of this subparagraph applies, then the common or usual name, if any, of such drug or of such ingredient, except that where clause (B) of this subparagraph applies to an article recognized in the United States Pharmacopeia and in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia under different official titles, the official title used in the United States Pharmacopeia shall apply unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homoeopathic drug, in which case the official title used in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia shall apply.
(4) As used in subparagraph (2), the term established name with respect to a device means
(A)  the applicable official name of the device designated pursuant to section 358 of this title,
(B)  if there is no such name and such device is an article recognized in an official compendium, then the official title thereof in such compendium, or
(C)  if neither clause (A) nor clause (B) of this subparagraph applies, then any common or usual name of such device.
(f) Directions for use and warnings on label 
Unless its labeling bears
(1)  adequate directions for use; and
(2)  such adequate warnings against use in those pathological conditions or by children where its use may be dangerous to health, or against unsafe dosage or methods or duration of administration or application, in such manner and form, as are necessary for the protection of users, except that where any requirement of clause (1) of this paragraph, as applied to any drug or device, is not necessary for the protection of the public health, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations exempting such drug or device from such requirement. Required labeling for prescription devices intended for use in health care facilities or by a health care professional and required labeling for in vitro diagnostic devices intended for use by health care professionals or in blood establishments may be made available solely by electronic means, provided that the labeling complies with all applicable requirements of law, and that the manufacturer affords such users the opportunity to request the labeling in paper form, and after such request, promptly provides the requested information without additional cost.
(g) Representations as recognized drug; packing and labeling; inconsistent requirements for designation of drug 
If it purports to be a drug the name of which is recognized in an official compendium, unless it is packaged and labeled as prescribed therein. The method of packing may be modified with the consent of the Secretary. Whenever a drug is recognized in both the United States Pharmacopoeia and the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, it shall be subject to the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia with respect to packaging and labeling unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homoeopathic drug, in which case it shall be subject to the provisions of the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, and not those of the United States Pharmacopoeia, except that in the event of inconsistency between the requirements of this paragraph and those of paragraph (e) as to the name by which the drug or its ingredients shall be designated, the requirements of paragraph (e) shall prevail.
(h) Deteriorative drugs; packing and labeling 
If it has been found by the Secretary to be a drug liable to deterioration, unless it is packaged in such form and manner, and its label bears a statement of such precautions, as the Secretary shall by regulations require as necessary for the protection of the public health. No such regulation shall be established for any drug recognized in an official compendium until the Secretary shall have informed the appropriate body charged with the revision of such compendium of the need for such packaging or labeling requirements and such body shall have failed within a reasonable time to prescribe such requirements.
(i) Drug; misleading container; imitation; offer for sale under another name 

(1) If it is a drug and its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading; or
(2)  if it is an imitation of another drug; or
(3)  if it is offered for sale under the name of another drug.
(j) Health-endangering when used as prescribed 
If it is dangerous to health when used in the dosage or manner, or with the frequency or duration prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof.
(k) , (l) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 125(a)(2)(B), (b)(2)(D), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325 
(m) Color additives; packing and labeling 
If it is a color additive the intended use of which is for the purpose of coloring only, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with such packaging and labeling requirements applicable to such color additive, as may be contained in regulations issued under section 379e of this title.
(n) Prescription drug advertisements: established name; quantitative formula; side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness; prior approval; false advertising; labeling; construction of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 
In the case of any prescription drug distributed or offered for sale in any State, unless the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof includes in all advertisements and other descriptive printed matter issued or caused to be issued by the manufacturer, packer, or distributor with respect to that drug a true statement of
(1)  the established name as defined in paragraph (e) of this section, printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used for any trade or brand name thereof,
(2)  the formula showing quantitatively each ingredient of such drug to the extent required for labels under paragraph (e) of this section, and
(3)  such other information in brief summary relating to side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness as shall be required in regulations which shall be issued by the Secretary in accordance with section 371 (a) of this title, and in the case of published direct-to-consumer advertisements the following statement printed in conspicuous text: You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1800-FDA-1088., except that
(A)  except in extraordinary circumstances, no regulation issued under this paragraph shall require prior approval by the Secretary of the content of any advertisement, and
(B)  no advertisement of a prescription drug, published after the effective date of regulations issued under this paragraph applicable to advertisements of prescription drugs, shall with respect to the matters specified in this paragraph or covered by such regulations, be subject to the provisions of sections 52 to 57 of title 15. This paragraph (n) shall not be applicable to any printed matter which the Secretary determines to be labeling as defined in section 321 (m) of this title. Nothing in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, signed at Vienna, Austria, on February 21, 1971, shall be construed to prevent drug price communications to consumers. In the case of an advertisement for a drug subject to section 353 (b)(1) of this title presented directly to consumers in television or radio format and stating the name of the drug and its conditions of use, the major statement relating to side effects and contraindications shall be presented in a clear, conspicuous, and neutral manner.
(o) Drugs or devices from nonregistered establishments 
If it was manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed in an establishment in any State not duly registered under section 360 of this title, if it was not included in a list required by section 360 (j) of this title, if a notice or other information respecting it was not provided as required by such section or section 360 (k) of this title, or if it does not bear such symbols from the uniform system for identification of devices prescribed under section 360 (e) of this title as the Secretary by regulation requires.
(p) Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations 
If it is a drug and its packaging or labeling is in violation of an applicable regulation issued pursuant to section 1472 or 1473 of title 15.
(q) Restricted devices using false or misleading advertising or used in violation of regulations 
In the case of any restricted device distributed or offered for sale in any State, if
(1)  its advertising is false or misleading in any particular, or
(2)  it is sold, distributed, or used in violation of regulations prescribed under section 360j (e) of this title.
(r) Restricted devices not carrying requisite accompanying statements in advertisements and other descriptive printed matter 
In the case of any restricted device distributed or offered for sale in any State, unless the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof includes in all advertisements and other descriptive printed matter issued or caused to be issued by the manufacturer, packer, or distributor with respect to that device
(1)  a true statement of the devices established name as defined in subsection (e) of this section, printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used for any trade or brand name thereof, and
(2)  a brief statement of the intended uses of the device and relevant warnings, precautions, side effects, and contraindications and, in the case of specific devices made subject to a finding by the Secretary after notice and opportunity for comment that such action is necessary to protect the public health, a full description of the components of such device or the formula showing quantitatively each ingredient of such device to the extent required in regulations which shall be issued by the Secretary after an opportunity for a hearing. Except in extraordinary circumstances, no regulation issued under this paragraph shall require prior approval by the Secretary of the content of any advertisement and no advertisement of a restricted device, published after the effective date of this paragraph shall, with respect to the matters specified in this paragraph or covered by regulations issued hereunder, be subject to the provisions of sections 52 through 55 of title 15. This paragraph shall not be applicable to any printed matter which the Secretary determines to be labeling as defined in section 321 (m) of this title.
(s) Devices subject to performance standards not bearing requisite labeling 
If it is a device subject to a performance standard established under section 360d of this title, unless it bears such labeling as may be prescribed in such performance standard.
(t) Devices for which there has been a failure or refusal to give required notification or to furnish required material or information 
If it is a device and there was a failure or refusal
(1)  to comply with any requirement prescribed under section 360h of this title respecting the device,
(2)  to furnish any material or information required by or under section 360i of this title respecting the device, or
(3)  to comply with a requirement under section 360l of this title.
(u) Identification of manufacturer 

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), if it is a reprocessed single-use device, unless it, or an attachment thereto, prominently and conspicuously bears the name of the manufacturer of the reprocessed device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer.
(2) If the original device or an attachment thereto does not prominently and conspicuously bear the name of the manufacturer of the original device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer, a reprocessed device may satisfy the requirements of paragraph (1) through the use of a detachable label on the packaging that identifies the manufacturer and is intended to be affixed to the medical record of a patient.
(v) Reprocessed single-use devices 
If it is a reprocessed single-use device, unless all labeling of the device prominently and conspicuously bears the statement Reprocessed device for single use. Reprocessed by XX. The name of the manufacturer of the reprocessed device shall be placed in the space identifying the person responsible for reprocessing.
(w) New animal drugs 
If it is a new animal drug
(1) that is conditionally approved under section 360ccc of this title and its labeling does not conform with the approved application or section 360ccc (f) of this title, or that is not conditionally approved under section 360ccc of this title and its label bears the statement set forth in section 360ccc (f)(1)(A) of this title; or
(2) that is indexed under section 360ccc–1 of this title and its labeling does not conform with the index listing under section 360ccc–1 (e) of this title or 360ccc1(h) of this title, or that has not been indexed under section 360ccc–1 of this title and its label bears the statement set forth in section 360ccc–1 (h) of this title.
(x) Nonprescription drugs 
If it is a nonprescription drug (as defined in section 379aa of this title) that is marketed in the United States, unless the label of such drug includes a domestic address or domestic phone number through which the responsible person (as described in section 379aa of this title) may receive a report of a serious adverse event (as defined in section 379aa of this title) with such drug.
(y) Drugs subject to approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy 
If it is a drug subject to an approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy pursuant to section 355 (p) of this title and the responsible person (as such term is used in section 355–1 of this title) fails to comply with a requirement of such strategy provided for under subsection (d), (e), or (f) of section 355–1 of this title.
(z) Postmarket studies and clinical trials; new safety information in labeling 
If it is a drug, and the responsible person (as such term is used in section 355 (o) of this title) is in violation of a requirement established under paragraph (3) (relating to postmarket studies and clinical trials) or paragraph (4) (relating to labeling) of section 355 (o) of this title with respect to such drug.