(Circuit Court, $. D.
oeptember 20, 1881.)
CRIMINAL LAW-DISCHARGE-RIGHT TO-PROBABLE CAUSE.
A defendant, who is held to await the action of the grand jury, is entitled to his discharge on the discharge of the jury, when no indictment has been found against him. Held, also, that there was then no longer any necessity for this court to pass on the question whether probable cause had been shown for holding him to await the action of the grand jury.
The facts appear in the opinion. Sutherland Tenney, Asst. Dist. Atty., for the United States. Roge1' M. Sherman, for defendant. BLATCHFORD, C. J. In this case a writ of habeas corpus, returnable before this court forthwith, was issued on April 5, 1881, to the marshal of the United States for this district, to produce the body of George Esselborn, with the cause of his imprisonment. At the same time a writ of certiorari was issued to a United States commissioner to certify the cause of the detention of said Esselborn. The commissioner certified the proceedings before him, consisting of a complaint alleging a criminal offence, and the testimony taken upon the examination on the surrender of the defendant on the complaint. The return of the marshal to the writ showed that a warrant of arrest on the complaint was issued by the commissioner to the marshal; that the defendant appeared before the commissioner and an examination was had, and the defendant was held to await the action of the grand jury; .that the commissioner ordered that the defendant be discharged upon his own recognizance; that the defendant refused to give FlUCh recognizance; and that the commissioner then committed the defendant to the marshal in ddault of having given such recognizance. The case came before the court on the foregoing papers, and on April 5, 1881, the court made an order "that the defendant may depart with· out giving any recognizance, subject to the issuing of a new warrant, if ordered by this court. " Nothing has since been done in the matter, and the counsel who appeared for the defendant, now, in September, 1881, asks the court to pass on the question as to whether the evidence before the commissioner constituted probable cause for hold· ing the defendant to await the action of the grand jury, and to hold that it did BOt, and to discharge the defendant. The district attorney states that since the said order of April 5, 1881, was made, a grand jury has met and been discharged without indicting the defendant; that no information has been filed against him; that he is not
SHIRLEY V. SANDERSON.
in actual or constrnctive custody; that there is nothing to discharge him from; and that it would be a waste of time to pursue the habeas corpus proceedings any further. Under 752 of the Revised Statutes the writ of habeas corpus is granted "for the purpose of an inquiry into the cause of restraint of liberty." There is not now in this case any such restraint of liberty" or any such state of facts, as requires that this court should pass on the question as to'whether the defendant ought originally to have been held or committed to await the action of the grand jury, even if it would at any time have paas13d on that question. The defendant was held and cOlDQlitted only, to await the action of the grand jury; and, as no indictment or information has been filed against him, .he .is entitled to be discharged ,on that ground. and an order to that effect and for that cause may b.e entered if desired. Motion denied.
(Cirouit OO'll/ft,8. D. New, YfYT'k. February 111,1881.)
LETTERS PATENT-!MPROVEMlmT IN
LAm> CHIMNEYB. Reissued letters patent, granted May 8, 1877, to Frederick S. Shirley, for an improvement in lamp chimneys, are valid.
SAME-AFFIRMATIVE DEFENCE-BURDEN OF PROOF.
The burden of proof is on the defendant to establish his afllrmative defence beyond a reasonable doubt.
F. Frank Brownell, for plaintiff. George R. Dutton, for defendant. BLATCHFORD, C. J. This suit is brought on reissued letters patent granted to the plaintiff May 8, 1877, for an "improvement in lamp chimneys," the original patent having been granted to Robert K. Croaby, as inventor, July 14, 1868. The specification of the reissue says that the invention"Consists in enlarging the chimney at right angles, or nearly right angles, at or nearly on a level with the flame, and giving the upper part of the chimney a conical form from t.his enlargement to the top, for the purpose or securing a larger and steadier flame, and making a shorter chimney."
"A represents any chimney which has a circular flange or lip made on its lower end, for fitting down over and around the burner. This flange or lip, B, is here shown as perfectly straight, and adapted to one form of burner only; but it is evident that this part of the chimney may be made with the outwardly turned flange, so as to fit other common burners. At or nearly on a