(Oircuit Oourt. D. Indiana. December 24,lt!89.) _
'XhllclllBims of letters No. 219,2Qll,lseued September 2, 1879, to Charlee F. Bru"h', for improvement 'iii electric lamp8,-consisting of two or more paire of car· bonstinco.mb.ination wit.hmeCh ..anism t.o sepaltate. such pairs suc.cessivelYand inde· . pendently, eo that the light will :be established between but one pair at a time,. the other pairs are.maintai,ned in a separated relation, and 110 that when their ." members'are in contact,thecurrent .may pass freely through a1l8aid pairs alike, as shown in the speoifioations, are valid, not being for mere functions, or results, but being limif,e'd to the meanS or its equivalent. SA.MB,. '''. <' .': . . ' ) ! .... . ' . . ·::i; :rheelaims of said patent for the lifter and olampsWhich move theCarhons."subthe pnntose shown," i8 fQr,IlUch lifter and clamps in combina· , "tion With the other mechanism described in the>epecifications, and is valid. as to cause two pairs of carbon.$ to be stlC(l6ssively separated in identically the same way as theBrush lamp, though the inlrlligitlg device uses & clamp, instead of a ring clamp, to hold the oarbon., ,. , Letters patent No. t4'1','821, 'February24, 1874; to 'Matthias Day,Jr.,for an :eleotrio,lamp in which eaehelirbon Is split vertically for a from the 0'11. ..' but. is so ..' acted at the clamP. end as solely as a pairot Separate 'oarbonli, and tlbt· a's twb 'or more independent palrlJ at carbons, is not an 'antioip&t1on of the-invention: described in 8ald Brush patent. Where a patentee certain mechanism In his specification8, and then de. elates that he does not lim.it 'hl'mself to such mechanism, or its equivalent\ but reo bis claim to the "sli\bstllntWJ,ly all not the broad language of the in order, to validate his patent, SlUce the scope Of ttie· patent is meastited·· by 'the termeot the claim. and· the general state. ment 8Urplusage.
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Sp.id patent is. infringed by ,,·lamp so
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M. D. de iInL.LeggefJ,and A. St'!Jfl1UJU1', for complainant. R. S. 2b.ylor, for defendants.
GRESHAM, J. This suips' brought for alleged infringement of letters patent No. 219,208, granted to CharlesF.Brush,8eptember 2, 1879, for improvement in double/carbon electric lamps of the arc type. Brush assigned the patent to complainant before suit was brought· 'When two ordinary, pOinted, carbon sticks are iiI don'tact in an tric circuit, the circuit and the current 'freely passes through the carbons, without'the of heat or light at the point of contact. If, however, while the electric current is passing through them, the carbons ilre slightly separated, the current will continue to flow, and in crossing or leaping the small space intense heat and light will be produced. This is known as the electric arc lamp, and the one generally used for illuminating large buildings and halls, and for lighting streets. The incandescent electric light is produced by causing a current of electricity to paes through a filament in a glass bulb, from which the air has been exhausted. In its passage the current encounters great resistance, and, as a consequence, the filament is heated
FORT WAYNEELE<:n'RIC LIGHT 00.
toa degree a bright, ,white light 'throughout its entire length.. This light is well adapted to use in.-doors. As early as 1810, Sir Humphrey Davy, with a' battery of 2,000 cells, succeeded in produCing an arc light between two horizontal charcoal insulated, exowing to the rapid combustion, cept a small portion at their ends; of the soft points, the great cost of the. battery, and the short duration: of the light, it was of no practical or commercial value. But little prog.. ress was made in the improveluentofthis light or lamp until 1844, when Fbucalt substituted pencils made of hard gas carhorl for the charcoal p¢ncils ot Davy, and for the first time, produced a persistent, but shorHtved, electric arc light. By a clock-work mechanism, Foucalt fed"the .pencils toward each other, .but imperfectly regulated their burning.' The voltaic battery did not·· generate electricity on a sufficiently ;large scale. The light was expensive, and it did not go into general tlse. Later, the dynamo electric machine was developed, in which a powerful current of electricity was produced by revolving coils a field of magnetic force furnished by powerful, permanent which the arc electric light was successfully used in lighthouses: in' England, and later (1867) in France. But up to this time no means hl1dbeen devised 'for producing an adequate cUl'rentof electricity for illUmination at practicable costi andit"was not until the invention oftheGl'amme dynamo electric machine, in 1872, that electricity was strength, to render electric lightproduced iii a manner, and of ing practical,and useful. Thill machine was afterwards improved in details of construction. In this' state of the art, Brush entered the field of invention. and on May 7, 1878, obtained patent No. 203,412 for his arc lamp, which was superior to any lamp that had preceded it. Tllis lamp,however, was not capable of 1;>urning continuously more than 8 or 10 when Ilsed for all-night lighting, it was necessary to extinguish the light and renew the carbons; and, in order to obviate this defect, Brush invented the lamp in suit. His invention, and the means by which it is carried out, are thus described in the specification: invention relates to electric lamps or light reglllatorsiand it consists ...."Pi1'st, in a lamp having two or more sets of carbons, adapted by any suitable,means, to burn sU<reessively,-that is, one set after another; second, in a lamp baving two or more sets of carbons, each set adapted to move independently in burning and feedingi thi1'd, in a lartp having two or more sets of carbons, adapted .each to have independent movements, and each operated and intluencedby the same electric current; fourth, in a lamp having two or more sets said carbons, by any suitable means, being adapted to be separated dissimultaneously, whereby the voltaic arc between but a single set of carbons is produced; fifth, in the combination, with one of the carbons or carbon holdefS of a lamp employing two or more sets of carbons, as above mentioned, of a suitable collar. tube, or extended support, within or upon which the carbon or carbon.holder to which it is applied shall rest, and be supported. .... ,ll< ,'" ···I.desire to state, at the outstart, that my invention is not limited in to any specific form of lamp. It may be u.sed ,in any form of voltl\ic light regulator, and would need but a mere mQdification in meehaniClUfofm robe adaptable to. an indefinite variety of the present forms of eleelamps. lily invention compl'ehends, broadly; any laJllP 01' light regulator"
FEDERAL REPORTER, \/'01.
where more than one set of carbons Is employed, whereln-8ay'fl1 a lamp havingtwo sets of carbons.,...,;one set of carbons wiIlseparate before the other. For merely, of showing and explaining the principle of operation ,and USt; of my Invention, I ,shall describe it, in the form shown in the drawings, 8sll.pplied to an electrjc lamp of the general type shown .in United States letterspntent No, 203,411,'granted to me May 7, 1878, reIssued May 20,1879, aM numbered 8,718. The leading feature of this lype of reguhitor is that the carbon holder has a rod or tube which slides t.hrough or pasta friction clukh, which clutch is operated u,pon to grasp and move said carbon rod or holder, and thus to separate the carbons and prbduce the voltaic arc light; and I shall refer to such a lamp in following description: A represents one set of carbons; Al, another set, each carbon having an independent holder, B, BI. rhe carbon holders,B. Bl, may either be in the form of a rod or tube, and each of them is made to Jlass throughs clamping and liftirigdevice. C. CI, respectively. These clamps and lifters,. C, CJ. are shown in the present instance in tIle shape of riQgssurrounding their respective carbon holders, B. BI. This form, while I have .found it for genernl purposes the best, iE/ not necessarily the only form of 91amp that may b,e used in carrying out my present invention, Each ring clamp, C, CI, is adapted to be lifted from a single pOint, thus tilting it, and causing it to grasp and lift its inclosed carbon holder. This tilting and lifting movement is imparted to the clamps, C, CI. by any suitable lifter, D; and this lifter may have its movement imparted either by magnetic attraction, due to toe current operating the lamp, or by the expansive action of heat upon any snitable apparatus connected with the lamp; said heat generated by the current operating the lamp. I do not in any degree limit myself to any method or mechanism for lifting, moving, or separating the carbOn: points, or their holders, so long as the peculiar functions and results hereinafter to be specified shall be accomplished. The lifter, D, in theptesent inE/tance, is so formed that when it is raised it shall not operate upon, the clamps, 0., ,0.1, simultanepus!y, but shall lift fi,rst,one and then athe!,; preferably, the clamp, C, first, a,nd Cl, second, for reasons which will hereinafter appear. This functi0pof dissimultaneous action upon the carbo1'l\;l,or their holders" whereby oneset'qf carbons shall be separated in advancaofthe other, constitutes the principal and most important feature of my prf.'sentinvention·. In the lamp shown in the drawings the lifter, D. is actuated and c<mtrolled thl'9ughthe agency of magnetic, attraction due to the inl1uence.q( the current operlloting the lampdHld this is accomplished as follows: One, two, or more spools or hollow helices, E, of insulated wire, are placed in the circuit,within whose cavities freely moVe cores, EI. The electric current, passing through'the helices, E, opel'ateta strongly draw up within their cavities their respective cores'. EI, in the satrlemanneras'specitled in my former patent, above referred to. The cores, EI,are rigidly attarhed to a common bar, E2,and the upwal'dand downward movement of this bar, due to the varying attraction of the'helices, E, is imparted by a suitable link and lever connecllion, E3, E4, to the lifter, D. By this connection the lifter will have an up and down movement, in exact cortcertwith the cores, EI; and it is apparent that this connection. between magnet and lifter may be indefinitely varied witbout any departure from my invention, andthel'efore, while preferring for many pilrposesthe construction just specified, I do not propose to limit ,myself to its use. The lifter, D,may be so constructed and applied as Mseparate the caroo1'i8.Aand AI, successively or dissil:rlultaneously. by being so oolanced that anydUTerence. however slight, between the weights of the carbops, A, AI, or theft 'holders, B, BI, shall result in one being lifted and separated before the other. In order properly to balance the attractive force of the magnets, a coil spring. F, 01' its equivalent, may be employed, substantially assbown; and, to insure a steady motion to the magnets and to the
DUSR ELECTRIC CO. f7. FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC LIGHT co.
carbon points, A, At, a dash-pot, G, or its equivalent, should be employed, as this prevents any too sudden, abrupt, or excessive movement of parts. H, Ht, are metallic cables, through which the is conducted from above the clamps, 0, 0 1, to the carbons, A, AI, By this provision is not only insured a good connection between the upper carbon points and the mechanism above it, but another important advantage is obtained, and that Is the prevention of sparks due to any interruption of the current between the carbon holder, B, Bl. if occurring too frequently, is liable and its clamp or bearings. This to burn and roughen the rods,B, BI, or their bearings or clamps, and thereby render their operation uncertain, because it is Important that a free movement to any degree, however minute, may be allowed the carbon holder. These cables, H, HI, while operating as just specified, are sufficiently flexible nnd yielding not to interfere with any movement of their respective carbons or carbon holders. The operation of my device, as thus far specified, is as follows: When the current is not passing through the lamp, the positive and negative carbons of each set, A, AI, are in actual contact. When, now, a current is passed through the lamp, the magnetic attraction of the helices, E, will operate to raise the lifter, D. This lifter, operating upon the clamps. o and 0 1, tilts them, and causes them tel clamp and lift the carbon holders, B, Bl, and thus separate the carbons, and produce the voltaic arc light; but it will be especially noticed that the lifting and separation of these carbons are not simultaneous. One pair Is separated before the other. It matters not how little, nor how short a time before. This separation breaks the circuit at that point, and the entire current is now passing through tbe unseparated pair of carbons. At; .and now, when the lifter, continuing to rise, separates these points, the voltaic arc will be established between them, and the light thus produced. It will be apparent by the foregoing that it is impossible that both pairs of carbons, A. AI, should burn at once; for any inequality of weight or balance between them would result in one pair being separated before the other, and the voltaic arc would appear between the pair. This function. so far as I am aware, has never been accomplished by any previous invention; and, by thus being able to burn independently, and one at a time. two or more carbons in a smglelamp, it is evident that a light may be constantly maintained for a prolonged period without replacing the carbons, or other lIlanual interference.· In the form of the lamp shown, I can, with twelve-inch carbons, maintain a steady and reliable light, without any manual interference whatever, for a' period varying from fourteen to twenty hours. It is for some reasons clesirable that one set of carbons,-saythe set .-\,-should be consumed before the other set commences to burn, although it is not essential, in carrying out my invention, that the carbons should be consumed in · this rnannen,inasmuch as, if desirable, they may be arranged to burn alternately, instead of sliccessi vely. It is apparent, however, if one set of carbons can be made to entirely consume before another set begins to burn, that there will be less interruption of the light than if the different pairs were allowed to consume in frequent alternation. 1 have therefore shown, in the present invention, one method of securing a consumption of one set of carbons before another shall begin to burn. This 1 accomplish through any suitable support, K, and in such a construction of the lifter, D, that it shall be positive in its function of separating one SE'X of carbons before the other, or, in case where more than two sets of carbons are employed, to separate said sets successively. In the lamp.as shown in the drawings, the support, K, is in the form of a tube surrounding the carbon holder, B: and this support. K, is made of such a length that when the carbon, AI, shall have been SUfficiently consumed; a. head upon the carbon holder, B, will rest upon the' top of the support,K, wherebyfheweight of the"carbonholder, B, and its' support, K, shall at aU times and under any circumatances belrupported by the lifter, D. Besid.·
the (larbon holder, B,wlth its carbon, and the support,X. the 'lifter, D, (when the lampAs in operation,) should also be made to carry the .carbonholder. Bl, andit.,carbon. The lamp is primarilyatljusted so that the ..through the1ifter,iD,.shaU alwa7l,ea:rry a load, to-,wit, (in the lamp· shown;} the carllOI\ i bolders, B and support, K. 'rhedesirability of this con,an4 'arrangetnent.. may be 'e.x:plained as follows: ,Supposing, as is oesiglle9 an the present instance, the carhons, A, are. flrstcon.sumed. DII ring that till1e,.()fcourse, the !pagnets are mUng both carbon holders, B. Bl. Now, whenthe,cal'bons,.A, 8J1econsumed,if ,no,Ilrovision was made to the contrary,: tlleloorbon holder, B, would noli:be·lifted dnri.ng the consumption of tbecaj·bo.l)S, AI; aM this diminisbmentof the weight carried by the magnets materially disturb the adjustment of the lamp, and impair ·. To obviate, this dilli.culty, 1 havt> .provided the support; K,by,which. provision the magnets shall be made to.eatry both carbon bolders"B, jBi; and the support, K. The idifference in weight, owing to tbe consumption'of the carbons, isa unimportant matter, and does not materiaUyJnterfere with the operation ,of the lamp. In the case of a lamp holders, :U. ,Bl. are very light, and wbere the weight of one reliElved from the magnet; or other moving agent"without material support, K,might,be dispensed with. Said support, K, migbt also' be omitted, if desired, in a lamp where the lifter is actuated through tbe agency of the expansion of a metaLWire or bar, by'the aotionol: heatgenernted by the current operating the-lamp, inasmuoh as, the force due to said expansioubeing practicaUyirresistible, itw.ould not be 80 necessary to obtain a balan<le between various parts, as is ·the caSe witb a lamp as shown in the
motion to the,carbons of an .electric lamp, viz·· througb magnetic and throughtbeexpansive action of heat. This function of my device may by or equivalent mechanical.contrivance; andin be this stated, Ido not.limitmy invention. L, Lt, are metallic hoodsorprotectol'sfor inclosing an<lshielding the upper projecting ends of the carbon ,holders, B,Bl. In the,fol'm,of lamp shown in the drawing, I obtain very satisfactory results by constructing the bellces, E, according to letters patent No. 212,188, granted to me Fehruary 11, 1879. In each helix, E, two independent wires surround the lifting magnets. E2, one of fine and one of ,coarse wire, and eacb placed In the general circuit operating the lamp. These two wires., tbe One and tbe coarse. are constructed and connected ill such a manner, a8to carl'ycurrent in opposite directioi1s,around the inclosed core, thus exerting a n(:lut:ralizing influence IIpon each other, wberebya goveruing function is secured; for abetter description and understanding of · which reference is made to said patent No. 212,188. The poles of the lamp shown in thearawings are constructed!n the form of suspending hoops or loops, from 'w.hich the lamp is suspended, and the corresponding books or loopswitb which they engage in the ceHing, Ol·oLher locality where the lamps are tbepositive and negative poles of the current-generating apparatus.:. "'Jlbull,bytbe simple act of .8uspensionthelamp is placed in cir; "C ,,''' . cuit. "1 will now. specify a construction whereby tbe protecting globe surroun'dlng theligbt can convenience:in renewing carbons and handl ing tba lamp. . Tbis I accomplisb by making tbeplatform or gallery, 0, upon which, the globe rests, verticallW adjustable upon arodlO l, attacbed to, thelamplramein any,oolllVenient manner. A. set.screw:should be prOVided wbereby, tbeglobe can be !adjusted to any desired position. .Bythis,arrangement. the ,w,otk of renewiIiK earbonsand tbe reliable adjuB:tJ:nentof the globe in telat!ont(>,thfl'voltaic materially assisted. In order to. accomlDodate
"ThUS f1j.l, 1 have mentioned ,but tw.O ways of imparting dissimultaneous
BRUSH ELECTRICiCO. tl·. FORT WAYNE ELECTRIC LIGHT CO'
sticks of Cl\rbon, the or gallery, 0, should be perforated, to allow passage down through it of said carbon sticks. I prefer making the platiform or gallery, 0, of and of such shape as tbatglObules of molten copper from the covering Of the in dropping away;'sball not escape. to do damage. It will be particularly observed that in the form of dash-pot employed the cylinder is the' movable, and the piston or plunger the stationary, element. This construction impHes more than a mere reversal of the usual make and operation of the for, by making the cylinder the movable element, the generalconstruction of a lamp can'very often be materially simplifled, .as in the present infltance. This form of dash-pot is designed to be employed in con nection with' any of the moving parts of the mechanism of an electric lamp, where if; is desired to retard a downward movement."
'J.'he lamp covered by patent No. 203,411 is referred to only for· the purpbseof illustrating the operation of the invention. in suit, and the complainallt'sright to the relief prayed. for does not. depend upon the validity oUhat patent. . The lowe,; carbon of this lamp is held in a fixedp08ition, and its upper carbon is carried by a shding rod, which pasaesthrough a ring clamp just large enough to permit it to slide freely through when the clamp lies flat on the floor of ',he regulator case, but which. ::binds upon the rod when it is. lifted by one edge. The lifter which is upon the edge of tbJ'l,cJampis attached to a. soft iron core, which plays inside a wire helix, through which the currelltproducing the light circulates. The attracting strength of ,this coil is proportionate to the strength of the current flowing through it. When there is no our.. rent flowing through the lamp the coil has no attraction; and the CQre consequently rests at the lowest limit,and the ring. clamp lies Bat on its floor. In that situation the carbon rod slips freely through the clamp, and the upper carbon rests in contact with the lower. Upon the, .establishment of the (lurl'ellt througp. the lamp, it passes through the . ca.rbons with little resistance, because they are in actual contact. The cumint.is.therefore a strong. one, and energizes the coil strongly; and it, inturn, powerfully attracts the core, and pulls it downward. This ment being communicated to the lifter, it, in tum,iirst lifts the ring (}la¢P by One edge, which causes it to impinge closely upon the rod, ilnd' then lifts the rod and· carbon, and. sO separates the.carbon points. establishes the arc. But the arc introduces a resistance to the rent whier diminishes its strength; the resistance increasing as the grows longer. Hence, as the arc lengthens by theconsumption of the carbons,and the increase of the space between them, the current grows weaker; .and the attracting power of the coil diminishes until it lets the core move downward sufficiently to release the grl1sp of the clamp on .so th.at it slips downward. As the upper carbon approaches the lower,. and so shortens the arc and diminishes its resistance, the current's strength, increases; the coil again pulls the core upward,and so tightene the clamp 'l1pon the rod, and thus' holds the upper carbon suspended at itsoomialdistance from thl!llower. process gOes, on until the carbons .lLl'e, .. .. , ... '. . of the lampMl suit that when " Ifwilf '9Pservedfr.Qt;'1 the p!tssed.:Qlrough it the,Qurrent divides aUhelamp,and