UNITED STATES tI. TERRY.
considered in connection with the notes of the survey, for it forms an important part of the patent. The object in cases of this kind is to ascertain the intent of the parties to the instrument. The rule by which to find the ident is to give most effect to those things about which a. mistake is least likely to have occurred. On this principle, the things usually called for in a grant-that is, the things by which the land granted is described-are thus marshalled: First. The highest regard is had to natural boundaries. Secondly. To lines actually run, and corners actually marked, at the time of the grant. Thirdly. If the lines and courses of an adjoining tract are called for, the lines will be extended to them, if they are sufficiently established,·and no other departure from the deed is thereby required; marked lines prevailing over those that are not marked. Fourthly. To courses and distances, giving preference to the one or the l)ther, according to circumstances. In cases like the present one, where the description is ambiguous and doubtful, parol evidence of the practical construction given by the parties by acts of occupancy, recognition of monuments or boundaries, is admissible, and is to be considered in a.id of the interpretation of the instrument. The identity of the natural calls of the patent is for you to determine, and this you must do from all of the evidence in the case. If the evidence satisfies you of their true location, and you find that by taking one of the natural calls, as to the correct location of which you are satisfied, and from there reversing the courses and distances given in the patent, the line of the rancho would answer all of the natur3.I calls of the patent back to station 2 of the survey, then, and in that case, I instruct you that such line should be adopted, and the line should be closed by running a straight line from such station 2 to the acknowledged point of beginning of the rancho, which is station 3 of the adjoining Rancho ex-Mission San Fernando. In that case, your verdict should be for the plaintiff. If, however, such line so run by the reversed courses and distances would not answer the natural calls of the patent, or if from the evidence you are unable to correctly locate the natural calls, then, and in that case, you are instructed that the courses and distances given in the patent must govern, and in that event your verdict must be for the defendant.
UNITED STATES .". TERRY.
(Dr.8trict Court, N. D. Ca/tifornia.
March 11, 1890.)
RESISTING OFFIOER-"KNOWINGLY AND WILLFULLy"-INSTRUCTION.
Where defendant, under indictment for resisting an officer, alleges that she did not knowingly and willfully resist the officer in the execution of an order to remove her from the court-room, for the reason that she was rendered unconscious by the opinion of the court then being pronounced, the jury may consider the fact that she entered the court-room with a loaded revolver, to hear the decision \u. a case to which she was a party.
I', ;.. 'If to tbe
the ller'removal from the court-room was direoted itia immaterial'tnatthe court adllres&ed'it to the clerk, if he imit to the marshal. . .' ;. '
... ' .. '..
8. SA.!Ifi"'::'UNNEOESSARY 'FOROE A.ND' VXOL1!lNOE;
... Any,unnecessary force Or violence 'used by an officer in the execution of an order to remove one .fromthe .court-room .II;lay be resisted by force sufficient to overcome it. . "" .... .. ',' .
The pres,umption a married 'wpman committing a misdemeanor acts under coerc10nof her, husband may ):le' overcome by circumstances showing that he, though in the same room. exeroised no control over her.
J;ndiQtment against Sarah Althea Terry for by assaulting, an officer, in the execution·of an order to removoher from the court-room. Joh.n.. T.Careyand Davia. Mruderback, for the United States. Patrick Redfjy and W. W. Foote, for defendant. Ross, J.,«charging jury.) J'he statute upon which the indictment in this case is founded provides, that" every person who knowingly and willfufIy,ph$trpcts, resists, or opposes any officer of the United States in serving, or attempting to serve or execute, any mesne process or warrant, or any rule or .order of any court of the United States, or any other legal or judiCial writ or process, or assaults, beats, or wounds any officer, or other person duly authorized, in serving or executing any writ, rule, order, process, or warrant, shall be" punished in a certain prescribed way. The indictment charges, in effect, that at a certain stated time and place the defendl1nt knowingly, willfully, and unlawfully resisted, obstructed, ,and opposed, by assaulting, beating, and wounding, J, C. Franks, at the time being United States marshal for the northern district of. California, in the execution of an order then and there made by the United States circuit court for said district, addressed to the said marshal, and directing him to remove the said defendant from the court-room of said court because of her gross misbehavior therein. To convict the defendant, ,you must be satisfied from the evidence, beyond a reasonable doubt, that the order made by the court, and relerred to in the evidence, directed the marshal to remove the defendp.nt from the court-room, and that in the execution of such order the defendant knowingly and willfully resisted the marshal, by assaulting, beatint:!:, or wounding him. The words "knowingly" and "willfully," employed in the statute defining the offense with which the defendant is charged, imply that she must have known that the order directed the marshal to remove her, and, knowing such fact, that she determined, with a bad intent, to resist him in its execution. It is claimed on behalf of the defendant that she was so overcome by the opinion of the court, at the time being read, as,to render her unconscious of the making of the order for her removal, and unconscious of her subsequent acts in the court-room. Of course, was really unconscious of these 'thint:!:s, she should not be found guilty under this indictment. But you are to look at this defense as reasonable, sensible men, and in connection with it consider the testimony going to show that, contrary to law, slieentered the court-room, with a loaded revolver, to hear a decision
, UNITED BTATll:B fl. TERRY.
announced in a case to which she was a party, and that the decision of the court had not been announced at the time of her interruption of the court, and the making of the order for her removal from the room, although, from what had already been read, what it would be may have .become apparent. It is also proper for you to consider in the same connection the declarations referred to in the evidehce as having been made by the defendant concerning her conduct on the occasion in question, as also every other fact and circumstance given in evidence. No amount of feeling or exasperation or resentment can be held to justify her acts, or to warrant you in finding a verdict of not guilty, if you are satisfied beyond a reasonable doubt that the order was given to the marshal, and that the defendant was aware of that fact, and that in its execution by the officer the defendant knowingly and willfully resisted him by any or all of the means stated in the indictment. Some evidence has been given on behalf of the defendant tending to showthat the order of the court directing the removal of the defendant from, the court-room, was directed to the clerk of the court, instead of to the marshal. If the court, in making the order, used the word "clerk," arid immediately substituted therefor the word "marshal," and the defendant knew that the order was addressed to the marshal, and, so knowing, willfully resisted him in its execution by any or all of the means set out in the indictment, then and in that case you are instructed that the use of the word "clerk" was a mereslip of the tongue, and was and is unimportant. If, however, the order was addressed to the clerk, and not to the marshal, the defendant cannot be convicted under this indictment. .An officer, in the execution of a valid order, has the legal right to use such force as is necessary to execute it, but no more. Any unnecessary, force or violence that may be used in the execution of such order or process is without authority of law; and such excess, if any, may be lawfully met by force or violence sufficient to overcome it. "Where a,miuried woman commits a misdemeanor in the presence of her husband, the presumption of law, nothing to the contrary appearinf];, is that she acts under the threat, command, or coercion of her husband; but, if the circumstances are such as to show that the husband, though in the same room with the defendant, did not exercise any control or coercion, but that the wife was the active, moving party, the presumption arising from the husband's presence will be removed and overcome. The defendant in this case, like the defendant in every other criminal case, is by the law presumed to bejonoceot of the crime charged against her. The burden of her guilt rests upon the prosecut1.()p,811d be done beyond a reasonable doubt. But by"reasonable doubt" is oot meant a mere imaginary or possible doubt, but such a doubt as arises out of the evidence, and is reasonable, in view of all of the facts andeircumstancesof the case. If, after an impartial comparison and consideration of all the evidence, you can candidly and b:uthfully
'say that you are not satisfied of the defendant's guilt, you have a rea.sonable doubt; but if, after such impartial comparison and consideratiop of all the evidence, you can truthfully and candidly say that you havll a settled conviction of her guilt, such as you would be willing to act upon in the more weighty and important matters relating to your. own affairs, you have no reasonable doubt. The facts of the case are for you to determine, and of the credibility of each and every witness you are the sale and exclusive judges. In determining the credibility to be given to witnesses examined,-who are to be weighed, not counted,it is your right to take into consideration their interest or feeling in the result of the proceeding', their appearance and deportment while being examined, the probability of the truth of their statements as compared with other testimony given, their opportunities of observation or knowledge of the matters to which they have testified, their friendly or unfriendly feelings towards the respective sides, and how far they may have been contradicted. While a person charged with crime may testify in his own behalf, he is under no obligation to do so, and his tililure to testify does not create any presumption against him. You should not, therefore, indulge in any presumption against the defendant for the reason that she did not testify as a witness in her own behalf. You are not to permit your minds to be diverted from the real issue in the case by any argument or arguments of counsel, or by any other consideration. So far as the arguments have any legitimate bearing upon the real issue, you should give them the consideration and weight to which you think them fairly entitled. Outside and beyond that, it is your duty to entirely disregard them. If, upon the whole evidence, you are satisfied beyond a reasonable doubt that, at the time aqd place charged in the indictment,. the court made an order· directing the marshal to remove the defendant from the court-room, and that the defendant Wu!:j aware of that fact, and, knowing it, willfully resisted, obstructed, or opposed the marshal in the execution of such order by any or all of the means set out in the indictment, it is your sworn duty to return a verdict of guilty as charged. Unless you are so satisfied, you should find her not guilty.
UNITED STATES t1. WARD. (Owcuit
8. D. CaUj'ornia. May 1,1890.)
lNDIANS--CSIMINAL OFFENSEB--I!ALF-BsEBD. The son of a negro father by an Indian mother is not an Indian, within the mean ing of Act Congo March 8, 1885, (23 St. at Large, 381\,) providing for the punishment
of Indians oommitting certain olfenses, as the ohild follows the oonditioll of the lather.
Indictment against Francisco Ward, alleged to be an Indian. Willoughby Oole, U. S. Atty.