TITLE 21 - US CODE - FOOD AND DRUGS

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 1 - ADULTERATED OR MISBRANDED FOODS OR DRUGS

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - FEDERAL FOOD AND DRUGS ACT OF 1906

1 to 5. Repealed. June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 902(a), 52 Stat. 1059

Section 1, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 1, 34 Stat. 768, made it unlawful to manufacture adulterated or misbranded foods or drugs in Territories or District of Columbia and provided penalty for violations. See sections 331 and 333 of this title. Section 2, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 2, 34 Stat. 768, prohibited introduction, shipment, delivery or sale of adulterated or misbranded foods or drugs in interstate or foreign commerce, provided penalty for violations and exempted exports conforming to specifications of foreign purchaser and not in conflict with laws of foreign country importing the same. See sections 331, 333 and 381 of this title. Section 3, acts June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 3, 34 Stat. 768; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, 1, 37 Stat. 736, authorized Secretaries of the Treasury, Agriculture, and Commerce to make uniform rules and regulations for enforcement of food and drug laws, including collection and examination of specimens. See section 371 of this title. Section 4, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 12, 34 Stat. 772, provided that act or omission of officer, agent, and so forth, of corporation, shall be deemed act or omission of corporation. Section 5, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 12, 34 Stat. 772, defined territory and person. See section 321 of this title and section 1 of Title 1, General Provisions.

21 USC 6 - Transferred

7 to 14. Repealed. June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 902(a), 52 Stat. 1059

Section 7, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 6, 34 Stat. 769, defined drug and food. See section 321 of this title. Section 8, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 7, 34 Stat. 769, deemed drugs to be adulterated when sold having a difference from recognized standards, except where there is an explanatory statement on or in container, and when sold below professed standard; confectioneries, when containing mineral substances, poisonous color or flavors, other deleterious ingredients, liquors or narcotics; food, when concerned with injurious mixtures, use of substitutes, abstraction of valuable constituents, concealment of damage or inferiority, deleterious ingredients, preservatives in shipment conditionally excepted, animal or vegetable substances unfit for food and products of animals diseased or having died otherwise than by slaughter. See sections 342 and 351 of this title. Section 9, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 8, 34 Stat. 771, defined misbranded and provided for its application to drugs and food. See sections 343 and 352 of this title. Section 10, acts June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 8, 34 Stat. 771; Aug. 23, 1912, ch. 352, 37 Stat. 416; Mar. 3, 1913, ch. 117, 37 Stat. 732; July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 271; July 8, 1930, ch. 874, 46 Stat. 1019, deemed drugs to be misbranded when there is an imitation or use of name of other article, when there is removal and substitution of contents of package or failure to state on label quantity or proportion of narcotics therein, and when there is a false statement of curative or therapeutic effect; and food, when there is an imitation or use of name of other article, when there is a false label or brand removal and substitution of contents of package, or failure to state or label quantity or proportion of narcotics therein, when the packages are not marked with weight, with certain variations and exemptions permitted, when there are false or misleading statements on package or label as to ingredients or substances; and food, when mixtures or compounds under distinctive names, the articles are labeled, branded as compounds, imitations, or blends; construed the term blend and related to disclosure of trade formulas of proprietary foods, and canned food. See sections 321b, 341, 343 and 352 of this title. Section 11, acts June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 4, 34 Stat. 769; Jan. 18, 1927, ch. 39, 44 Stat. 1003, provided for examination of specimens, notice of adulteration or misbranding, hearing, certification of violations to United States district attorney and notice of judgment. Section 12, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 5, 34 Stat. 769, provided for prosecution by district attorneys for enforcement of penalties. Section 13, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 9, 34 Stat. 771, provided for a sellers guaranty as protection to dealer. See section 333 of this title. Section 14, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 10, 34 Stat. 771, provided for seizure of articles by libel for condemnation, at suit of and in name of United States, in United States district court where found, conforming to proceedings in admiralty, with right to trial by jury, destruction or sale of adulterated or misbranded articles, bond and payment of proceeds into Treasury of United States. See sections 332, 334 and 337 of this title.

21 USC 14a - Transferred

21 USC 15 - Repealed. June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 902(a), 52 Stat. 1059

Section, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3915, 11, 34 Stat. 772, provided for examination of samples of imports, refusal of admission and delivery to consignee, delivery to consignee pending examination and decision on bond and charges for storage and lien therefor. See section 381 of this title.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

21 USC 16 - Introduction into, or sale in, State or Territory or District of Columbia of dairy or food products falsely labeled or branded

No person or persons, company or corporation, shall introduce into any State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia from any other State or Territory of the United States or the District of Columbia, or sell in the District of Columbia or in any Territory any dairy or food products which shall be falsely labeled or branded as to the State or Territory in which they are made, produced, or grown, or cause or procure the same to be done by others.

21 USC 17 - Penalty for sale or introduction of falsely labeled dairy or food products; venue

If any person or persons violate the provisions of section 16 of this title, either in person or through another, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $2,000. The jurisdiction for the prosecution of said misdemeanor shall be within the district of the United States court in which it is committed.

21 USC 18 - Suspension of importation of adulterated articles

Whenever the President is satisfied that there is good reason to believe that any importation is being made, or is about to be made, into the United States, from any foreign country, of any article used for human food or drink that is adulterated to an extent dangerous to the health or welfare of the people of the United States, or any of them, he may issue his proclamation suspending the importation of such articles from such country for such period of time as he may think necessary to prevent such importation; and during such period it shall be unlawful to import into the United States from the countries designated in the proclamation of the President any of the articles the importation of which is so suspended.

21 USC 19 - Repealed. May 29, 1928, ch. 901, 1(100), 45 Stat. 993

Section, act May 23, 1908, ch. 192, 35 Stat. 261, related to report to Congress of expenditures in enforcing food and drug laws.

21 USC 20 - Apples in interstate commerce; standard grades

The standard grades for apples when packed in barrels which shall be shipped or delivered for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, or which shall be sold or offered for sale within the District of Columbia or the Territories of the United States shall be as follows: Apples of one variety, which are well-grown specimens, hand picked, of good color for the variety, normal shape, practically free from insect and fungous injury, bruises, and other defects, except such as are necessarily caused in the operation of packing, or apples of one variety which are not more than 10 per centum below the foregoing specifications shall be Standard grade minimum size two and one-half inches, if the minimum size of the apples is two and one-half inches in transverse diameter; Standard grade minimum size two and one-fourth inches, if the minimum size of the apples is two and one-fourth inches in transverse diameter; or Standard grade minimum size two inches, if the minimum size of the apples is two inches in transverse diameter.

21 USC 21 - Branding grades on barrels of apples

The barrels in which apples are packed in accordance with the provisions of sections 20 to 23 of this title may be branded in accordance with the provisions of section 20 of this title.

21 USC 22 - Barrels misbranded

Barrels packed with apples shall be deemed to be misbranded within the meaning of sections 20 to 23 of this title First. If the barrel bears any statement, design, or device indicating that the apples contained therein are Standard grade and the apples when packed do not conform to the requirements prescribed by section 20 of this title. Second. If the barrel bears any statement, design, or device indicating that the apples contained therein are Standard grade and the barrel fails to bear also a statement of the name of the variety, the name of the locality where grown, and the name of the packer or the person by whose authority the apples were packed and the barrel marked.

21 USC 23 - Penalties

Any person, firm or corporation, or association who shall knowingly pack or cause to be packed apples in barrels or who shall knowingly sell or offer for sale such barrels in violation of the provisions of sections 20 to 23 of this title shall be liable to a penalty of $1 and costs for each such barrel so sold or offered for sale, to be recovered at the suit of the United States in any court of the United States having jurisdiction.

21 USC 24 - Omitted

21 USC 25 - Oleomargarine, butterine, or imitation butter or cheese transported into a State subject to its police powers

All articles known as oleomargarine, butterine, imitation, process, renovated, or adulterated butter, or imitation cheese, or any substance in the semblance of butter or cheese not the usual product of the dairy and not made exclusively of pure and unadulterated milk or cream, transported into any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and remaining therein for use, consumption, sale, or storage therein, shall, upon the arrival within the limits of such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, be subject to the operation and effect of the laws of such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, enacted in the exercise of its police powers to the same extent and in the same manner as though such articles or substances had been produced in such State or Territory or the District of Columbia, and shall not be exempt therefrom by reason of being introduced therein in original packages or otherwise.

21 USC 26 - Omitted

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 2 - TEAS

41 to 50. Repealed. Pub. L. 104128, 2, Apr. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 1198

Section 41, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 1, 29 Stat. 604; May 16, 1908, ch. 170, 35 Stat. 163; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, 12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, 5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; May 24, 1962, Pub. L. 87–456, title III, § 303(a), 76 Stat. 77; Aug. 23, 1988, Pub. L. 100–418, title I, § 1214(l), 102 Stat. 1158, prohibited unlawful importation of substandard tea. Section 42, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 2, 29 Stat. 605; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, 12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; July 12, 1943, ch. 221, title II, 57 Stat. 500; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, 5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, § 509(b), 93 Stat. 695, related to establishment and composition of board of experts in teas. Section 43, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 3, 29 Stat. 605; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, 12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, 5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, § 509(b), 93 Stat. 695, authorized establishment of purity standards. Section 44, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 4, 29 Stat. 605; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, 12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, 5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, § 509(b), 93 Stat. 695, related to bonds of importers, examination of imported teas, and importation at ports without examiners. Section 45, act Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 5, 29 Stat. 605, related to delivery permits and reexamination and retention of substandard teas. Section 46, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 7, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, 713, related to examiners and examination according to usages of trade. Section 46a, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 13, formerly act July 1, 1941, ch. 269, title II, 55 Stat. 478; renumbered 13 of act Mar. 2, 1897, and amended Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, title IV, § 4401, 107 Stat. 378, related to deposit of fee prior to examination. Section 47, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 6, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, 713; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, 12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, 5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, § 509(b), 93 Stat. 695, required referral of disputes to United States Board of Tea Appeals and authorized board to permit delivery or order destruction or exportation of substandard teas. Section 48, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 8, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, related to reexaminations, including findings by examiner and assistance of experts. Section 49, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 9, 29 Stat. 606; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712, related to reimporting rejected teas and forfeitures for violation of provisions. Section 50, acts Mar. 2, 1897, ch. 358, 10, 29 Stat. 607; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 712; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, 12, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1237; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 1, 5, eff. Apr. 11, 1953, 18 F.R. 2053, 67 Stat. 631; Oct. 17, 1979, Pub. L. 96–88, title V, § 509(b), 93 Stat. 695, authorized issuance of regulations.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 3 - FILLED MILK

21 USC 61 - Definitions

Whenever used in this chapter
(a) The term person includes an individual, partnership, corporation, or association;
(b) The term interstate or foreign commerce means commerce
(1)  between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof;
(2)  between points within the same State, Territory, or possession, or within the District of Columbia, but through any place outside thereof; or
(3)  within any Territory or possession, or within the District of Columbia; and
(c) The term filled milk means any milk, cream, or skimmed milk, whether or not condensed, evaporated, concentrated, powdered, dried, or desiccated, to which has been added, or which has been blended or compounded with, any fat or oil other than milk fat, so that the resulting product is in imitation or semblance of milk, cream, or skimmed milk, whether or not condensed, evaporated, concentrated, powdered, dried, or desiccated. This definition shall not include any distinctive proprietary food compound not readily mistaken in taste for milk or cream or for evaporated, condensed, or powdered milk, or cream where such compound
(1)  is prepared and designed for feeding infants and young children and customarily used on the order of a physician;
(2)  is packed in individual cans containing not more than sixteen and one-half ounces and bearing a label in bold type that the content is to be used only for said purpose;
(3)  is shipped in interstate or foreign commerce exclusively to physicians, wholesale and retail druggists, orphan asylums, child-welfare associations, hospitals, and similar institutions and generally disposed of by them.

21 USC 62 - Manufacture, shipment, or delivery for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce prohibited

It is declared that filled milk, as defined in section 61 of this title, is an adulterated article of food, injurious to the public health, and its sale constitutes a fraud upon the public. It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture within any Territory or possession, or within the District of Columbia, or to ship or deliver for shipment in interstate or foreign commerce, any filled milk.

21 USC 63 - Penalties; acts of agents deemed acts of principals

Any person violating any provision of this chapter shall upon conviction thereof be subject to a fine of not more than $1,000 or imprisonment of not more than one year, or both. When construing and enforcing the provisions of this chapter, the act, omission, or failure of any person acting for or employed by any individual, partnership, corporation, or association, within the scope of his employment or office, shall in every case be deemed the act, omission, or failure, of such individual, partnership, corporation, or association, as well as of such person.

21 USC 64 - Regulations for enforcement

The Secretary of Health and Human Services is authorized and directed to make and enforce such regulations as may in his judgment be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 4 - ANIMALS, MEATS, AND MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - EXAMINATION OF ANIMALS, MEATS, AND MEAT AND DAIRY PRODUCTS

71 to 92. Transferred

21 USC 93 - Repealed. May 29, 1928, ch. 901, 1(92), 45 Stat. 993

Section, act Mar. 4, 1907, ch. 2907, 34 Stat. 1265, related to statement in annual estimates as to persons employed, their compensation and expenses.

94 to 95. Transferred

21 USC 96 - Repealed. Pub. L. 90201, 18, Dec. 15, 1967, 81 Stat. 600

Section, act July 24, 1919, ch. 26, 41 Stat. 241, provided for marking horse meat transported in interstate commerce. See section 619 of this title.

97 to 97d. Omitted

21 USC 98 - Transferred

21 USC 99 - Repealed. July 28, 1953, ch. 251, title I, 101, 67 Stat. 208

Section, act Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 374, title I, 101, 65 Stat. 229, related to reimbursement for excess expenses of meat inspection.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - IMPORTATION OF CATTLE AND QUARANTINE

21 USC 101 - Suspension of importation of all animals

Whenever, in the opinion of the President, it shall be necessary for the protection of animals in the United States against infectious or contagious diseases, he may, by proclamation, suspend the importation of all or any class of animals for a limited time, and may change, modify, revoke, or renew such proclamation, as the public good may require; and during the time of such suspension the importation of any such animals shall be unlawful.

102 to 105. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(6), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507

Section 102, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, 7, 26 Stat. 416, related to quarantine of imported animals. Section 103, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, 8, 26 Stat. 416, related to prohibition of importation of animals except at quarantine ports, slaughter of infected animals, appraisal, and payment. Section 104, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, 6, 26 Stat. 416; June 28, 1926, ch. 700, 2, 44 Stat. 775; Feb. 28, 1931, ch. 348, 46 Stat. 1460; July 22, 1954, ch. 558, 32, 68 Stat. 510; Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 12, 1, 70 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 97–461, § 4, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2524; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, § 361(b), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, § 431(h), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4969, related to importation of animals. Section 105, act Aug. 30, 1890, ch. 839, 10, 26 Stat. 417; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, § 361(c), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2122; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, § 431(i), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4969, related to inspection of animals.

106, 107. Omitted

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - PREVENTION OF INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF CONTAGION

111, 112. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(7), (8), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section 111, act Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 2, 32 Stat. 792; July 22, 1954, ch. 558, 33, 68 Stat. 510; Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 12, 2, 70 Stat. 5, related to regulations to prevent contagious diseases. Section 112, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 4, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to investigations as to pleuropneumonia and other diseases and regulations.

21 USC 112a - Omitted

21 USC 113 - Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(7), (8), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 5, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to measures to prevent exportation of diseased livestock and live poultry.

21 USC 113a - Establishment of research laboratories for foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases; research contracts; employment of technicians and scientists; appropriations

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to establish research laboratories, including the acquisition of necessary land, buildings, or facilities, and also the making of research contracts under the authority contained in section 427i (a) of title 7, for research and study, in the United States or elsewhere, of foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases which in the opinion of the Secretary constitute a threat to the livestock industry of the United States: Provided, That no live virus of foot-and-mouth disease may be introduced for any purpose into any part of the mainland of the United States (except coastal islands separated therefrom by water navigable for deep-water navigation and which shall not be connected with the mainland by any tunnel) unless the Secretary determines that it is necessary and in the public interest for the conduct of research and study in the United States (except at Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York) and issues a permit under such rules as the Secretary shall promulgate to protect animal health, except that the Secretary of Agriculture may transport said virus in the original package across the mainland under adequate safeguards, and except further, that in the event of outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in this country, the Secretary of Agriculture may, at his discretion, permit said virus to be brought into the United States under adequate safeguards. To carry out the provisions of this section, the Secretary is authorized to employ technical experts or scientists: Provided, That the number so employed shall not exceed five and that the maximum compensation for each shall not exceed the highest rate of grade 18 of the General Schedule. There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as Congress may deem necessary; in addition, the Secretary is authorized to utilize in carrying out this section, funds otherwise available for the control or eradication of such diseases.

114 to 114d1. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(8), (9), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508

Section 114, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 3, 23 Stat. 32, related to regulations for suppression of diseases and cooperation of States and Territories. Section 114a, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 11, as added Sept. 21, 1944, ch. 412, title I, 101(a), 58 Stat. 734; amended Oct. 30, 1951, ch. 637, 1, 65 Stat. 693; Aug. 8, 1953, ch. 381, 67 Stat. 493; Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, 2, 70 Stat. 1032; Pub. L. 87–518, § 7, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, § 2509(c)(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4071, related to control and eradication of diseases, cooperation of States and farmers associations, purchase and destruction of diseased animals, and defined State for statutory purposes. A prior section 11 of act May 29, 1884, required annual reports to Congress concerning the suppression of contagious diseases among domestic animals, and was classified to section 560 of former Title 5, prior to repeal by act May 29, 1928, ch. 901, 1, 45 Stat. 993. Section 114a–1, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 13, as added Oct. 30, 1951, ch. 637, 2, 65 Stat. 693, related to interstate movement of domestic animals reacting to tests for brucellosis, immediate slaughter, and rules and regulations. Section 114b, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, 1, 61 Stat. 7; Pub. L. 89–521, § 1, July 27, 1966, 80 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 92–152, § 1, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 94–231, § 3, Mar. 15, 1976, 90 Stat. 216; Pub. L. 101–255, § 1(1), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, § 2505, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4068, related to cooperation in animal disease control. Section 114c, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, 2, 61 Stat. 7; Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 950, 3, 70 Stat. 1033; Pub. L. 92–152, § 2, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 419; Pub. L. 101–255, § 1(2), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114, related to use of funds. Section 114d, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, 3, as added Pub. L. 101–255, § 1(3), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114, related to sale of sterile screwworms. A prior section 114d, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, 3, 61 Stat. 8, related to reports by Secretary of Agriculture to Congress with respect to activities carried on under sections 114b and 114c of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 86–533, § 1(20), June 29, 1960, 74 Stat. 249. Section 114d–1, act Feb. 28, 1947, ch. 8, 5, as added Pub. L. 89–521, § 2, July 27, 1966, 80 Stat. 330; amended Pub. L. 101–255, § 1(5), Mar. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 114, related to cooperation with public and private entities.

114d2 to 114d6. Repealed. Pub. L. 92152, 3, Nov. 5, 1971, 85 Stat. 419

Section 114d–2, Pub. L. 90–388, § 1, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for cooperation with Central America in control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease or rinderpest. Section 114d–3, Pub. L. 90–388, § 2, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for uses of funds. Section 114d–4, Pub. L. 90–388, § 3, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, defined governments of Central America. Section 114d–5, Pub. L. 90–388, § 4, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for cooperation with public and private organizations and individuals. Section 114d–6, Pub. L. 90–388, § 5, July 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 294, provided for authorization of appropriations.

114e to 114h. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(10), (11), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508

Section 114e, act June 16, 1948, ch. 477, 1, 62 Stat. 458, related to research and investigations into the control and eradication of cattle grubs. Section 114f, act June 16, 1948, ch. 477, 2, 62 Stat. 458, defined the term State and authorized appropriations. Section 114g, Pub. L. 87–209, § 1, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 481, related to hog cholera eradication program. Section 114h, Pub. L. 87–209, § 2, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 481, related to advisory committee.

21 USC 114i - Pseudorabies eradication

(a) Findings 
Congress finds that efforts to eradicate pseudorabies in United States swine populations by the Department of Agriculture in cooperation with State agencies and the pork industry have a high priority and should be continued until pseudorabies is completely eradicated in the United States.
(b) Establishment of program 
The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish and carry out a program for the eradication of pseudorabies in United States swine populations.
(c) Use of funds for testing and control of pseudorabies 
The Secretary shall ensure that not less than 65 percent of the funds appropriated for the program established under subsection (b) of this section shall be used for testing and screening of animals and for other purposes directly related to the eradication or control of pseudorabies. This requirement on the use of appropriated funds for this program shall not be implemented in a manner that would adversely affect any other animal or plant disease or pest eradication or control program.
(d) Authorization of appropriations 
There are authorized to be appropriated for each of the fiscal years 1991 through 2007 such sums as may be necessary for the purpose of carrying out the program established under subsection (b) of this section.

115 to 128. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(7), (8), (12)(14), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section 115, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 6, 23 Stat. 32; June 28, 1926, ch. 700, 1, 44 Stat. 774; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–763, Oct. 9, 1962, 76 Stat. 762, prohibited transportation of diseased livestock and live poultry. Section 116, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 23 Stat. 31; May 31, 1920, ch. 217, 41 Stat. 699, related to excepted shipment of certain cattle. Section 117, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 7, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 95–439, § 1, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1061; Pub. L. 97–461, § 5, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2524, related to penalties for transportation of diseased livestock or live poultry. Section 118, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 9, 23 Stat. 33; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 1, 62 Stat. 909, related to duty of United States attorneys. Section 119, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 2, 23 Stat. 31; Feb. 9, 1889, ch. 122, 1, 25 Stat. 659; July 14, 1890, ch. 707, 26 Stat. 288; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to appointment of agents to examine and report on methods of treatment of animals, and means for suppression of diseases. Section 120, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 4, 5, 23 Stat. 32; Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to regulation of exportation and transportation of infected livestock and live poultry. Section 121, act Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 1, 32 Stat. 791; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59, related to shipments from areas suspected to be infected and to control of animals and live poultry. Section 122, act Feb. 2, 1903, ch. 349, 3, 32 Stat. 792; Pub. L. 97–461, § 6, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to offenses and penalties. Section 123, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, 1, 33 Stat. 1264; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, § 8(a), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 95–439, § 2, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1061, related to quarantine. Section 124, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, 2, 33 Stat. 1264; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, § 8(b), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131, prohibited transportation or delivery therefor from quarantined State or Territory or portion thereof, of quarantined animals and live poultry. Section 125, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, 3, 33 Stat. 1265; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, § 8(b), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 95–439, § 3, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1061, related to regulations for inspection, disinfection, and certification, and delivery and shipment of quarantined animals and live poultry from State or Territory. Section 126, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, 4, 33 Stat. 1265; Feb. 7, 1928, ch. 30, 45 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 87–518, § 8(b), July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131, related to moving quarantined animals and live poultry from State or Territory, under regulations. Section 127, act Mar. 3, 1905, ch. 1496, 6, 33 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 97–461, § 7, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to penalties for transportation from quarantined State, Territory, etc. Section 128, act June 30, 1914, ch. 131, 38 Stat. 419; Pub. L. 87–518, § 9, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131, related to extension of quarantine law to carriers in interstate commerce.

21 USC 129 - Omitted

129a to 131. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(1), (8), (16), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 507, 508

Section 129a, Pub. L. 97–46, § 1, Sept. 25, 1981, 95 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 106–224, title IV, § 438(b), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 454, related to transfer of funds for emergency arrest of animal or poultry diseases. Section was formerly classified to section 147b of Title 7, Agriculture. Section 130, act May 29, 1884, ch. 60, 8, 23 Stat. 33; 1967 Reorg. Plan No. 3, 402(430), eff. Aug. 11, 1967, 32 F.R. 11669, 81 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 93–198, title IV, § 401, Dec. 24, 1973, 87 Stat. 793, related to pleuropneumonia in District of Columbia and duties of Council of the District of Columbia. Section 131, act May 26, 1910, ch. 256, 36 Stat. 440, related to fences along international boundary lines to keep out diseased animals.

21 USC 132 - Transferred

21 USC 133 - Repealed. July 13, 1949, ch. 307, 63 Stat. 410

Section, act July 24, 1946, ch. 592, 60 Stat. 633, related to establishment of a quarantine station on Swan Island.

134 to 135b. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(17), (18), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508

Section 134, Pub. L. 87–518, § 1, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 129, related to definitions for Pub. L. 87–518. Section 134a, Pub. L. 87–518, § 2, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 129, related to seizure, quarantine, and disposal of livestock or poultry to guard against introduction or dissemination of communicable disease. Section 134b, Pub. L. 87–518, § 3, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 130, related to regulations for clean and sanitary movement of animals. Section 134c, Pub. L. 87–518, § 4, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 130, related to regulations for movement of animals affected or exposed to communicable disease. Section 134d, Pub. L. 87–518, § 5, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 130, related to inspections, seizures, and issuance of warrants. Section 134e, Pub. L. 87–518, § 6, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 131; Pub. L. 97–461, § 8, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to enforcement provisions. Section 134f, Pub. L. 87–518, § 11, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 132, related to promulgation of regulations. Section 134g, Pub. L. 87–518, § 12, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 132, related to authority in addition to other laws and repeal of inconsistent provisions. Section 134h, Pub. L. 87–518, § 13, July 2, 1962, 76 Stat. 132, related to separability. Section 135, Pub. L. 91–239, § 1, May 6, 1970, 84 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, § 431(j), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4969, related to the establishment of international animal quarantine station, acceptance of gifts, cooperation with breeders organizations, and collection of fees. Section 135a, Pub. L. 91–239, § 2, May 6, 1970, 84 Stat. 202; Pub. L. 97–461, § 9, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2525, related to smuggling penalties. Section 135b, Pub. L. 91–239, § 3, May 6, 1970, 84 Stat. 202, related to authorization of appropriations.

21 USC 136 - Additional inspection services

The Secretary of Agriculture, in carrying out regulations prohibiting or restricting the entry of materials that may harbor pests, or diseases, is authorized to enter into agreements with operators or owners of vessels or aircraft for the purpose of providing inspection services at points of entry in the United States in addition to the regular or on-call basis currently available in connection with such vessels or aircraft. Any such agreement shall provide for the payment by the operator or owner of an amount determined by the Secretary to be necessary to defray the costs of providing additional service pursuant to such agreement.

21 USC 136a - Collection of fees for inspection services

(a) Quarantine and inspection fees 

(1) Fees authorized 
The Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe and collect fees sufficient
(A) to cover the cost of providing agricultural quarantine and inspection services in connection with the arrival at a port in the customs territory of the United States, or the preclearance or preinspection at a site outside the customs territory of the United States, of an international passenger, commercial vessel, commercial aircraft, commercial truck, or railroad car;
(B) to cover the cost of administering this subsection; and
(C) through fiscal year 2002, to maintain a reasonable balance in the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account established under paragraph (5).
(2) Limitation 
In setting the fees under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall ensure that the amount of the fees is commensurate with the costs of agricultural quarantine and inspection services with respect to the class of persons or entities paying the fees. The costs of the services with respect to passengers as a class includes the costs of related inspections of the aircraft or other vehicle.
(3) Status of fees 
Fees collected under this subsection by any person on behalf of the Secretary are held in trust for the United States and shall be remitted to the Secretary in such manner and at such times as the Secretary may prescribe.
(4) Late payment penalties 
If a person subject to a fee under this subsection fails to pay the fee when due, the Secretary shall assess a late payment penalty, and the overdue fees shall accrue interest, as required by section 3717 of title 31.
(5) Agricultural quarantine inspection user fee account 

(A) Establishment 
There is established in the Treasury of the United States a fund, to be known as the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account, which shall contain all of the fees collected under this subsection and late payment penalties and interest charges collected under paragraph (4) through fiscal year 2002.
(B) Use of account 
For each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002, funds in the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account shall be available, in such amounts as are provided in advance in appropriations Acts, to cover the costs associated with the provision of agricultural quarantine and inspection services and the administration of this subsection. Amounts made available under this subparagraph shall be available until expended.
(C) Excess fees 
Fees and other amounts collected under this subsection in any of fiscal years 1996 through 2002 in excess of $100,000,000 shall be available for the purposes specified in subparagraph (B) until expended, without further appropriation.
(6) Use of amounts collected after fiscal year 2002 
After September 30, 2002, the unobligated balance in the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection User Fee Account and fees and other amounts collected under this subsection shall be credited to the Department of Agriculture accounts that incur the costs associated with the provision of agricultural quarantine and inspection services and the administration of this subsection. The fees and other amounts shall remain available to the Secretary until expended without fiscal year limitation.
(7) Staff years 
The number of full-time equivalent positions in the Department of Agriculture attributable to the provision of agricultural quarantine and inspection services and the administration of this subsection shall not be counted toward the limitation on the total number of full-time equivalent positions in all agencies specified in section 5(b) of the Federal Workforce Restructuring Act of 1994 (Public Law 103226; 5 U.S.C. 3101 note ) or other limitation on the total number of full-time equivalent positions.
(b) Omitted 
(c) Animal inspection and veterinary diagnostics 

(1) Animal inspection 
The Secretary may prescribe and collect fees to reimburse the Secretary for the cost of carrying out the provisions of the Federal Animal Quarantine Laws that relate to the importation, entry, and exportation of animals, articles, or means of conveyance.
(2) Veterinary diagnostics 
The Secretary may prescribe and collect fees to recover the costs of carrying out the provisions of the Animal Health Protection Act [7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.] that relate to veterinary diagnostics.
(3) Fees 
All fees collected pursuant to this subsection and any late payment penalties or accrued interest collected pursuant to this subsection shall be credited to the accounts that incur the cost and shall remain available until expended without fiscal year limitation.
(4) Liability 
Any person for whom an activity related to the importation, entry, or exportation of an animal, article, or means of conveyance or relating to veterinary diagnostics, is performed pursuant to the section, shall be liable for payment of fees assessed. Upon failure to pay such fees when due, the Secretary shall assess a late payment penalty, and such overdue fees shall accrue interest, as required by section 3717 of title 31. All fees, late payment penalties, and accrued interest collected shall be credited to such accounts that incur the costs and shall remain available until expended without fiscal year limitation.
(5) Leins 1 

(A) In general 
The Secretary shall have a lien against the animal, article, means of conveyance, or facility for which services have been provided under this section for the fees, any late payment penalty, and any accrued interest assessed under this subsection.
(B) Other animals, etc. 
In the case of any person who fails to make payment when due under this subsection, the Secretary shall have a lien against any animal, article, or means of conveyance thereafter imported, moved in interstate commerce, or attempted to be exported by the person after the date of such failure until the date on which such owner or operator make[2] full payment to the Secretary under this subsection.
(C) Sales of animals, etc. 

(i) Authority The Secretary may, if a person does not pay fees, late payment penalties, or accrued interest on such, after providing reasonable notice of default to such person, sell at public sale after reasonable public notice, or otherwise dispose of, any such animal, article, means of conveyance or facility on which the Secretary has a lien under this paragraph.
(ii) Excess proceeds If the sale proceeds under clause (i) exceed the fees due, any late payment penalty assessed, any accrued interest on such, and the expenses associated with the sale, such excess shall be paid to the owner of the animal, article, means of conveyance, or facility if such owner submits an application for such excess together with proof of ownership not later than 6 months after the date of such sale. If no such application is made, such excess shall be credited to accounts that incur the costs associated with the fees collected and shall remain available until expended, without fiscal year limitation. The Secretary shall suspend performance of services to persons who have failed to pay fees, late payment penalty, or accrued interest under this section.
(d) Regulations 
The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.
(e) Recovery of amounts owed 
An action may be brought for the recovery of fees, late payment penalties, and accrued interest which have not been paid in accordance with this section against any person obligated for payment of such assessments under this section in any United States district court or other United States court for any territory or possession in any jurisdiction in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, and such court shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide such action.
(f) Definitions 

(1) Animal quarantine laws 
For purposes of this section, the term animal quarantine laws means
(A) section 306 of the Tariff Act of 1930[3] (19 U.S.C. 1306);
(B) section 9 of the Act of August 30, 1890 (21 U.S.C. 101);
(C) the Animal Health Protection Act [7 U.S.C. 8301 et seq.]; or
(D) any other Act administered by the Secretary relating to plant or animal diseases or pests.
(2) Customs territory 
For the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the term customs territory of the United States means the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.
(3) Person 
For the purposes of this section, the term person means an individual, corporation, partnership, trust, association, or any other public or private entity, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof.
(4) United States 
For the purposes of subsection (b) of this section, the term United States means the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and all other territories and possessions of the United States.
(5) Vessel 
For the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the term vessel does not include any ferry.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “Liens”.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “makes”.
[3] See References in Text note below.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER IV - IMPORTATION OF MILK AND CREAM

21 USC 141 - Prohibition of importation without permit

On and after May 16, 1927, the importation into the United States of milk and cream is prohibited unless the person by whom such milk or cream is shipped or transported into the United States holds a valid permit from the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

21 USC 142 - Milk or cream when unfit for importation

Milk or cream shall be considered unfit for importation
(1)  when all cows producing such milk or cream are not healthy and a physical examination of all such cows has not been made within one year previous to such milk being offered for importation;
(2)  when such milk or cream, if raw, is not produced from cows which have passed a tuberculin test applied by a duly authorized official veterinarian of the United States, or of the country in which such milk or cream is produced, within one year previous to the time of the importation, showing that such cows are free from tuberculosis;
(3)  when the sanitary conditions of the dairy farm or plant in which such milk or cream is produced or handled do not score at least fifty points out of one hundred points according to the methods for scoring as provided by the score cards used by the Bureau of Dairy Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture at the time such dairy farms or plants are scored;
(4)  in the case of raw milk if the number of bacteria per cubic centimeter exceeds three hundred thousand and in the case of raw cream seven hundred and fifty thousand, in the case of pasteurized milk if the number of bacteria per cubic centimeter exceeds one hundred thousand, and in the case of pasteurized cream five hundred thousand;
(5)  when the temperature of milk or cream at the time of importation exceeds fifty degrees Fahrenheit.

21 USC 143 - Inspection; certified statement in lieu thereof; waiver of requirements of section 142; regulations; suspension and revocation of permits

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall cause such inspections to be made as are necessary to insure that milk and cream are so produced and handled as to comply with the provisions of section 142 of this title, and in all cases when he finds that such milk and/or cream is produced and handled so as not to be unfit for importation under clauses 1, 2, and 3 of section 142 of this title, he shall issue to persons making application therefor permits to ship milk and/or cream into the United States: Provided, That in lieu of the inspections to be made by or under the direction of the Secretary he may, in his discretion, accept a duly certified statement signed by a duly accredited official of an authorized department of any foreign government and/or of any State of the United States or any municipality thereof that the provisions in clauses 1, 2, and 3 of section 142 of this title have been complied with. Such certificate of the accredited official of an authorized department of any foreign government shall be in the form prescribed by the Secretary, who is authorized and directed to prescribe such form as well as rules and regulations regulating the issuance of permits to import milk or cream into the United States. The Secretary is authorized, in his discretion, to waive the requirement of clause 4 of section 142 of this title when issuing permits to operators of condenseries in which milk and/or cream is used when sterilization of the milk and/or cream is a necessary process: Provided, however, That no milk and/or cream shall be imported whose bacterial count per cubic centimeter in any event exceeds one million two hundred thousand: Provided, further, That such requirements shall not be waived unless the farm producing such milk to be imported is within a radius of fifteen miles of the condensery in which it is to be processed: Provided further, That if milk and/or cream imported when the requirements of clause 4 of section 142 of this title, have been so waived, is sold, used, or disposed of in its raw state or otherwise than as condensed milk by any person, the permit shall be revoked and the importer shall be subject to fine, imprisonment, or other penalty prescribed by this subchapter. The Secretary is directed to waive the requirements of clauses 2 and 5 of section 142 of this title insofar as the same relate to milk when issuing permits to operators of, or to producers for delivery to, creameries and condensing plants in the United States within twenty miles of the point of production of the milk, and who import no raw milk except for pasteurization or condensing: Provided, That if milk imported when the requirements of clauses 2 and 5 of section 142 of this title have been so waived is sold, used, or disposed of in its raw state, or otherwise than as pasteurized, condensed, or evaporated milk by any person, the permit shall be revoked and the importer shall be subjected to fine, imprisonment, or other penalty prescribed by this subchapter. The Secretary is authorized and directed to make and enforce such regulations as may in his judgment be necessary to carry out the purpose of this subchapter for the handling of milk and cream, for the inspection of milk, cream, cows, barns, and other facilities used in the production and handling of milk and/or cream and the handling, keeping, transporting, and importing of milk and/or cream: Provided, however, That unless and until the Secretary shall provide for inspections to ascertain that clauses 1, 2, and 3 of section 142 of this title have been complied with, the Secretary shall issue temporary permits to any applicants therefor to ship or transport milk and/or cream into the United States. The Secretary is authorized to suspend or revoke any permit for the shipment of milk or cream into the United States when he shall find that the holder thereof has failed to comply with the provisions of or has violated this subchapter or any of the regulations made hereunder, or that the milk and/or cream brought or shipped by the holder of such permit into the United States is not produced and handled in conformity with, or that the quality thereof does not conform to, all of the provisions of section 142 of this title.

21 USC 144 - Unlawful receiving of imported milk or cream

It shall be unlawful for any person in the United States to receive milk or cream imported into the United States unless the importation is in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter.

21 USC 145 - Penalties

Any person who knowingly violates any provision of this subchapter shall, in addition to all other penalties prescribed by law, be punished by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $2,000, or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

21 USC 146 - Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $50,000 per annum, to enable the Secretary of Health and Human Services to carry out the provisions of this subchapter.

21 USC 147 - Repeal of inconsistent laws

Any laws or parts of laws inconsistent with this subchapter are repealed.

21 USC 148 - Powers of State with respect to milk or cream lawfully imported

Nothing in this subchapter is intended nor shall be construed to affect the powers of any State, or any political subdivision thereof, to regulate the shipment of milk or cream into, or the handling, sale, or other disposition of milk or cream in, such State or political subdivision after the milk and/or cream shall have been lawfully imported under the provisions of this subchapter.

21 USC 149 - Definitions

When used in this subchapter
(a) The term person means an individual, partnership, association, or corporation.
(b) The term United States means the fifty States and the District of Columbia.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 5 - VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, ANTITOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS

21 USC 151 - Preparation and sale of worthless or harmful products for domestic animals prohibited; preparation to be in compliance with rules at licensed establishments

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to prepare, sell, barter, or exchange in the District of Columbia, or in the Territories, or in any place under the jurisdiction of the United States, or to ship or deliver for shipment in or from the United States, the District of Columbia, any territory of the United States, or any place under the jurisdiction of the United States, any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product intended for use in the treatment of domestic animals, and no person, firm, or corporation shall prepare, sell, barter, exchange, or ship as aforesaid any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product manufactured within the United States and intended for use in the treatment of domestic animals, unless and until the said virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product shall have been prepared, under and in compliance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, at an establishment holding an unsuspended and unrevoked license issued by the Secretary of Agriculture as hereinafter authorized.

21 USC 152 - Importation regulated and prohibited

The importation into the United States of any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, and the importation of any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, is prohibited without
(1)  a permit from the Secretary of Agriculture, or
(2)  in the case of an article originating in Canada, such permit or, in lieu of such permit, such certification by Canada as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture.

21 USC 153 - Inspection of imports; denial of entry and destruction

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to cause the Bureau of Animal Industry to examine and inspect all viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, which are being imported or offered for importation into the United States, to determine whether such viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products are worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful, and if it shall appear that any such virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, is worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful, the same shall be denied entry and shall be destroyed or returned at the expense of the owner or importer.

21 USC 154 - Regulations for preparation and sale; licenses

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make and promulgate from time to time such rules and regulations as may be necessary to prevent the preparation, sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid of any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals, or otherwise to carry out this chapter, and to issue, suspend, and revoke licenses for the maintenance of establishments for the preparation of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, intended for sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid.

21 USC 154a - Special licenses for special circumstances; expedited procedure; conditions; exemptions; criteria

In order to meet an emergency condition, limited market or local situation, or other special circumstance (including production solely for intrastate use under a State-operated program), the Secretary may issue a special license under an expedited procedure on such conditions as are necessary to assure purity, safety, and a reasonable expectation of efficacy. The Secretary shall exempt by regulation from the requirement of preparation pursuant to an unsuspended and unrevoked license any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product prepared by any person, firm, or corporation
(1) solely for administration to animals of such person, firm, or corporation;
(2) solely for administration to animals under a veterinarian-client-patient relationship in the course of the State licensed professional practice of veterinary medicine by such person, firm, or corporation; or
(3) solely for distribution within the State of production pursuant to a license granted by such State under a program determined by the Secretary to meet criteria under which the State
(A) may license virus, serum, toxin, and analogous products and establishments that produce such products;
(B) may review the purity, safety, potency, and efficacy of such products prior to licensure;
(C) may review product test results to assure compliance with applicable standards for purity, safety, and potency, prior to release to the market;
(D) may deal effectively with violations of State law regulating virus, serum, toxin, and analogous products; and
(E) exercises the authority referred to in subclauses (A) through (D) consistent with the intent of this chapter of prohibiting the preparation, sale, barter, exchange, or shipment of worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous products.

21 USC 155 - Permits for importation

The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to issue permits for the importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products, for use in the treatment of domestic animals, which are not worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful.

21 USC 156 - Licenses conditioned on permitting inspection; suspension of licenses

All licenses issued under authority of this chapter to establishments where such viruses, serums, toxins, or analogous products are prepared for sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid, shall be issued on condition that the licensee shall permit the inspection of such establishments and of such products and their preparation; and the Secretary of Agriculture may suspend or revoke any permit or license issued under authority of said chapter, after opportunity for hearing has been granted the licensee or importer, when the Secretary of Agriculture is satisfied that such license or permit is being used to facilitate or effect the preparation, sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid, or the importation into the United States of any worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals.

21 USC 157 - Inspection

Any officer, agent, or employee of the Department of Agriculture duly authorized by the Secretary of Agriculture for the purpose may, at any hour during the daytime or nighttime, enter and inspect any establishment where any virus, serum, toxin, or analogous product for use in the treatment of domestic animals is prepared for sale, barter, exchange, or shipment as aforesaid.

21 USC 158 - Offenses; punishment

Any person, firm, or corporation who shall violate any of the provisions of this chapter shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not exceeding $1,000 or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.

21 USC 159 - Enforcement; penalties applicable; Congressional findings

The procedures of sections 672, 673, and 674 of this title (relating to detentions, seizures and condemnations, and injunctions, respectively) shall apply to the enforcement of this chapter with respect to any product prepared, sold, bartered, exchanged, or shipped in violation of this chapter or a regulation promulgated under this chapter. The provisions (including penalties) of section 675 of this title shall apply to the performance of official duties under this chapter. Congress finds that
(i)  the products and activities that are regulated under this chapter are either in interstate or foreign commerce or substantially affect such commerce or the free flow thereof, and
(ii)  regulation of the products and activities as provided in this chapter is necessary to prevent and eliminate burdens on such commerce and to effectively regulate such commerce.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 5A - BUREAU OF NARCOTICS

161 to 165. Omitted

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 6 - NARCOTIC DRUGS

IMPORTATION OR EXPORTATION

171 to 174. Repealed. Pub. L. 91513, title III, 1101(a)(2), (4), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291

Section 171, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 1, 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 1, 42 Stat. 596; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 3, 46 Stat. 586; July 1, 1944, ch. 377, 8, 58 Stat. 721; Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 81, 7, 60 Stat. 39; Aug. 8, 1953, ch. 394, 8, 67 Stat. 506, defined narcotic drug, United States, and person. See section 801 et seq. of this title. Section 172, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(a), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, established a Federal Narcotics Control Board. Act May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 1, 42 Stat. 596, also classified to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–554, § 8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 645. Section 173, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(b), (d), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 3, 46 Stat. 586, prohibited importation of narcotic drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title. Section 173a, act June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 6, 46 Stat. 587, provided for importation of additional amounts of coca leaves. Section 174, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(c), (f), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657; Nov. 2, 1951, ch. 666, 1, 5 (1), 65 Stat. 767; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, 105, 70 Stat. 570, set penalties for bringing narcotic drugs into the United States contrary to law. See chapter 13 of this title.

21 USC 175 - Repealed. June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, 403(a)(10), 66 Stat. 279

Section, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(e), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, related to deportation of convicted aliens. See section 1251 et seq. of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

176 to 185. Repealed. Pub. L. 91513, title III, 1101(a)(2), (9), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291, 1292

Section 176, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(g), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202 1, 42ch. 202 § 1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, covered liability of masters of vessels and persons in charge of railroad cars and other vehicles used to carry narcotic drugs. Section 176a, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(h), as added July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, 106, 70 Stat. 570, covered illegal importation of marihuana and set penalties for such illegal importation. See section 801 et seq. of this title. Section 176b, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(i), as added July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, 107, 70 Stat. 571, prohibited sale of heroin to juveniles and set penalties for such illegal sale. See section 801 et seq. of this title. Section 177, acts Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 2(a), 35 Stat. 614; Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 1, 42 Stat. 596; June 7, 1924, ch. 352, 43 Stat. 657, vested administration of Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act in Department of the Treasury. Section 178, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 4, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275, prohibited possession of smoking opium. See section 801 et seq. of this title. Section 179, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 4, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275, covered liability of masters of vessels and persons in charge of railroad cars or other vehicles for possession of smoking heroin. See section 801 et seq. of this title. Section 180, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 5, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275; amended May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 2, 42 Stat. 597; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 3, 46 Stat. 586, prohibited admission of smoking opium even for transportation to another country or for transferal from one vessel to another. Section 181, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 3, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 275, created a presumption of illegal importation based upon presence of smoking opium in United States. Section 182, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 6, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 348 Stat. 275; amended May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 2, 42 Stat. 597; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 3, 46 Stat. 586; Apr. 22, 1960, Pub. L. 86–429, § 15, 74 Stat. 66, forbade exportation of narcotic drugs. See section 801 et seq. of this title. Section 183, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 7, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 277, set out penalties for illegal exportation of narcotic drugs. Section 184, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 8, as added Jan. 17, 1914, ch. 9, 38 Stat. 277; amended May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 3, 42 Stat. 598, provided for seizure and forfeiture of narcotic drugs found on vessels and not shown on manifest or landed from vessels without a permit. Section 184a, acts July 11, 1941, ch. 289, 1, 55 Stat. 584; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title I, 108, 70 Stat. 571, made illegal bringing on board a vessel of United States any narcotic drugs not constituting a part of the cargo. Section 185, act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, 9, as added May 26, 1922, ch. 202, 4, 42 Stat. 598, authorized the citation of act Feb. 9, 1909, ch. 100, as the Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act.

MARIHUANA AND HEALTH REPORTING

186, 187. Transferred

DOMESTIC CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE OPIUM POPPY

188 to 188n. Repealed. Pub. L. 91513, title III, 1101(a)(7), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292

Sections, acts Dec. 11, 1942, ch. 720, 56 Stat. 1045; June 25, 1959, Pub. 8670, 20, 73 Stat. 145; July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–624, § 16, 74 Stat. 415, known as the Opium Poppy Control Act of 1942, provided for the domestic control of production and distribution of the opium poppy. Sections 1 to 17 of said Act of Dec. 11, 1942, were classified, respectively, to sections 188, 188 notes, and 188a to 188n of this title.

IMPORTATION BY CHINESE SUBJECTS OR TRAFFICKING IN, IN CHINA, BY UNITED STATES CITIZENS

191 to 193. Repealed. Pub. L. 91513, title III, 1101(a)(1), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291

Sections, acts Feb. 23, 1887, ch. 210, 24 Stat. 409; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 5, 39, 62 Stat. 986, 992, prohibited importation of opium by Chinese subjects and the trafficking in, in China, of opium by United States citizens. Sections 1 to 3 of said Act of Feb. 23, 1887, were classified to sections 191 to 193, respectively, of this title.

MISCELLANEOUS

21 USC 196 - Repealed. July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XIII, 1313, 58 Stat. 714

Section, act June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 4(b), (c), 46 Stat. 587; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, related to studies and investigations by Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. See section 242 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

197, 198. Repealed. Pub. L. 91513, title III, 1101(a)(4), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1291

Section 197, act June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 7, 46 Stat. 587, directed Secretary of the Treasury to cooperate with Secretary of State in discharge of international obligations of United States concerning traffic in narcotic drugs. Section 198, acts June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 8, 46 Stat. 587; July 18, 1956, ch. 629, title III, 302, 70 Stat. 575, directed Secretary of the Treasury to cooperate with the several States in suppression of abuse of narcotic drugs in their respective jurisdictions.

198a to 198c. Transferred

21 USC 199 - Repealed. Pub. L. 91513, title III, 1101(a)(5), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292

Section, act July 3, 1930, ch. 829, 46 Stat. 850, authorized payment to persons giving information concerning violations of narcotics laws. See section 886 (a) of this title.

200 to 200b. Repealed. Nov. 2, 1951, ch. 666, 5(2), 65 Stat. 769

Sections, acts Aug. 12, 1937, ch. 598, 13, 50 Stat. 627; July 1, 1944, ch. 377, 9, 58 Stat. 721; Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 81, 8, 60 Stat. 39, related to punishment for offenses after first offense. See section 801 et seq. of this title.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 7 - PRACTICE OF PHARMACY AND SALE OF POISONS IN CONSULAR DISTRICTS IN CHINA

21 USC 201 - Doing business without a license unlawful; employment of Chinese subjects

It shall be unlawful in the consular districts of the United States in China for any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States not licensed as a pharmacist within the meaning of this chapter to conduct or manage any pharmacy, drug or chemical store, apothecary shop, or other place of business for the retailing, compounding, or dispensing of any drugs, chemicals, or poisons, or for the compounding of physicians prescriptions, or to keep exposed for sale at retail, any drugs, chemicals, or poisons, except as hereinafter provided, or, except as hereinafter provided, for any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States not licensed as a pharmacist within the meaning of this chapter to compound, dispense, or sell, at retail, any drug, chemical, poison, or pharmaceutical preparation upon the prescription of a physician, or otherwise, or to compound physicians prescriptions, except as an aid to and under the proper supervision of a pharmacist licensed under this chapter. And it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation owing permanent allegiance to the United States owning partly or wholly or managing a pharmacy, drug store, or other place of business to cause or permit any person other than a licensed pharmacist to compound, dispense, or sell at retail any drug, medicine, or poison, except as an aid to and under the proper supervision of a licensed pharmacist. Where it is necessary for a person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States and owning partly or wholly or managing a pharmacy, drug store, or other place of business to employ Chinese subjects to compound, dispense, or sell at retail any drug, medicine, or poison, such person, firm, or corporation, owner, part owner, or manager of a pharmacy, drug store, or other place of business may employ such Chinese subjects when their character, ability, and age of twenty-one years or over have been certified to by at least two recognized and reputable practitioners of medicine, or two pharmacists licensed under this chapter whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States.

21 USC 202 - Certain classes of persons and corporations excepted; insecticides

Nothing in section 201 of this title shall be construed to interfere with any recognized and reputable practitioner of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary surgery in the compounding of his own prescriptions, or to prevent him from supplying to his patients such medicines as he may deem proper, except as hereinafter provided; nor with the exclusively wholesale business of any person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States dealing and licensed as pharmacists, or having in their employ at least one person who is so licensed, except as hereinafter provided; nor with the sale by persons, firms, or corporations whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States other than pharmacists of poisonous substances sold exclusively for use in the arts, or as insecticides, when such substances are sold in unbroken packages bearing labels having plainly printed upon them the name of the contents, the word Poison, when practicable the name of at least one suitable antidote, and the name and address of the vender.

21 USC 203 - Application for license; requirements; qualifications for license

Every person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States desiring to practice as a pharmacist in the consular districts in China shall file with the consul an application, duly verified under oath, setting forth the name and age of the applicant, the place or places at which he pursued and the time spent in the study of pharmacy, the experience which the applicant has had in compounding physicians prescriptions under the direction of a licensed pharmacist, and the name and location of the school or college of pharmacy, if any, of which he is a graduate, and shall submit evidence sufficient to show to the satisfaction of said consul that he is of good moral character and not addicted to the use of alcoholic liquors or narcotic drugs so as to render him unfit to practice pharmacy. Applicants shall be not less than twenty-one years of age and shall have had at least four years experience in the practice of pharmacy or shall have served three years under the instruction of a regularly licensed pharmacist, and any applicant who has been graduated from a school or college of pharmacy recognized by the proper board of his State, Territory, District of Columbia, or other possession of the United States as in good standing shall be entitled to practice upon presentation of his diploma.

21 USC 204 - Issuance of license

If the applicant for license as a pharmacist has complied with the requirements of section 203 of this title, the consul shall issue to him a license which shall entitle him to practice pharmacy in the consular districts of the United States in China, subject to the provisions of this chapter.

21 USC 205 - Display of license in pharmacy

Every license to practice pharmacy shall be conspicuously displayed by the person to whom the same has been issued in the pharmacy, drug store, or place of business, if any, of which the said person is the owner or part owner or manager.

21 USC 206 - Revocation of license

The license of any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States to practice pharmacy in the consular districts of the United States in China may be revoked by the consul if such person be found to have obtained such license by fraud, or be addicted to the use of any narcotic or stimulant, or to be suffering from physical or mental disease, in such manner and to such extent as to render it expedient that in the interests of the public his license be canceled; or to be of an immoral character; or if such person be convicted in any court of competent jurisdiction of any offense involving moral turpitude. It shall be the duty of the consul to investigate any case in which it is discovered by him or made to appear to his satisfaction that any license issued under the provisions of this chapter is revocable and shall, after full hearing, if in his judgment the facts warrant it, revoke such license.

21 USC 207 - Restrictions on sales; written orders or prescriptions

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States, either personally or by servant or agent or as the servant or agent of any other person or of any firm or corporation, to sell, furnish, or give away any cocaine, salts of cocaine, or preparation containing cocaine or salts of cocaine, or morphine or preparation containing morphine or salts of morphine, or any opium or preparation containing opium, or any chloral hydrate or preparation containing chloral hydrate, except upon the original written order or prescription of a recognized and reputable practitioner of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary medicine, which order or prescription shall be dated and shall contain the name of the person for whom prescribed, or, if ordered by a practitioner of veterinary medicine, shall state the kind of animal for which ordered and shall be signed by the person giving the order or prescription. Such order or prescription shall be, for a period of three years, retained on file by the person, firm, or corporation who compounds or dispenses the article ordered or prescribed, and it shall not be compounded or dispensed after the first time except upon the written order of the original prescriber.

21 USC 208 - Certain preparations and sales excepted

The provisions of section 207 of this title shall not apply to preparations containing not more than two grains of opium or not more than one-quarter grain of morphine, or not more than one-quarter grain of cocaine, or not more than two grains of chloral hydrate in the fluid ounce, or, of a solid preparation, in one avoirdupois ounce, nor shall they apply to preparations sold in good faith for diarrhea and cholera, each bottle or package of which is accompanied by specific directions for use and caution against habitual use, nor to liniments or ointments sold in good faith as such when plainly labeled for external use only, nor to powder of ipecac and opium, commonly known as Dovers powder, when sold in quantities not exceeding twenty grains. The provisions of this section or section 207 of this title shall not be construed to permit the selling, furnishing, giving away, or prescribing for the use of any habitual users of the same any cocaine, salts of cocaine, or preparation containing cocaine or salts of cocaine, or morphine or salts of morphine, or preparations containing morphine or salts of morphine, or any opium or preparation containing opium, or any chloral hydrate or preparation containing chloral hydrate. But the preceding sentence shall not be construed to prevent any recognized or reputable practitioner of medicine whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States from furnishing in good faith for the use of any habitual user of narcotic drugs who is under his professional care such substances as he may deem necessary for their treatment, when such prescriptions are not given or substances furnished for the purpose of evading the provisions of this section. But the provisions of this section or section 207 of this title shall not apply to sales at wholesale between jobbers, manufacturers, and retail druggists, hospitals, and scientific or public institutions.

21 USC 209 - Poisons; book entry of sale; labels

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States to sell or deliver to any other person any of the following-described substances, or any poisonous compound, combination, or preparation thereof, to wit: The compounds of and salts of antimony, arsenic, barium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc, the caustic hydrates of sodium and potassium, solution or water of ammonia, methyl alcohol, paregoric, the concentrated mineral acids, oxalic and hydrocyanic acids and their salts, yellow phosphorus, Paris green, carbolic acid, the essential oils of almonds, pennyroyal, tansy, rue, and savin; croton oil, creosote, chloroform, cantharides, or aconite, belladonna, bitter almonds, colchicum, cotton root, cocculus indicus, conium, cannabis indica, digitalis, ergot, hyoscyamus, ignatia, lobelia, nux vomica, physostigma, phytolacca, strophanthus, stramonium, veratrum viride, or any of the poisonous alkaloids or alkaloidal salts derived from the foregoing, or any other poisonous alkaloids or their salts, or any other virulent poison, except in the manner following, and, moreover, if the applicant be less than eighteen years of age, except upon the written order of a person known or believed to be an adult. It shall first be learned, by due inquiry, that the person to whom delivery is about to be made is aware of the poisonous character of the substance and that it is desired for a lawful purpose, and the box, bottle, or other package shall be plainly labeled with the name of the substance, the word Poison, the name of at least one suitable antidote, when practicable, and the name and address of the person, firm, or corporation dispensing the substance. And before delivery be made of any of the foregoing substances, excepting solution or water of ammonia and sulphate of copper, there shall be recorded in a book kept for that purpose the name of the article, the quantity delivered, the purpose for which it is to be used, the date of delivery, the name and address of the person for whom it is procured, and the name of the individual personally dispensing the same; and said book shall be preserved by the owner thereof for at least three years after the date of the last entry therein. The foregoing provisions shall not apply to articles dispensed upon the order of persons believed by the dispenser to be recognized and reputable practitioners of medicine, dentistry, or veterinary surgery. When a physician writes upon his prescription a request that it be marked or labeled Poison the pharmacist shall, in the case of liquids, place the same in a colored glass, roughened bottle, of the kind commonly known in trade as a poison bottle, and, in the case of dry substances, he shall place a poison label upon the container. The record of sale and delivery above mentioned shall not be required of manufacturers and wholesalers who shall sell any of the foregoing substances at wholesale to licensed pharmacists, but the box, bottle, or other package containing such substance, when sold at wholesale, shall be properly labeled with the name of the substance, the word poison, and the name and address of the manufacturer or wholesaler. It shall not be necessary, in sales either at wholesale or at retail, to place a poison label upon, nor to record the delivery of, the sulphide of antimony, or the oxide or carbonate of zinc, or of colors ground in oil and intended for use as paints, or calomel; nor in the case of preparations containing any of the substances named in this section, when a single box, bottle, or other package, or when the bulk of one-half fluid ounce or the weight of one-half avoirdupois ounce does not contain more than an adult medicinal dose of such substance; nor in the case of liniments or ointments sold in good faith as such, when plainly labeled For external use only; nor, in the case of preparations put up and sold in the form of pills, tablets, or lozenges, containing any of the substances enumerated in this section and intended for internal use, when the dose recommended does not contain more than one-fourth of an adult medicinal dose of such substance. For the purpose of this and of every other section of this chapter no box, bottle, or other package shall be regarded as having been labeled Poison unless the word Poison appears conspicuously thereon, printed in plain, uncondensed gothic letters in red ink.

21 USC 210 - Pharmacist; unauthorized use of title

It shall be unlawful for any person whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States, not legally licensed as a pharmacist, to take, use, or exhibit the title of pharmacist, or licensed or registered pharmacist, or the title of druggist or apothecary, or any other title or description of like import.

21 USC 211 - Preservation of originals of prescriptions compounded and copies thereof; inspection of prescriptions by consular officers; marking containers of drugs

Every person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States owning, partly owning, or managing a drug store or pharmacy shall keep in his place of business a suitable book or file, in which shall be preserved for a period of not less than three years the original of every prescription compounded or dispensed at such store or pharmacy, or a copy of such prescription, except when the preservation of the original is required by section 207 or 208 of this title. Upon request the owner, part owner, or manager of such store shall furnish to the prescribing physician, or to the person for whom such prescription was compounded or dispensed, a true and correct copy thereof. Any prescription required by section 207 or 208 of this title, and any prescription for, or register of sales of, substances mentioned in such sections shall at all times be open to inspection by duly authorized consular officers in the consular districts of the United States in China. No person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States shall, in a consular district, compound or dispense any drug or drugs or deliver the same to any other person without marking on the container thereof the name of the drug or drugs contained therein and directions for using the same.

21 USC 212 - Offenses; punishment; duty to enforce provisions

Any person, firm, or corporation, whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States, violating any of the provisions of this chapter shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of not less than $50 and not more than $100 or by imprisonment for not less than one month and not more than sixty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court, and if the offense be continuing in its character, each week or part of a week during which it continues shall constitute a separate and distinct offense. And it shall be the duty of the consular and judicial officers of the United States in China to enforce the provisions of this chapter.

21 USC 213 - Fraudulent representations to evade or defeat restrictions

No person, firm, or corporation whose permanent allegiance is due to the United States seeking to procure in the consular districts of the United States in China any substance the sale of which is regulated by the provisions of this chapter shall make any fraudulent representations so as to evade or defeat the restrictions herein imposed.

21 USC 214 - Previous laws unaffected

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as modifying or revoking any of the provisions of sections 191 to 1931 of this title.
[1] See References in Text note below.

21 USC 215 - Consul defined

The word consul as used in this chapter shall mean the consular officer in charge of the district concerned.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 8 - NARCOTIC FARMS

221 to 237. Repealed. July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title XIII, 1313, 58 Stat. 714

Section 221, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 1, 45 Stat. 1085, defined habit-forming narcotic drug, narcotic, and addict. See section 201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Section 222, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 2, 45 Stat. 1085, provided for narcotic farms. Section 222a, act June 23, 1935, ch. 725, 1, 49 Stat. 1840, provided name for narcotic farm at Lexington, Ky. Section 222b, act Mar. 28, 1938, ch. 55, 1, 52 Stat. 134, provided name for narcotic farm at Fort Worth, Texas. Section 223, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 3, 45 Stat. 1085; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 205(b), eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1425, provided for an annual estimate of expenses of maintenance of narcotic farms. Section 224, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 4, 45 Stat. 1086, provided for construction of buildings for two of the narcotic farms. Section 225, acts Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 5, 45 Stat. 1086; June 14, 1930, ch. 488, 4(a), 46 Stat. 586; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, provided for control and management of narcotic farms. Section 226, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 6, 45 Stat. 1086; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for care and treatment of addicts. Section 227, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 7, 45 Stat. 1086, provided for transfer to and from farms of addicts who are prisoners. Section 228, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 8, 45 Stat. 1087, provided that it was the duty of prosecuting officers to report convicted persons believed to be addicts. Section 229, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 9, 45 Stat. 1087; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for employment of addicts. Section 230, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 10, 45 Stat. 1087, provided for parole of inmates. Section 231, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 11, 45 Stat. 1087; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for discharge of addicts. Section 232, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 12, 45 Stat. 1088; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for admission of voluntary patients. Section 233, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 13, 45 Stat. 1088; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided for furnishing of gratuities and transportation to discharged convicts. Section 234, act. Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 14, 45 Stat. 1089; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. I, 201, 205, eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2728, 53 Stat. 1424, 1425, provided penalties for introduction of narcotic drugs into a narcotic farm. Section 235, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 15, 45 Stat. 1089, provided penalties for escape of inmates. Section 236, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 16, 45 Stat. 1089, provided penalties for procuring of escape by inmates. Section 237, act Jan. 19, 1929, ch. 82, 17, 45 Stat. 1089, provided for deportation of alien inmates who are entitled to a discharge from narcotic farms.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - CHAPTER 9 - FEDERAL FOOD, DRUG, AND COSMETIC ACT

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - SHORT TITLE

21 USC 301 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - DEFINITIONS

21 USC 321 - Definitions; generally

For the purposes of this chapter
(a) 
(1) The term State, except as used in the last sentence of section 372 (a) of this title, means any State or Territory of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
(2) The term Territory means any Territory or possession of the United States, including the District of Columbia, and excluding the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Canal Zone.
(b) The term interstate commerce means
(1)  commerce between any State or Territory and any place outside thereof, and
(2)  commerce within the District of Columbia or within any other Territory not organized with a legislative body.
(c) The term Department means Department of Health and Human Services.
(d) The term Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
(e) The term person includes individual, partnership, corporation, and association.
(f) The term food means
(1)  articles used for food or drink for man or other animals,
(2)  chewing gum, and
(3)  articles used for components of any such article.
(g) 
(1) The term drug means
(A)  articles recognized in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, or official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them; and
(B)  articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in man or other animals; and
(C)  articles (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals; and
(D)  articles intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause (A), (B), or (C). A food or dietary supplement for which a claim, subject to sections 343 (r)(1)(B) and 343 (r)(3) of this title or sections 343 (r)(1)(B) and 343 (r)(5)(D) of this title, is made in accordance with the requirements of section 343 (r) of this title is not a drug solely because the label or the labeling contains such a claim. A food, dietary ingredient, or dietary supplement for which a truthful and not misleading statement is made in accordance with section 343 (r)(6) of this title is not a drug under clause (C) solely because the label or the labeling contains such a statement.
(2) The term counterfeit drug means a drug which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device, or any likeness thereof, of a drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor other than the person or persons who in fact manufactured, processed, packed, or distributed such drug and which thereby falsely purports or is represented to be the product of, or to have been packed or distributed by, such other drug manufacturer, processor, packer, or distributor.
(h) The term device (except when used in paragraph (n) of this section and in sections 331 (i), 343 (f), 352 (c), and 362 (c) of this title) means an instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article, including any component, part, or accessory, which is
(1) recognized in the official National Formulary, or the United States Pharmacopeia, or any supplement to them,
(2) intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease, in man or other animals, or
(3) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, and

which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and which is not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of its primary intended purposes.

(i) The term cosmetic means (1) articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance, and (2) articles intended for use as a component of any such articles; except that such term shall not include soap.
(j) The term official compendium means the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, official National Formulary, or any supplement to any of them.
(k) The term label means a display of written, printed, or graphic matter upon the immediate container of any article; and a requirement made by or under authority of this chapter that any word, statement, or other information appear on the label shall not be considered to be complied with unless such word, statement, or other information also appears on the outside container or wrapper, if any there be, of the retail package of such article, or is easily legible through the outside container or wrapper.
(l) The term immediate container does not include package liners.
(m) The term labeling means all labels and other written, printed, or graphic matter
(1)  upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers, or
(2)  accompanying such article.
(n) If an article is alleged to be misbranded because the labeling or advertising is misleading, then in determining whether the labeling or advertising is misleading there shall be taken into account (among other things) not only representations made or suggested by statement, word, design, device, or any combination thereof, but also the extent to which the labeling or advertising fails to reveal facts material in the light of such representations or material with respect to consequences which may result from the use of the article to which the labeling or advertising relates under the conditions of use prescribed in the labeling or advertising thereof or under such conditions of use as are customary or usual.
(o) The representation of a drug, in its labeling, as an antiseptic shall be considered to be a representation that it is a germicide, except in the case of a drug purporting to be, or represented as, an antiseptic for inhibitory use as a wet dressing, ointment, dusting powder, or such other use as involves prolonged contact with the body.
(p) The term new drug means
(1) Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof, except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a new drug if at any time prior to June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or
(2) Any drug (except a new animal drug or an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug) the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized, but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.
(q) 
(1) 
(A) Except as provided in clause (B), the term pesticide chemical means any substance that is a pesticide within the meaning of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], including all active and inert ingredients of such pesticide. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the term pesticide within such meaning includes ethylene oxide and propylene oxide when such substances are applied on food.
(B) In the case of the use, with respect to food, of a substance described in clause (A) to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, and slime), the following applies for purposes of clause (A):
(i) The definition in such clause for the term pesticide chemical does not include the substance if the substance is applied for such use on food, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the food, in the preparing, packing, or holding of the food for commercial purposes. The substance is not excluded under this subclause from such definition if the substance is ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, and is applied for such use on food. The substance is not so excluded if the substance is applied for such use on a raw agricultural commodity, or the substance is included for such use in water that comes into contact with the commodity, as follows:
(I) The substance is applied in the field.
(II) The substance is applied at a treatment facility where raw agricultural commodities are the only food treated, and the treatment is in a manner that does not change the status of the food as a raw agricultural commodity (including treatment through washing, waxing, fumigating, and packing such commodities in such manner).
(III) The substance is applied during the transportation of such commodity between the field and such a treatment facility.
(ii) The definition in such clause for the term pesticide chemical does not include the substance if the substance is a food contact substance as defined in section 348 (h)(6) of this title, and any of the following circumstances exist: The substance is included for such use in an object that has a food contact surface but is not intended to have an ongoing effect on any portion of the object; the substance is included for such use in an object that has a food contact surface and is intended to have an ongoing effect on a portion of the object but not on the food contact surface; or the substance is included for such use in or is applied for such use on food packaging (without regard to whether the substance is intended to have an ongoing effect on any portion of the packaging). The food contact substance is not excluded under this subclause from such definition if any of the following circumstances exist: The substance is applied for such use on a semipermanent or permanent food contact surface (other than being applied on food packaging); or the substance is included for such use in an object that has a semipermanent or permanent food contact surface (other than being included in food packaging) and the substance is intended to have an ongoing effect on the food contact surface.

With respect to the definition of the term pesticide that is applicable to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.], this clause does not exclude any substance from such definition.

(2) The term pesticide chemical residue means a residue in or on raw agricultural commodity or processed food of
(A) a pesticide chemical; or
(B) any other added substance that is present on or in the commodity or food primarily as a result of the metabolism or other degradation of a pesticide chemical.
(3) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (1) and (2), the Administrator may by regulation except a substance from the definition of pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue if
(A) its occurrence as a residue on or in a raw agricultural commodity or processed food is attributable primarily to natural causes or to human activities not involving the use of any substances for a pesticidal purpose in the production, storage, processing, or transportation of any raw agricultural commodity or processed food; and
(B) the Administrator, after consultation with the Secretary, determines that the substance more appropriately should be regulated under one or more provisions of this chapter other than sections 342 (a)(2)(B) and 346a of this title.
(r) The term raw agricultural commodity means any food in its raw or natural state, including all fruits that are washed, colored, or otherwise treated in their unpeeled natural form prior to marketing.
(s) The term food additive means any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food (including any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, packaging, transporting, or holding food; and including any source of radiation intended for any such use), if such substance is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate its safety, as having been adequately shown through scientific procedures (or, in the case of a substance used in food prior to January 1, 1958, through either scientific procedures or experience based on common use in food) to be safe under the conditions of its intended use; except that such term does not include
(1) a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food; or
(2) a pesticide chemical; or
(3) a color additive; or
(4) any substance used in accordance with a sanction or approval granted prior to September 6, 1958, pursuant to this chapter, the Poultry Products Inspection Act [21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.] or the Meat Inspection Act of March 4, 1907, as amended and extended [21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.];
(5) a new animal drug; or
(6) an ingredient described in paragraph (ff) in, or intended for use in, a dietary supplement.
(t) 
(1) The term color additive means a material which
(A) is a dye, pigment, or other substance made by a process of synthesis or similar artifice, or extracted, isolated, or otherwise derived, with or without intermediate or final change of identity, from a vegetable, animal, mineral, or other source, and
(B) when added or applied to a food, drug, or cosmetic, or to the human body or any part thereof, is capable (alone or through reaction with other substance) of imparting color thereto;

except that such term does not include any material which the Secretary, by regulation, determines is used (or intended to be used) solely for a purpose or purposes other than coloring.

(2) The term color includes black, white, and intermediate grays.
(3) Nothing in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be construed to apply to any pesticide chemical, soil or plant nutrient, or other agricultural chemical solely because of its effect in aiding, retarding, or otherwise affecting, directly or indirectly, the growth or other natural physiological processes of produce of the soil and thereby affecting its color, whether before or after harvest.
(u) The term safe as used in paragraph (s) of this section and in sections 348, 360b, 360ccc, and 379e of this title, has reference to the health of man or animal.
(v) The term new animal drug means any drug intended for use for animals other than man, including any drug intended for use in animal feed but not including such animal feed,
(1) the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of animal drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof; except that such a drug not so recognized shall not be deemed to be a new animal drug if at any time prior to June 25, 1938, it was subject to the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, as amended, and if at such time its labeling contained the same representations concerning the conditions of its use; or
(2) the composition of which is such that such drug, as a result of investigations to determine its safety and effectiveness for use under such conditions, has become so recognized but which has not, otherwise than in such investigations, been used to a material extent or for a material time under such conditions.

Provided that any drug intended for minor use or use in a minor species that is not the subject of a final regulation published by the Secretary through notice and comment rulemaking finding that the criteria of paragraphs (1) and (2) have not been met (or that the exception to the criterion in paragraph (1) has been met) is a new animal drug.

(w) The term animal feed, as used in paragraph (w)[1] of this section, in section 360b of this title, and in provisions of this chapter referring to such paragraph or section, means an article which is intended for use for food for animals other than man and which is intended for use as a substantial source of nutrients in the diet of the animal, and is not limited to a mixture intended to be the sole ration of the animal.
(x) The term informal hearing means a hearing which is not subject to section 554, 556, or 557 of title 5 and which provides for the following:
(1) The presiding officer in the hearing shall be designated by the Secretary from officers and employees of the Department who have not participated in any action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and who are not directly responsible to an officer or employee of the Department who has participated in any such action.
(2) Each party to the hearing shall have the right at all times to be advised and accompanied by an attorney.
(3) Before the hearing, each party to the hearing shall be given reasonable notice of the matters to be considered at the hearing, including a comprehensive statement of the basis for the action taken or proposed by the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing and a general summary of the information which will be presented by the Secretary at the hearing in support of such action.
(4) At the hearing the parties to the hearing shall have the right to hear a full and complete statement of the action of the Secretary which is the subject of the hearing together with the information and reasons supporting such action, to conduct reasonable questioning, and to present any oral or written information relevant to such action.
(5) The presiding officer in such hearing shall prepare a written report of the hearing to which shall be attached all written material presented at the hearing. The participants in the hearing shall be given the opportunity to review and correct or supplement the presiding officers report of the hearing.
(6) The Secretary may require the hearing to be transcribed. A party to the hearing shall have the right to have the hearing transcribed at his expense. Any transcription of a hearing shall be included in the presiding officers report of the hearing.
(y) The term saccharin includes calcium saccharin, sodium saccharin, and ammonium saccharin.
(z) The term infant formula means a food which purports to be or is represented for special dietary use solely as a food for infants by reason of its simulation of human milk or its suitability as a complete or partial substitute for human milk.
(aa) The term abbreviated drug application means an application submitted under section 355 (j) of this title for the approval of a drug that relies on the approved application of another drug with the same active ingredient to establish safety and efficacy, and
(1) in the case of section 335a of this title, includes a supplement to such an application for a different or additional use of the drug but does not include a supplement to such an application for other than a different or additional use of the drug, and
(2) in the case of sections 335b and 335c of this title, includes any supplement to such an application.
(bb) The term knowingly or knew means that a person, with respect to information
(1) has actual knowledge of the information, or
(2) acts in deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of the truth or falsity of the information.
(cc) For purposes of section 335a of this title, the term high managerial agent
(1) means
(A) an officer or director of a corporation or an association,
(B) a partner of a partnership, or
(C) any employee or other agent of a corporation, association, or partnership,

having duties such that the conduct of such officer, director, partner, employee, or agent may fairly be assumed to represent the policy of the corporation, association, or partnership, and

(2) includes persons having management responsibility for
(A) submissions to the Food and Drug Administration regarding the development or approval of any drug product,
(B) production, quality assurance, or quality control of any drug product, or
(C) research and development of any drug product.
(dd) For purposes of sections 335a and 335b of this title, the term drug product means a drug subject to regulation under section 355, 360b, or 382 of this title or under section 262 of title 42.
(ee) The term Commissioner means the Commissioner of Food and Drugs.
(ff) The term dietary supplement
(1) means a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients:
(A) a vitamin;
(B) a mineral;
(C) an herb or other botanical;
(D) an amino acid;
(E) a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake; or
(F) a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any ingredient described in clause (A), (B), (C), (D), or (E);
(2) means a product that
(A) 
(i) is intended for ingestion in a form described in section 350 (c)(1)(B)(i) of this title; or
(ii) complies with section 350 (c)(1)(B)(ii) of this title;
(B) is not represented for use as a conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or the diet; and
(C) is labeled as a dietary supplement; and
(3) does
(A) include an article that is approved as a new drug under section 355 of this title or licensed as a biologic under section 262 of title 42 and was, prior to such approval, certification, or license, marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article, when used as or in a dietary supplement under the conditions of use and dosages set forth in the labeling for such dietary supplement, is unlawful under section 342 (f) of this title; and
(B) not include
(i) an article that is approved as a new drug under section 355 of this title, certified as an antibiotic under section 357 of this title, or licensed as a biologic under section 262 of title 42, or
(ii) an article authorized for investigation as a new drug, antibiotic, or biological for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public, which was not before such approval, certification, licensing, or authorization marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food unless the Secretary, in the Secretarys discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, finding that the article would be lawful under this chapter.

Except for purposes of paragraph (g) and section 350f of this title, a dietary supplement shall be deemed to be a food within the meaning of this chapter.

(gg) The term processed food means any food other than a raw agricultural commodity and includes any raw agricultural commodity that has been subject to processing, such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydration, or milling.
(hh) The term Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
(ii) The term compounded positron emission tomography drug
(1) means a drug that
(A) exhibits spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei by the emission of positrons and is used for the purpose of providing dual photon positron emission tomographic diagnostic images; and
(B) has been compounded by or on the order of a practitioner who is licensed by a State to compound or order compounding for a drug described in subparagraph (A), and is compounded in accordance with that States law, for a patient or for research, teaching, or quality control; and
(2) includes any nonradioactive reagent, reagent kit, ingredient, nuclide generator, accelerator, target material, electronic synthesizer, or other apparatus or computer program to be used in the preparation of such a drug.
(jj) The term antibiotic drug means any drug (except drugs for use in animals other than humans) composed wholly or partly of any kind of penicillin, streptomycin, chlortetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, or any other drug intended for human use containing any quantity of any chemical substance which is produced by a micro-organism and which has the capacity to inhibit or destroy micro-organisms in dilute solution (including a chemically synthesized equivalent of any such substance) or any derivative thereof.
(kk) Priority supplement.— 
The term priority supplement means a drug application referred to in section 101(4) of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (111 Stat. 2298).
(ll) 
(1) The term single-use device means a device that is intended for one use, or on a single patient during a single procedure.
(2) 
(A) The term reprocessed, with respect to a single-use device, means an original device that has previously been used on a patient and has been subjected to additional processing and manufacturing for the purpose of an additional single use on a patient. The subsequent processing and manufacture of a reprocessed single-use device shall result in a device that is reprocessed within the meaning of this definition.
(B) A single-use device that meets the definition under clause (A) shall be considered a reprocessed device without regard to any description of the device used by the manufacturer of the device or other persons, including a description that uses the term recycled rather than the term reprocessed.
(3) The term original device means a new, unused single-use device.
(mm) 
(1) The term critical reprocessed single-use device means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact normally sterile tissue or body spaces during use.
(2) The term semi-critical reprocessed single-use device means a reprocessed single-use device that is intended to contact intact mucous membranes and not penetrate normally sterile areas of the body.
(nn) The term major species means cattle, horses, swine, chickens, turkeys, dogs, and cats, except that the Secretary may add species to this definition by regulation.
(oo) The term minor species means animals other than humans that are not major species.
(pp) The term minor use means the intended use of a drug in a major species for an indication that occurs infrequently and in only a small number of animals or in limited geographical areas and in only a small number of animals annually.
(qq) The term major food allergen means any of the following:
(1) Milk, egg, fish (e.g., bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean shellfish (e.g., crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (e.g., almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans.
(2) A food ingredient that contains protein derived from a food specified in paragraph (1), except the following:
(A) Any highly refined oil derived from a food specified in paragraph (1) and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil.
(B) A food ingredient that is exempt under paragraph (6) or (7) of section 343 (w) of this title.
[1] So in original. Probably should be paragraph “(v)”.

21 USC 321a - Butter defined

For the purposes of the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906 (Thirty-fourth Statutes at Large, page 768) butter shall be understood to mean the food product usually known as butter, and which is made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt, and with or without additional coloring matter, and containing not less than 80 per centum by weight of milk fat, all tolerances having been allowed for.

21 USC 321b - Package defined

The word package where it occurs the second and last time in the act entitled An act to amend section 8 of an act entitled, An act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes, approved March 3, 1913, shall include and shall be construed to include wrapped meats inclosed in papers or other materials as prepared by the manufacturers thereof for sale.

21 USC 321c - Nonfat dry milk; milk defined

For the purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of June 26, 1938, (ch. 675, sec. 1, 52 Stat. 1040) [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] nonfat dry milk is the product resulting from the removal of fat and water from milk, and contains the lactose, milk proteins, and milk minerals in the same relative proportions as in the fresh milk from which made. It contains not over 5 per centum by weight of moisture. The fat content is not over 11/2 per centum by weight unless otherwise indicated. The term milk, when used herein, means sweet milk of cows.

21 USC 321d - Market names for catfish and ginseng

(a) Catfish labeling 

(1) In general 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.)
(A) the term catfish may only be considered to be a common or usual name (or part thereof) for fish classified within the family Ictaluridae; and
(B) only labeling or advertising for fish classified within that family may include the term catfish.
(2) Omitted 
(b) Ginseng labeling 

(1) In general 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.)
(A) the term ginseng may only be considered to be a common or usual name (or part thereof) for any herb or herbal ingredient derived from a plant classified within the genus Panax; and
(B) only labeling or advertising for herbs or herbal ingredients classified within that genus may include the term ginseng.
(2) Omitted 

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - PROHIBITED ACTS AND PENALTIES

21 USC 331 - Prohibited acts

The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:
(a) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.
(b) The adulteration or misbranding of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic in interstate commerce.
(c) The receipt in interstate commerce of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded, and the delivery or proffered delivery thereof for pay or otherwise.
(d) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any article in violation of section 344, 355, or 360bbb–3 of this title.
(e) The refusal to permit access to or copying of any record as required by section 350a, 350c, 350f (g), 350e, 354, 360bbb–3, 373, 374 (a), 379aa, or 379aa–1 of this title; or the failure to establish or maintain any record, or make any report, required under section 350a, 350c (b), 350f, 350e, 354, 355 (i) or (k), 360b (a)(4)(C), 360b (j), (l) or (m), 360ccc–1 (i).,[1] 360e(f), 360i, 360bbb3, 379aa, or 379aa1 of this title, or the refusal to permit access to or verification or copying of any such required record.
(f) The refusal to permit entry or inspection as authorized by section 374 of this title.
(g) The manufacture within any Territory of any food, drug, device, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded.
(h) The giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333 (c)(2) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false, except by a person who relied upon a guaranty or undertaking to the same effect signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the food, drug, device, or cosmetic; or the giving of a guaranty or undertaking referred to in section 333 (c)(3) of this title, which guaranty or undertaking is false.
(i) 
(1) Forging, counterfeiting, simulating, or falsely representing, or without proper authority using any mark, stamp, tag, label, or other identification device authorized or required by regulations promulgated under the provisions of section 344 or 379e of this title.
(2) Making, selling, disposing of, or keeping in possession, control, or custody, or concealing any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling thereof so as to render such drug a counterfeit drug.
(3) The doing of any act which causes a drug to be a counterfeit drug, or the sale or dispensing, or the holding for sale or dispensing, of a counterfeit drug.
(j) The using by any person to his own advantage, or revealing, other than to the Secretary or officers or employees of the Department, or to the courts when relevant in any judicial proceeding under this chapter, any information acquired under authority of section 344, 348, 350a, 350c, 355, 360, 360b, 360c, 360d, 360e, 360f, 360h, 360i, 360j, 360ccc, 360ccc–1, 360ccc–2.,[1] 374, 379, or 379e of this title concerning any method or process which as a trade secret is entitled to protection; or the violating of section 346a (i)(2) of this title or any regulation issued under that section..[1] This paragraph does not authorize the withholding of information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.
(k) The alteration, mutilation, destruction, obliteration, or removal of the whole or any part of the labeling of, or the doing of any other act with respect to, a food, drug, device, or cosmetic, if such act is done while such article is held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce and results in such article being adulterated or misbranded.
(l) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title IV, § 421, Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2380.
(m) The sale or offering for sale of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine, or the possession or serving of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine in violation of subsections (b) or (c) of section 347 of this title.
(n) The using, in labeling, advertising or other sales promotion of any reference to any report or analysis furnished in compliance with section 374 of this title.
(o) In the case of a prescription drug distributed or offered for sale in interstate commerce, the failure of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof to maintain for transmittal, or to transmit, to any practitioner licensed by applicable State law to administer such drug who makes written request for information as to such drug, true and correct copies of all printed matter which is required to be included in any package in which that drug is distributed or sold, or such other printed matter as is approved by the Secretary. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to exempt any person from any labeling requirement imposed by or under other provisions of this chapter.
(p) The failure to register in accordance with section 360 of this title, the failure to provide any information required by section 360 (j) or 360 (k) of this title, or the failure to provide a notice required by section 360 (j)(2) of this title.
(q) 
(1) The failure or refusal to
(A)  comply with any requirement prescribed under section 360h or 360j (g) of this title,
(B)  furnish any notification or other material or information required by or under section 360i or 360j (g) of this title, or
(C)  comply with a requirement under section 360l of this title.
(2) With respect to any device, the submission of any report that is required by or under this chapter that is false or misleading in any material respect.
(r) The movement of a device in violation of an order under section 334 (g) of this title or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the device as detained.
(s) The failure to provide the notice required by section 350a (c) or 350a (e) of this title, the failure to make the reports required by section 350a (f)(1)(B) of this title, the failure to retain the records required by section 350a (b)(4) of this title, or the failure to meet the requirements prescribed under section 350a (f)(3) of this title.
(t) The importation of a drug in violation of section 381 (d)(1) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample in violation of section 353 (c) of this title, the sale, purchase, or trade of a coupon, the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or the counterfeiting of such a coupon in violation of section 353 (c)(2) of this title, the distribution of a drug sample in violation of section 353 (d) of this title or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353 (d) of this title, or the distribution of drugs in violation of section 353 (e) of this title or the failure to otherwise comply with the requirements of section 353 (e) of this title.
(u) The failure to comply with any requirements of the provisions of, or any regulations or orders of the Secretary, under section 360b (a)(4)(A), 360b (a)(4)(D), or 360b (a)(5) of this title.
(v) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of a dietary supplement that is unsafe under section 350b of this title.
(w) The making of a knowingly false statement in any statement, certificate of analysis, record, or report required or requested under section 381 (d)(3) of this title; the failure to submit a certificate of analysis as required under such section; the failure to maintain records or to submit records or reports as required by such section; the release into interstate commerce of any article or portion thereof imported into the United States under such section or any finished product made from such article or portion, except for export in accordance with section 381 (e) or 382 of this title, or with section 262 (h) of title 42; or the failure to so export or to destroy such an article or portions thereof, or such a finished product.
(x) The falsification of a declaration of conformity submitted under section 360d (c) of this title or the failure or refusal to provide data or information requested by the Secretary under paragraph (3) of such section.
(y) In the case of a drug, device, or food
(1) the submission of a report or recommendation by a person accredited under section 360m of this title that is false or misleading in any material respect;
(2) the disclosure by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of confidential commercial information or any trade secret without the express written consent of the person who submitted such information or secret to such person; or
(3) the receipt by a person accredited under section 360m of this title of a bribe in any form or the doing of any corrupt act by such person associated with a responsibility delegated to such person under this chapter.
(z) Omitted.
(aa) The importation of a prescription drug in violation of section 384 of this title, the falsification of any record required to be maintained or provided to the Secretary under such section, or any other violation of regulations under such section.
(bb) The transfer of an article of food in violation of an order under section 334 (h) of this title, or the removal or alteration of any mark or label required by the order to identify the article as detained.
(cc) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food by, with the assistance of, or at the direction of, a person debarred under section 335a (b)(3) of this title.
(dd) The failure to register in accordance with section 350d of this title.
(ee) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of the requirements under section 381 (m) of this title.
(ff) The importing or offering for import into the United States of a drug or device with respect to which there is a failure to comply with a request of the Secretary to submit to the Secretary a statement under section 381 (o) of this title.
(gg) The knowing failure to comply with paragraph (7)(E) of section 374 (g) of this title; the knowing inclusion by a person accredited under paragraph (2) of such section of false information in an inspection report under paragraph (7)(A) of such section; or the knowing failure of such a person to include material facts in such a report.
(hh) The failure by a shipper, carrier by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receiver, or any other person engaged in the transportation of food to comply with the sanitary transportation practices prescribed by the Secretary under section 350e of this title.
(ii) The falsification of a report of a serious adverse event submitted to a responsible person (as defined under section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) or the falsification of a serious adverse event report (as defined under section 379aa or 379aa–1 of this title) submitted to the Secretary.
(jj) 
(1) The failure to submit the certification required by section 282 (j)(5)(B) of title 42, or knowingly submitting a false certification under such section.
(2) The failure to submit clinical trial information required under subsection (j) of section 282 of title 42.
(3) The submission of clinical trial information under subsection (j) of section 282 of title 42 that is false or misleading in any particular under paragraph (5)(D) of such subsection (j).
(kk) The dissemination of a television advertisement without complying with section 353b of this title.
(ll) The introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any food to which has been added a drug approved under section 355 of this title, a biological product licensed under section 262 of title 42, or a drug or a biological product for which substantial clinical investigations have been instituted and for which the existence of such investigations has been made public, unless
(1) such drug or such biological product was marketed in food before any approval of the drug under section 355 of this title, before licensure of the biological product under such section 262 of title 42, and before any substantial clinical investigations involving the drug or the biological product have been instituted;
(2) the Secretary, in the Secretarys discretion, has issued a regulation, after notice and comment, approving the use of such drug or such biological product in the food;
(3) the use of the drug or the biological product in the food is to enhance the safety of the food to which the drug or the biological product is added or applied and not to have independent biological or therapeutic effects on humans, and the use is in conformity with
(A) a regulation issued under section 348 of this title prescribing conditions of safe use in food;
(B) a regulation listing or affirming conditions under which the use of the drug or the biological product in food is generally recognized as safe;
(C) the conditions of use identified in a notification to the Secretary of a claim of exemption from the premarket approval requirements for food additives based on the notifiers determination that the use of the drug or the biological product in food is generally recognized as safe, provided that the Secretary has not questioned the general recognition of safety determination in a letter to the notifier;
(D) a food contact substance notification that is effective under section 348 (h) of this title; or
(E) such drug or biological product had been marketed for smoking cessation prior to September 27, 2007; or
(4) the drug is a new animal drug whose use is not unsafe under section 360b of this title.
(mm) The failure to submit a report or provide a notification required under section 350f (d) of this title.
(nn) The falsification of a report or notification required under section 350f (d) of this title.
[1] So in original.

21 USC 332 - Injunction proceedings

(a) Jurisdiction of courts 
The district courts of the United States and the United States courts of the Territories shall have jurisdiction, for cause shown[1] to restrain violations of section 331 of this title, except paragraphs (h), (i), and (j).
(b) Violation of injunction 
In case of violation of an injunction or restraining order issued under this section, which also constitutes a violation of this chapter, trial shall be by the court, or, upon demand of the accused, by a jury.
[1] So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

21 USC 333 - Penalties

(a) Violation of section 331 of this title; second violation; intent to defraud or mislead 

(1) Any person who violates a provision of section 331 of this title shall be imprisoned for not more than one year or fined not more than $1,000, or both.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this section,[1] if any person commits such a violation after a conviction of him under this section has become final, or commits such a violation with the intent to defraud or mislead, such person shall be imprisoned for not more than three years or fined not more than $10,000, or both.
(b) Prescription drug marketing violations 

(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, any person who violates section 331 (t) of this title by
(A) knowingly importing a drug in violation of section 381 (d)(1) of this title,
(B) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a drug or drug sample or knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade a drug or drug sample, in violation of section 353 (c)(1) of this title,
(C) knowingly selling, purchasing, or trading a coupon, knowingly offering to sell, purchase, or trade such a coupon, or knowingly counterfeiting such a coupon, in violation of section 353 (c)(2) of this title, or
(D) knowingly distributing drugs in violation of section 353 (e)(2)(A) of this title,

shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.

(2) Any manufacturer or distributor who distributes drug samples by means other than the mail or common carrier whose representative, during the course of the representatives employment or association with that manufacturer or distributor, violated section 331 (t) of this title because of a violation of section 353 (c)(1) of this title or violated any State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample subject to section 353 (b) of this title or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade such a drug sample shall, upon conviction of the representative for such violation, be subject to the following civil penalties:
(A) A civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each of the first two such violations resulting in a conviction of any representative of the manufacturer or distributor in any 10-year period.
(B) A civil penalty of not more than $1,000,000 for each violation resulting in a conviction of any representative after the second conviction in any 10-year period.

For the purposes of this paragraph, multiple convictions of one or more persons arising out of the same event or transaction, or a related series of events or transactions, shall be considered as one violation.

(3) Any manufacturer or distributor who violates section 331 (t) of this title because of a failure to make a report required by section 353 (d)(3)(E) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $100,000.
(4) 
(A) If a manufacturer or distributor or any representative of such manufacturer or distributor provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, any representative of that manufacturer or distributor for a violation of section 331 (t) of this title because of a sale, purchase, or trade or offer to purchase, sell, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353 (c)(1) of this title or for a violation of State law prohibiting the sale, purchase, or trade or offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample, the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a violation for purposes of paragraph (2).
(B) If, in an action brought under paragraph (2) against a manufacturer or distributor relating to the conviction of a representative of such manufacturer or distributor for the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug, it is shown, by clear and convincing evidence
(i) that the manufacturer or distributor conducted, before the institution of a criminal proceeding against such representative for the violation which resulted in such conviction, an investigation of events or transactions which would have led to the reporting of information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, such representative for such purchase, sale, or trade or offer to purchase, sell, or trade, or
(ii) that, except in the case of the conviction of a representative employed in a supervisory function, despite diligent implementation by the manufacturer or distributor of an independent audit and security system designed to detect such a violation, the manufacturer or distributor could not reasonably have been expected to have detected such violation,

the conviction of such representative shall not be considered as a conviction for purposes of paragraph (2).

(5) If a person provides information leading to the institution of a criminal proceeding against, and conviction of, a person for a violation of section 331 (t) of this title because of the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample in violation of section 353 (c)(1) of this title, such person shall be entitled to one-half of the criminal fine imposed and collected for such violation but not more than $125,000.
(6) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, any person who is a manufacturer or importer of a prescription drug under section 384 (b) of this title and knowingly fails to comply with a requirement of section 384 (e) of this title that is applicable to such manufacturer or importer, respectively, shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years or fined not more than $250,000, or both.
(c) Exceptions in certain cases of good faith, etc. 
No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section,
(1)  for having received in interstate commerce any article and delivered it or proffered delivery of it, if such delivery or proffer was made in good faith, unless he refuses to furnish on request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary the name and address of the person from whom he purchased or received such article and copies of all documents, if any there be, pertaining to the delivery of the article to him; or
(2)  for having violated section 331 (a) or (d) of this title, if he establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the person residing in the United States from whom he received in good faith the article, to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331 (a) of this title, that such article is not adulterated or misbranded, within the meaning of this chapter designating this chapter or to the effect, in case of an alleged violation of section 331 (d) of this title, that such article is not an article which may not, under the provisions of section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce; or
(3)  for having violated section 331 (a) of this title, where the violation exists because the article is adulterated by reason of containing a color additive not from a batch certified in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter, if such person establishes a guaranty or undertaking signed by, and containing the name and address of, the manufacturer of the color additive, to the effect that such color additive was from a batch certified in accordance with the applicable regulations promulgated by the Secretary under this chapter; or
(4)  for having violated section 331 (b), (c) or (k) of this title by failure to comply with section 352 (f) of this title in respect to an article received in interstate commerce to which neither section 353 (a) nor 353(b)(1) of this title is applicable, if the delivery or proffered delivery was made in good faith and the labeling at the time thereof contained the same directions for use and warning statements as were contained in the labeling at the time of such receipt of such article; or
(5)  for having violated section 331 (i)(2) of this title if such person acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that use of the punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing involved would result in a drug being a counterfeit drug, or for having violated section 331 (i)(3) of this title if the person doing the act or causing it to be done acted in good faith and had no reason to believe that the drug was a counterfeit drug.
(d) Exceptions involving misbranded food 
No person shall be subject to the penalties of subsection (a)(1) of this section for a violation of section 331 of this title involving misbranded food if the violation exists solely because the food is misbranded under section 343 (a)(2) of this title because of its advertising.
(e) Prohibited distribution of human growth hormone 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), whoever knowingly distributes, or possesses with intent to distribute, human growth hormone for any use in humans other than the treatment of a disease or other recognized medical condition, where such use has been authorized by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under section 355 of this title and pursuant to the order of a physician, is guilty of an offense punishable by not more than 5 years in prison, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.
(2) Whoever commits any offense set forth in paragraph (1) and such offense involves an individual under 18 years of age is punishable by not more than 10 years imprisonment, such fines as are authorized by title 18, or both.
(3) Any conviction for a violation of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection shall be considered a felony violation of the Controlled Substances Act [21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.] for the purposes of forfeiture under section 413 of such Act [21 U.S.C. 853].
(4) As used in this subsection the term human growth hormone means somatrem, somatropin, or an analogue of either of them.
(5) The Drug Enforcement Administration is authorized to investigate offenses punishable by this subsection.
(f) Violations related to devices 

(1) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), any person who violates a requirement of this chapter which relates to devices shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $15,000 for each such violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person accredited under paragraph (2) of section 374 (g) of this title who is substantially not in compliance with the standards of accreditation under such section, or who poses a threat to public health or fails to act in a manner that is consistent with the purposes of such section, shall be considered to have violated a requirement of this chapter that relates to devices.
(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply
(i) to any person who violates the requirements of section 360i (a) or 360j (f) of this title unless such violation constitutes
(I)  a significant or knowing departure from such requirements, or
(II)  a risk to public health,
(ii) to any person who commits minor violations of section 360i (e) or 360i (g) of this title (only with respect to correction reports) if such person demonstrates substantial compliance with such section, or
(iii) to violations of section 351 (a)(2)(A) of this title which involve one or more devices which are not defective.
(2) 
(A) Any person who introduces into interstate commerce or delivers for introduction into interstate commerce an article of food that is adulterated within the meaning of section 342 (a)(2)(B) of this title shall be subject to a civil money penalty of not more than $50,000 in the case of an individual and $250,000 in the case of any other person for such introduction or delivery, not to exceed $500,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(B) This paragraph shall not apply to any person who grew the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the criminal authorities under this section to sanction such person for the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of the article of food that is adulterated. If the Secretary assesses a civil penalty against any person under this paragraph, the Secretary may not use the seizure authorities of section 334 of this title or the injunction authorities of section 332 of this title with respect to the article of food that is adulterated.
(C) In a hearing to assess a civil penalty under this paragraph, the presiding officer shall have the same authority with regard to compelling testimony or production of documents as a presiding officer has under section 346a (g)(2)(B) of this title. The third sentence of paragraph (5)(A) shall not apply to any investigation under this paragraph.
(3) 
(A) Any person who violates section 331 (jj) of this title shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of not more than $10,000 for all violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(B) If a violation of section 331 (jj) of this title is not corrected within the 30-day period following notification under section 282 (j)(5)(C)(ii)2 of title 42, the person shall, in addition to any penalty under subparagraph (A), be subject to a civil monetary penalty of not more than $10,000 for each day of the violation after such period until the violation is corrected.
(4) 
(A) Any responsible person (as such term is used in section 355–1 of this title) that violates a requirement of section 355 (o), 355 (p), or 355–1 of this title shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of
(i) not more than $250,000 per violation, and not to exceed $1,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding; or
(ii) in the case of a violation that continues after the Secretary provides written notice to the responsible person, the responsible person shall be subject to a civil monetary penalty of $250,000 for the first 30-day period (or any portion thereof) that the responsible person continues to be in violation, and such amount shall double for every 30-day period thereafter that the violation continues, not to exceed $1,000,000 for any 30-day period, and not to exceed $10,000,000 for all such violations adjudicated in a single proceeding.
(B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary shall take into consideration whether the responsible person is making efforts toward correcting the violation of the requirement of section 355 (o), 355 (p), or 355–1 of this title for which the responsible person is subject to such civil penalty.
(5) 
(A) A civil penalty under paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) shall be assessed by the Secretary by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing provided in accordance with this subparagraph and section 554 of title 5. Before issuing such an order, the Secretary shall give written notice to the person to be assessed a civil penalty under such order of the Secretarys proposal to issue such order and provide such person an opportunity for a hearing on the order. In the course of any investigation, the Secretary may issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.
(B) In determining the amount of a civil penalty, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations and, with respect to the violator, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, any history of prior such violations, the degree of culpability, and such other matters as justice may require.
(C) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be assessed under paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount agreed upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owing by the United States to the person charged.
(6) Any person who requested, in accordance with paragraph (5)(A), a hearing respecting the assessment of a civil penalty and who is aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty may file a petition for judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 60-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessment was issued.
(7) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty
(A) after the order making the assessment becomes final, and if such person does not file a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (6), or
(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (6) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary,

the Attorney General shall recover the amount assessed (plus interest at currently prevailing rates from the date of the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (6) or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be) in an action brought in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such penalty shall not be subject to review.

(g) Violations regarding direct-to-consumer advertising 

(1) With respect to a person who is a holder of an approved application under section 355 of this title for a drug subject to section 353 (b) of this title or under section 262 of title 42, any such person who disseminates or causes another party to disseminate a direct-to-consumer advertisement that is false or misleading shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $250,000 for the first such violation in any 3-year period, and not to exceed $500,000 for each subsequent violation in any 3-year period. No other civil monetary penalties in this chapter (including the civil penalty in subsection (f)(4)) shall apply to a violation regarding direct-to-consumer advertising. For purposes of this paragraph:
(A)  Repeated dissemination of the same or similar advertisement prior to the receipt of the written notice referred to in paragraph (2) for such advertisements shall be considered one violation.
(B)  On and after the date of the receipt of such a notice, all violations under this paragraph occurring in a single day shall be considered one violation. With respect to advertisements that appear in magazines or other publications that are published less frequently than daily, each issue date (whether weekly or monthly) shall be treated as a single day for the purpose of calculating the number of violations under this paragraph.
(2) A civil penalty under paragraph (1) shall be assessed by the Secretary by an order made on the record after providing written notice to the person to be assessed a civil penalty and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with this paragraph and section 554 of title 5. If upon receipt of the written notice, the person to be assessed a civil penalty objects and requests a hearing, then in the course of any investigation related to such hearing, the Secretary may issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation, including information pertaining to the factors described in paragraph (3).
(3) The Secretary, in determining the amount of the civil penalty under paragraph (1), shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations, including the following factors:
(A) Whether the person submitted the advertisement or a similar advertisement for review under section 379h–1 of this title.
(B) Whether the person submitted the advertisement for review if required under section 353b of this title.
(C) Whether, after submission of the advertisement as described in subparagraph (A) or (B), the person disseminated or caused another party to disseminate the advertisement before the end of the 45-day comment period.
(D) Whether the person incorporated any comments made by the Secretary with regard to the advertisement into the advertisement prior to its dissemination.
(E) Whether the person ceased distribution of the advertisement upon receipt of the written notice referred to in paragraph (2) for such advertisement.
(F) Whether the person had the advertisement reviewed by qualified medical, regulatory, and legal reviewers prior to its dissemination.
(G) Whether the violations were material.
(H) Whether the person who created the advertisement or caused the advertisement to be created acted in good faith.
(I) Whether the person who created the advertisement or caused the advertisement to be created has been assessed a civil penalty under this provision within the previous 1-year period.
(J) The scope and extent of any voluntary, subsequent remedial action by the person.
(K) Such other matters, as justice may require.
(4) 
(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), no person shall be required to pay a civil penalty under paragraph (1) if the person submitted the advertisement to the Secretary and disseminated or caused another party to disseminate such advertisement after incorporating each comment received from the Secretary.
(B) The Secretary may retract or modify any prior comments the Secretary has provided to an advertisement submitted to the Secretary based on new information or changed circumstances, so long as the Secretary provides written notice to the person of the new views of the Secretary on the advertisement and provides a reasonable time for modification or correction of the advertisement prior to seeking any civil penalty under paragraph (1).
(5) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty which may be assessed under paragraph (1). The amount of such penalty, when finally determined, or the amount charged upon in compromise, may be deducted from any sums owed by the United States to the person charged.
(6) Any person who requested, in accordance with paragraph (2), a hearing with respect to the assessment of a civil penalty and who is aggrieved by an order assessing a civil penalty, may file a petition for de novo judicial review of such order with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or for any other circuit in which such person resides or transacts business. Such a petition may only be filed within the 60-day period beginning on the date the order making such assessments was issued.
(7) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty under paragraph (1)
(A) after the order making the assessment becomes final, and if such person does not file a petition for judicial review of the order in accordance with paragraph (6), or
(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (6) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Secretary,

the Attorney General of the United States shall recover the amount assessed (plus interest at currently prevailing rates from the date of the expiration of the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (6) or the date of such final judgment, as the case may be) in an action brought in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such penalty shall not be subject to review.

[1] So in original. Words “of this section” probably should not appear.
[2] See References in Text note below.

21 USC 333a - Repealed. Pub. L. 101647, title XIX, 1905, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4853

Section, Pub. L. 100–690, title II, § 2401, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4230, related to forfeiture and illegal trafficking in steroids or human growth hormones.

21 USC 334 - Seizure

(a) Grounds and jurisdiction 

(1) Any article of food, drug, or cosmetic that is adulterated or misbranded when introduced into or while in interstate commerce or while held for sale (whether or not the first sale) after shipment in interstate commerce, or which may not, under the provisions of section 331 (ll), 344, or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce, shall be liable to be proceeded against while in interstate commerce, or at any time thereafter, on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which the article is found. No libel for condemnation shall be instituted under this chapter, for any alleged misbranding if there is pending in any court a libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter based upon the same alleged misbranding, and not more than one such proceeding shall be instituted if no such proceeding is so pending, except that such limitations shall not apply
(A)  when such misbranding has been the basis of a prior judgment in favor of the United States, in a criminal, injunction, or libel for condemnation proceeding under this chapter, or
(B)  when the Secretary has probable cause to believe from facts found, without hearing, by him or any officer or employee of the Department that the misbranded article is dangerous to health, or that the labeling of the misbranded article is fraudulent, or would be in a material respect misleading to the injury or damage of the purchaser or consumer. In any case where the number of libel for condemnation proceedings is limited as above provided the proceeding pending or instituted shall, on application of the claimant, seasonably made, be removed for trial to any district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties, or, in case of failure to so stipulate within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of the district in which the seizure has been made, and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimants principal place of business, to which the case shall be removed for trial.
(2) The following shall be liable to be proceeded against at any time on libel of information and condemned in any district court of the United States or United States court of a Territory within the jurisdiction of which they are found:
(A)  Any drug that is a counterfeit drug,
(B)  Any container of a counterfeit drug,
(C)  Any punch, die, plate, stone, labeling, container, or other thing used or designed for use in making a counterfeit drug or drugs, and
(D)  Any adulterated or misbranded device.
(3) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), no libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against any food which
(i) is misbranded under section 343 (a)(2) of this title because of its advertising, and
(ii) is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer in an establishment other than an establishment owned or operated by a manufacturer, packer, or distributor of the food.
(B) A libel for condemnation may be instituted under paragraph (1) or (2) against a food described in subparagraph (A) if
(i) 
(I) the foods advertising which resulted in the food being misbranded under section 343 (a)(2) of this title was disseminated in the establishment in which the food is being held for sale to the ultimate consumer,
(II) such advertising was disseminated by, or under the direction of, the owner or operator of such establishment, or
(III) all or part of the cost of such advertising was paid by such owner or operator; and
(ii) the owner or operator of such establishment used such advertising in the establishment to promote the sale of the food.
(b) Procedure; multiplicity of pending proceedings 
The article, equipment, or other thing proceeded against shall be liable to seizure by process pursuant to the libel, and the procedure in cases under this section shall conform, as nearly as may be, to the procedure in admiralty; except that on demand of either party any issue of fact joined in any such case shall be tried by jury. When libel for condemnation proceedings under this section, involving the same claimant and the same issues of adulteration or misbranding, are pending in two or more jurisdictions, such pending proceedings, upon application of the claimant seasonably made to the court of one such jurisdiction, shall be consolidated for trial by order of such court, and tried in
(1)  any district selected by the claimant where one of such proceedings is pending; or
(2)  a district agreed upon by stipulation between the parties. If no order for consolidation is so made within a reasonable time, the claimant may apply to the court of one such jurisdiction and such court (after giving the United States attorney for such district reasonable notice and opportunity to be heard) shall by order, unless good cause to the contrary is shown, specify a district of reasonable proximity to the claimants principal place of business, in which all such pending proceedings shall be consolidated for trial and tried. Such order of consolidation shall not apply so as to require the removal of any case the date for trial of which has been fixed. The court granting such order shall give prompt notification thereof to the other courts having jurisdiction of the cases covered thereby.
(c) Availability of samples of seized goods prior to trial 
The court at any time after seizure up to a reasonable time before trial shall by order allow any party to a condemnation proceeding, his attorney or agent, to obtain a representative sample of the article seized and a true copy of the analysis, if any, on which the proceeding is based and the identifying marks or numbers, if any, of the packages from which the samples analyzed were obtained.
(d) Disposition of goods after decree of condemnation; claims for remission or mitigation of forfeitures 

(1) Any food, drug, device, or cosmetic condemned under this section shall, after entry of the decree, be disposed of by destruction or sale as the court may, in accordance with the provisions of this section, direct and the proceeds thereof, if sold, less the legal costs and charges, shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States; but such article shall not be sold under such decree contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of the jurisdiction in which sold. After entry of the decree and upon the payment of the costs of such proceedings and the execution of a good and sufficient bond conditioned that such article shall not be sold or disposed of contrary to the provisions of this chapter or the laws of any State or Territory in which sold, the court may by order direct that such article be delivered to the owner thereof to be destroyed or brought into compliance with the provisions of this chapter, under the supervision of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, and the expenses of such supervision shall be paid by the person obtaining release of the article under bond. If the article was imported into the United States and the person seeking its release establishes
(A)  that the adulteration, misbranding, or violation did not occur after the article was imported, and
(B)  that he had no cause for believing that it was adulterated, misbranded, or in violation before it was released from customs custody, the court may permit the article to be delivered to the owner for exportation in lieu of destruction upon a showing by the owner that all of the conditions of section 381 (e) of this title can and will be met. The provisions of this sentence shall not apply where condemnation is based upon violation of section 342 (a)(1), (2), or (6), section 351(a)(3), section 352 (j), or section 361 (a) or (d) of this title. Where such exportation is made to the original foreign supplier, then subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 381 (e)(1) of this title and the preceding sentence shall not be applicable; and in all cases of exportation the bond shall be conditioned that the article shall not be sold or disposed of until the applicable conditions of section 381 (e) of this title have been met. Any person seeking to export an imported article pursuant to any of the provisions of this subsection shall establish that the article was intended for export at the time the article entered commerce. Any article condemned by reason of its being an article which may not, under section 344 or 355 of this title, be introduced into interstate commerce, shall be disposed of by destruction.
(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall, to the extent deemed appropriate by the court, apply to any equipment or other thing which is not otherwise within the scope of such paragraph and which is referred to in paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section.
(3) Whenever in any proceeding under this section, involving paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this section, the condemnation of any equipment or thing (other than a drug) is decreed, the court shall allow the claim of any claimant, to the extent of such claimants interest, for remission or mitigation of such forfeiture if such claimant proves to the satisfaction of the court
(i)  that he has not committed or caused to be committed any prohibited act referred to in such paragraph (2) and has no interest in any drug referred to therein,
(ii)  that he has an interest in such equipment or other thing as owner or lienor or otherwise, acquired by him in good faith, and
(iii)  that he at no time had any knowledge or reason to believe that such equipment or other thing was being or would be used in, or to facilitate, the violation of laws of the United States relating to counterfeit drugs.
(e) Costs 
When a decree of condemnation is entered against the article, court costs and fees, and storage and other proper expenses, shall be awarded against the person, if any, intervening as claimant of the article.
(f) Removal of case for trial 
In the case of removal for trial of any case as provided by subsection (a) or (b) of this section
(1) The clerk of the court from which removal is made shall promptly transmit to the court in which the case is to be tried all records in the case necessary in order that such court may exercise jurisdiction.
(2) The court to which such case was removed shall have the powers and be subject to the duties, for purposes of such case, which the court from which removal was made would have had, or to which such court would have been subject, if such case had not been removed.
(g) Administrative restraint; detention orders 

(1) If during an inspection conducted under section 374 of this title of a facility or a vehicle, a device which the officer or employee making the inspection has reason to believe is adulterated or misbranded is found in such facility or vehicle, such officer or employee may order the device detained (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) for a reasonable period which may not exceed twenty days unless the Secretary determines that a period of detention greater than twenty days is required to institute an action under subsection (a) of this section or section 332 of this title, in which case he may authorize a detention period of not to exceed thirty days. Regulations of the Secretary prescribed under this paragraph shall require that before a device may be ordered detained under this paragraph the Secretary or an officer or employee designated by the Secretary approve such order. A detention order under this paragraph may require the labeling or marking of a device during the period of its detention for the purpose of identifying the device as detained. Any person who would be entitled to claim a device if it were seized under subsection (a) of this section may appeal to the Secretary a detention of such device under this paragraph. Within five days of the date an appeal of a detention is filed with the Secretary, the Secretary shall after affording opportunity for an informal hearing by order confirm the detention or revoke it.
(2) 
(A) Except as authorized by subparagraph (B), a device subject to a detention order issued under paragraph (1) shall not be moved by any person from the place at which it is ordered detained until
(i) released by the Secretary, or
(ii) the expiration of the detention period applicable to such order,

whichever occurs first.

(B) A device subject to a detention order under paragraph (1) may be moved
(i) in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and
(ii) if not in final form for shipment, at the discretion of the manufacturer of the device for the purpose of completing the work required to put it in such form.
(h) Administrative detention of foods 

(1) Detention authority 

(A) In general 
An officer or qualified employee of the Food and Drug Administration may order the detention, in accordance with this subsection, of any article of food that is found during an inspection, examination, or investigation under this chapter conducted by such officer or qualified employee, if the officer or qualified employee has credible evidence or information indicating that such article presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.
(B) Secretary’s approval 
An article of food may be ordered detained under subparagraph (A) only if the Secretary or an official designated by the Secretary approves the order. An official may not be so designated unless the official is the director of the district under this chapter in which the article involved is located, or is an official senior to such director.
(2) Period of detention 
An article of food may be detained under paragraph (1) for a reasonable period, not to exceed 20 days, unless a greater period, not to exceed 30 days, is necessary, to enable the Secretary to institute an action under subsection (a) of this section or section 332 of this title. The Secretary shall by regulation provide for procedures for instituting such action on an expedited basis with respect to perishable foods.
(3) Security of detained article 
An order under paragraph (1) with respect to an article of food may require that such article be labeled or marked as detained, and shall require that the article be removed to a secure facility, as appropriate. An article subject to such an order shall not be transferred by any person from the place at which the article is ordered detained, or from the place to which the article is so removed, as the case may be, until released by the Secretary or until the expiration of the detention period applicable under such order, whichever occurs first. This subsection may not be construed as authorizing the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order, and section 381 (b) of this title does not authorize the delivery of the article pursuant to the execution of a bond while the article is subject to the order.
(4) Appeal of detention order 

(A) In general 
With respect to an article of food ordered detained under paragraph (1), any person who would be entitled to be a claimant for such article if the article were seized under subsection (a) of this section may appeal the order to the Secretary. Within five days after such an appeal is filed, the Secretary, after providing opportunity for an informal hearing, shall confirm or terminate the order involved, and such confirmation by the Secretary shall be considered a final agency action for purposes of section 702 of title 5. If during such five-day period the Secretary fails to provide such an opportunity, or to confirm or terminate such order, the order is deemed to be terminated.
(B) Effect of instituting court action 
The process under subparagraph (A) for the appeal of an order under paragraph (1) terminates if the Secretary institutes an action under subsection (a) of this section or section 332 of this title regarding the article of food involved.

21 USC 335 - Hearing before report of criminal violation

Before any violation of this chapter is reported by the Secretary to any United States attorney for institution of a criminal proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding is contemplated shall be given appropriate notice and an opportunity to present his views, either orally or in writing, with regard to such contemplated proceeding.

21 USC 335a - Debarment, temporary denial of approval, and suspension

(a) Mandatory debarment; certain drug applications 

(1) Corporations, partnerships, and associations 
If the Secretary finds that a person other than an individual has been convicted, after May 13, 1992, of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application, the Secretary shall debar such person from submitting, or assisting in the submission of, any such application.
(2) Individuals 
If the Secretary finds that an individual has been convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct
(A) relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product, or
(B) otherwise relating to the regulation of any drug product under this chapter,

the Secretary shall debar such individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application.

(b) Permissive debarment; certain drug applications; food imports 

(1) In general 
The Secretary, on the Secretarys own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (2), debar
(A) a person other than an individual from submitting or assisting in the submission of any abbreviated drug application,
(B) an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application, or
(C) a person from importing an article of food or offering such an article for import into the United States.
(2) Persons subject to permissive debarment; certain drug applications 
The following persons are subject to debarment under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1):
(A) Corporations, partnerships, and associations 
Any person other than an individual that the Secretary finds has been convicted
(i) for conduct that
(I) relates to the development or approval, including the process for the development or approval, of any abbreviated drug application; and
(II) is a felony under Federal law (if the person was convicted before May 13, 1992), a misdemeanor under Federal law, or a felony under State law, or
(ii) of a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, a criminal offense described in clause (i) or a felony described in subsection (a)(1) of this section,

if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(B) Individuals 

(i) Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of
(I) a misdemeanor under Federal law or a felony under State law for conduct relating to the development or approval, including the process for development or approval, of any drug product or otherwise relating to the regulation of drug products under this chapter, or
(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such criminal offense or a felony described in subsection (a)(2) of this section,

if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(ii) Any individual whom the Secretary finds has been convicted of
(I) a felony which is not described in subsection (a)(2) of this section or clause (i) of this subparagraph and which involves bribery, payment of illegal gratuities, fraud, perjury, false statement, racketeering, blackmail, extortion, falsification or destruction of records, or interference with, obstruction of an investigation into, or prosecution of, any criminal offense, or
(II) a conspiracy to commit, or aiding or abetting, such felony,

if the Secretary finds, on the basis of the conviction of such individual and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.

(iii) Any individual whom the Secretary finds materially participated in acts that were the basis for a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) of this section or in clause (i) or (ii) for which a conviction was obtained, if the Secretary finds, on the basis of such participation and other information, that such individual has demonstrated a pattern of conduct sufficient to find that there is reason to believe that such individual may violate requirements under this chapter relating to drug products.
(iv) Any high managerial agent whom the Secretary finds
(I) worked for, or worked as a consultant for, the same person as another individual during the period in which such other individual took actions for which a felony conviction was obtained and which resulted in the debarment under subsection (a)(2) of this section, or clause (i), of such other individual,
(II) had actual knowledge of the actions described in subclause (I) of such other individual, or took action to avoid such actual knowledge, or failed to take action for the purpose of avoiding such actual knowledge,
(III) knew that the actions described in subclause (I) were violative of law, and
(IV) did not report such actions, or did not cause such actions to be reported, to an officer, employee, or agent of the Department or to an appropriate law enforcement officer, or failed to take other appropriate action that would have ensured that the process for the regulation of drugs was not undermined, within a reasonable time after such agent first knew of such actions,

if the Secretary finds that the type of conduct which served as the basis for such other individuals conviction undermines the process for the regulation of drugs.

(3) Persons subject to permissive debarment; food importation 
A person is subject to debarment under paragraph (1)(C) if
(A) the person has been convicted of a felony for conduct relating to the importation into the United States of any food; or
(B) the person has engaged in a pattern of importing or offering for import adulterated food that presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.
(4) Stay of certain orders 
An order of the Secretary under clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (2)(B) shall not take effect until 30 days after the order has been issued.
(c) Debarment period and considerations 

(1) Effect of debarment 
The Secretary
(A) shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) any abbreviated drug application submitted by or with the assistance of a person debarred under subsection (a)(1) or (b)(2)(A) of this section during the period such person is debarred,
(B) shall, during the period of a debarment under subsection (a)(2) or (b)(2)(B) of this section, debar an individual from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and shall not accept or review (other than in connection with an audit under this section) an abbreviated drug application from such individual, and
(C) shall, if the Secretary makes the finding described in paragraph (6) or (7) of section 335b (a) of this title, assess a civil penalty in accordance with section 335b of this title.
(2) Debarment periods 

(A) In general 
The Secretary shall debar a person under subsection (a) or (b) of this section for the following periods:
(i) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) under subsection (a)(1) of this section shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under subsection (a) of this section occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, the period of debarment shall be permanent.
(ii) The debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) of this section shall be permanent.
(iii) The period of debarment of any person under paragraph (2) or (3) of subsection (b) of this section shall not be more than 5 years.

The Secretary may determine whether debarment periods shall run concurrently or consecutively in the case of a person debarred for multiple offenses.

(B) Notification 
Upon a conviction for an offense described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section or upon execution of an agreement with the United States to plead guilty to such an offense, the person involved may notify the Secretary that the person acquiesces to debarment and such persons debarment shall commence upon such notification.
(3) Considerations 
In determining the appropriateness and the period of a debarment of a person under subsection (b) of this section and any period of debarment beyond the minimum specified in subparagraph (A)(i) of paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider where applicable
(A) the nature and seriousness of any offense involved,
(B) the nature and extent of management participation in any offense involved, whether corporate policies and practices encouraged the offense, including whether inadequate institutional controls contributed to the offense,
(C) the nature and extent of voluntary steps to mitigate the impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall or the discontinuation of the distribution of suspect drugs, full cooperation with any investigations (including the extent of disclosure to appropriate authorities of all wrongdoing), the relinquishing of profits on drug approvals fraudulently obtained, and any other actions taken to substantially limit potential or actual adverse effects on the public health,
(D) whether the extent to which changes in ownership, management, or operations have corrected the causes of any offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future,
(E) whether the person to be debarred is able to present adequate evidence that current production of drugs subject to abbreviated drug applications and all pending abbreviated drug applications are free of fraud or material false statements, and
(F) prior convictions under this chapter or under other Acts involving matters within the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.
(d) Termination of debarment 

(1) Application 
Any person that is debarred under subsection (a) of this section (other than a person permanently debarred) or any person that is debarred under subsection (b) of this section may apply to the Secretary for termination of the debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this paragraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.
(2) Deadline 
The Secretary shall grant or deny any application respecting a debarment which is submitted under paragraph (1) within 180 days of the date the application is submitted.
(3) Action by the Secretary 

(A) Corporations 

(i) Conviction reversal If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of a person under subsection (a)(1) of this section or paragraph (2)(A) or (3) of subsection (b) of this section is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.
(ii) Application Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of a person if the Secretary finds that
(I) changes in ownership, management, or operations have fully corrected the causes of the offense involved and provide reasonable assurances that the offense will not occur in the future, and
(II) in applicable cases, sufficient audits, conducted by the Food and Drug Administration or by independent experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, demonstrate that pending applications and the development of drugs being tested before the submission of an application are free of fraud or material false statements.

In the case of persons debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, such termination shall take effect no earlier than the expiration of one year from the date of the debarment.

(B) Individuals 

(i) Conviction reversal If the conviction which served as the basis for the debarment of an individual under subsection (a)(2) of this section or clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) of this section is reversed, the Secretary shall withdraw the order of debarment.
(ii) Application Upon application submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall terminate the debarment of an individual who has been debarred under subsection (b)(2)(B) or subsection (b)(3) of this section if such termination serves the interests of justice and adequately protects the integrity of the drug approval process or the food importation process, as the case may be.
(4) Special termination 

(A) Application 
Any person that is debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section (other than a person permanently debarred under subsection (c)(2)(A)(i) of this section) or any individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2) of this section may apply to the Secretary for special termination of debarment under this subsection. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subparagraph does not constitute an amendment or supplement to pending or approved abbreviated drug applications.
(B) Corporations 
Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that
(i) the person making the application under subparagraph (A) has demonstrated that the felony conviction which was the basis for such persons debarment involved the commission of an offense which was not authorized, requested, commanded, performed, or recklessly tolerated by the board of directors or by a high managerial agent acting on behalf of the person within the scope of the boards or agents office or employment,
(ii) all individuals who were involved in the commission of the offense or who knew or should have known of the offense have been removed from employment involving the development or approval of any drug subject to sections[1] 355 of this title,
(iii) the person fully cooperated with all investigations and promptly disclosed all wrongdoing to the appropriate authorities, and
(iv) the person acted to mitigate any impact on the public of any offense involved, including the recall, or the discontinuation of the distribution, of any drug with respect to which the Secretary requested a recall or discontinuation of distribution due to concerns about the safety or efficacy of the drug.
(C) Individuals 
Upon an application submitted under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may take the action described in subparagraph (D) if the Secretary, after an informal hearing, finds that such individual has provided substantial assistance in the investigations or prosecutions of offenses which are described in subsection (a) or (b) of this section or which relate to any matter under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration.
(D) Secretarial action 
The action referred to in subparagraphs (B) and (C) is
(i) in the case of a person other than an individual
(I) terminating the debarment immediately, or
(II) limiting the period of debarment to less than one year, and
(ii) in the case of an individual, limiting the period of debarment to less than permanent but to no less than 1 year,

whichever best serves the interest of justice and protects the integrity of the drug approval process.

(e) Publication and list of debarred persons 
The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the name of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, the effective date of the debarment, and the period of the debarment. The Secretary shall also maintain and make available to the public a list, updated no less often than quarterly, of such persons, of the effective dates and minimum periods of such debarments, and of the termination of debarments.
(f) Temporary denial of approval 

(1) In general 
The Secretary, on the Secretarys own initiative or in response to a petition, may, in accordance with paragraph (3), refuse by order, for the period prescribed by paragraph (2), to approve any abbreviated drug application submitted by any person
(A) if such person is under an active Federal criminal investigation in connection with an action described in subparagraph (B),
(B) if the Secretary finds that such person
(i) has bribed or attempted to bribe, has paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity, or has induced or attempted to induce another person to bribe or pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services or to any other Federal, State, or local official in connection with any abbreviated drug application, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, or
(ii) has knowingly made or caused to be made a pattern or practice of false statements or misrepresentations with respect to material facts relating to any abbreviated drug application, or the production of any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, or has conspired to commit, or aided or abetted, such actions, and
(C) if a significant question has been raised regarding
(i) the integrity of the approval process with respect to such abbreviated drug application, or
(ii) the reliability of data in or concerning such persons abbreviated drug application.

Such an order may be modified or terminated at any time.

(2) Applicable period 

(A) In general 
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a denial of approval of an application of a person under paragraph (1) shall be in effect for a period determined by the Secretary but not to exceed 18 months beginning on the date the Secretary finds that the conditions described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1) exist. The Secretary shall terminate such denial
(i) if the investigation with respect to which the finding was made does not result in a criminal charge against such person, if criminal charges have been brought and the charges have been dismissed, or if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or
(ii) if the Secretary determines that such finding was in error.
(B) Extension 
If, at the end of the period described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary determines that a person has been criminally charged for an action described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), the Secretary may extend the period of denial of approval of an application for a period not to exceed 18 months. The Secretary shall terminate such extension if the charges have been dismissed, if a judgment of acquittal has been entered, or if the Secretary determines that the finding described in subparagraph (A) was in error.
(3) Informal hearing 
Within 10 days of the date an order is issued under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide such person with an opportunity for an informal hearing, to be held within such 10 days, on the decision of the Secretary to refuse approval of an abbreviated drug application. Within 60 days of the date on which such hearing is held, the Secretary shall notify the person given such hearing whether the Secretarys refusal of approval will be continued, terminated, or otherwise modified. Such notification shall be final agency action.
(g) Suspension authority 

(1) In general 
If
(A) the Secretary finds
(i) that a person has engaged in conduct described in subparagraph (B) of subsection (f)(1) of this section in connection with 2 or more drugs under abbreviated drug applications, or
(ii) that a person has engaged in flagrant and repeated, material violations of good manufacturing practice or good laboratory practice in connection with the development, manufacturing, or distribution of one or more drugs approved under an abbreviated drug application during a 2-year period, and
(I) such violations may undermine the safety and efficacy of such drugs, and
(II) the causes of such violations have not been corrected within a reasonable period of time following notice of such violations by the Secretary, and
(B) such person is under an active investigation by a Federal authority in connection with a civil or criminal action involving conduct described in subparagraph (A),

the Secretary shall issue an order suspending the distribution of all drugs the development or approval of which was related to such conduct described in subparagraph (A) or suspending the distribution of all drugs approved under abbreviated drug applications of such person if the Secretary finds that such conduct may have affected the development or approval of a significant number of drugs which the Secretary is unable to identify. The Secretary shall exclude a drug from such order if the Secretary determines that such conduct was not likely to have influenced the safety or efficacy of such drug.

(2) Public health waiver 
The Secretary shall, on the Secretarys own initiative or in response to a petition, waive the suspension under paragraph (1) (involving an action described in paragraph (1)(A)(i)) with respect to any drug if the Secretary finds that such waiver is necessary to protect the public health because sufficient quantities of the drug would not otherwise be available. The Secretary shall act on any petition seeking action under this paragraph within 180 days of the date the petition is submitted to the Secretary.
(h) Termination of suspension 
The Secretary shall withdraw an order of suspension of the distribution of a drug under subsection (g) of this section if the person with respect to whom the order was issued demonstrates in a petition to the Secretary
(1) 
(A) on the basis of an audit by the Food and Drug Administration or by experts acceptable to the Food and Drug Administration, or on the basis of other information, that the development, approval, manufacturing, and distribution of such drug is in substantial compliance with the applicable requirements of this chapter, and
(B) changes in ownership, management, or operations
(i) fully remedy the patterns or practices with respect to which the order was issued, and
(ii) provide reasonable assurances that such actions will not occur in the future, or
(2) the initial determination was in error.

The Secretary shall act on a submission of a petition under this subsection within 180 days of the date of its submission and the Secretary may consider the petition concurrently with the suspension proceeding. Any information submitted to the Secretary under this subsection does not constitute an amendment or supplement to a pending or approved abbreviated drug application.

(i) Procedure 
The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d)(3), (g), or (h) of this section with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.
(j) Judicial review 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a), (b), (c), (d), (f), (g), or (h) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretarys decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.
(2) Exception 
Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under clause (iii) or (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or a district court of the United States for the district in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 30 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretarys decision) a complaint requesting that the decision be modified or set aside. In such an action, the court shall determine the matter de novo.
(k) Certification 
Any application for approval of a drug product shall include
(1) a certification that the applicant did not and will not use in any capacity the services of any person debarred under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, in connection with such application, and
(2) if such application is an abbreviated drug application, a list of all convictions, described in subsections (a) and (b) of this section which occurred within the previous 5 years, of the applicant and affiliated persons responsible for the development or submission of such application.
(l) Applicability 

(1) Conviction 
For purposes of this section, a person is considered to have been convicted of a criminal offense
(A) when a judgment of conviction has been entered against the person by a Federal or State court, regardless of whether there is an appeal pending,
(B) when a plea of guilty or nolo contendere by the person has been accepted by a Federal or State court, or
(C) when the person has entered into participation in a first offender, deferred adjudication, or other similar arrangement or program where judgment of conviction has been withheld.
(2) Effective dates 
Subsection (a) of this section, subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2) of this section, clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, and subsection (b)(3)(A) of this section shall not apply to a conviction which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (a) or (b) of this section. Clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, subsection (b)(3)(B) of this section, and subsections (f) and (g) of this section shall not apply to an act or action which occurred more than 5 years before the initiation of an agency action proposed to be taken under subsection (b), (f), or (g) of this section. Clause (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section shall not apply to an action which occurred before June 1, 1992. Subsection (k) of this section shall not apply to applications submitted to the Secretary before June 1, 1992.
(m) Devices; mandatory debarment regarding third-party inspections and reviews 

(1) In general 
If the Secretary finds that a person has been convicted of a felony under section 331 (gg) of this title, the Secretary shall debar such person from being accredited under section 360m (b) or 374 (g)(2) of this title and from carrying out activities under an agreement described in section 383 (b) of this title.
(2) Debarment period 
The Secretary shall debar a person under paragraph (1) for the following periods:
(A) The period of debarment of a person (other than an individual) shall not be less than 1 year or more than 10 years, but if an act leading to a subsequent debarment under such paragraph occurs within 10 years after such person has been debarred under such paragraph, the period of debarment shall be permanent.
(B) The debarment of an individual shall be permanent.
(3) Termination of debarment; judicial review; other matters 
Subsections (c)(3), (d), (e), (i), (j), and (l)(1) of this section apply with respect to a person (other than an individual) or an individual who is debarred under paragraph (1) to the same extent and in the same manner as such subsections apply with respect to a person who is debarred under subsection (a)(1) of this section, or an individual who is debarred under subsection (a)(2) of this section, respectively.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “section”.

21 USC 335b - Civil penalties

(a) In general 
Any person that the Secretary finds
(1) knowingly made or caused to be made, to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services, a false statement or misrepresentation of a material fact in connection with an abbreviated drug application,
(2) bribed or attempted to bribe or paid or attempted to pay an illegal gratuity to any officer, employee, or agent of the Department of Health and Human Services in connection with an abbreviated drug application,
(3) destroyed, altered, removed, or secreted, or procured the destruction, alteration, removal, or secretion of, any material document or other material evidence which was the property of or in the possession of the Department of Health and Human Services for the purpose of interfering with that Departments discharge of its responsibilities in connection with an abbreviated drug application,
(4) knowingly failed to disclose, to an officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services, a material fact which such person had an obligation to disclose relating to any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,
(5) knowingly obstructed an investigation of the Department of Health and Human Services into any drug subject to an abbreviated drug application,
(6) is a person that has an approved or pending drug product application and has knowingly
(A) employed or retained as a consultant or contractor, or
(B) otherwise used in any capacity the services of,

a person who was debarred under section 335a of this title, or

(7) is an individual debarred under section 335a of this title and, during the period of debarment, provided services in any capacity to a person that had an approved or pending drug product application,

shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty for each such violation in an amount not to exceed $250,000 in the case of an individual and $1,000,000 in the case of any other person.

(b) Procedure 

(1) In general 

(A) Action by the Secretary 
A civil penalty under subsection (a) of this section shall be assessed by the Secretary on a person by an order made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact and the amount of the penalty. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subparagraph, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.
(B) Action by the Attorney General 
In lieu of a proceeding under subparagraph (A), the Attorney General may, upon request of the Secretary, institute a civil action to recover a civil money penalty in the amount and for any of the acts set forth in subsection (a) of this section. Such an action may be instituted separately from or in connection with any other claim, civil or criminal, initiated by the Attorney General under this chapter.
(2) Amount 
In determining the amount of a civil penalty under paragraph (1), the Secretary or the court shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the act subject to penalty, the persons ability to pay, the effect on the persons ability to continue to do business, any history of prior, similar acts, and such other matters as justice may require.
(3) Limitation on actions 
No action may be initiated under this section
(A) with respect to any act described in subsection (a) of this section that occurred before May 13, 1992, or
(B) more than 6 years after the date when facts material to the act are known or reasonably should have been known by the Secretary but in no event more than 10 years after the date the act took place.
(c) Judicial review 
Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretarys decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.
(d) Recovery of penalties 
The Attorney General may recover any civil penalty (plus interest at the currently prevailing rates from the date the penalty became final) assessed under subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section in an action brought in the name of the United States. The amount of such penalty may be deducted, when the penalty has become final, from any sums then or later owing by the United States to the person against whom the penalty has been assessed. In an action brought under this subsection, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty shall not be subject to judicial review.
(e) Informants 
The Secretary may award to any individual (other than an officer or employee of the Federal Government or a person who materially participated in any conduct described in subsection (a) of this section) who provides information leading to the imposition of a civil penalty under this section an amount not to exceed
(1) $250,000, or
(2) one-half of the penalty so imposed and collected,

whichever is less. The decision of the Secretary on such award shall not be reviewable.

21 USC 335c - Authority to withdraw approval of abbreviated drug applications

(a) In general 
The Secretary
(1) shall withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the approval was obtained, expedited, or otherwise facilitated through bribery, payment of an illegal gratuity, or fraud or material false statement, and
(2) may withdraw approval of an abbreviated drug application if the Secretary finds that the applicant has repeatedly demonstrated a lack of ability to produce the drug for which the application was submitted in accordance with the formulations or manufacturing practice set forth in the abbreviated drug application and has introduced, or attempted to introduce, such adulterated or misbranded drug into commerce.
(b) Procedure 
The Secretary may not take any action under subsection (a) of this section with respect to any person unless the Secretary has issued an order for such action made on the record after opportunity for an agency hearing on disputed issues of material fact. In the course of any investigation or hearing under this subsection, the Secretary may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, receive evidence, and issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence that relates to the matter under investigation.
(c) Applicability 
Subsection (a) of this section shall apply with respect to offenses or acts regardless of when such offenses or acts occurred.
(d) Judicial review 
Any person that is the subject of an adverse decision under subsection (a) of this section may obtain a review of such decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia or for the circuit in which the person resides, by filing in such court (within 60 days following the date the person is notified of the Secretarys decision) a petition requesting that the decision be modified or set aside.

21 USC 336 - Report of minor violations

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed as requiring the Secretary to report for prosecution, or for the institution of libel or injunction proceedings, minor violations of this chapter whenever he believes that the public interest will be adequately served by a suitable written notice or warning.

21 USC 337 - Proceedings in name of United States; provision as to subpoenas

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, all such proceedings for the enforcement, or to restrain violations, of this chapter shall be by and in the name of the United States. Subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a court of the United States, in any district, may run into any other district in any proceeding under this section.
(b) 
(1) A State may bring in its own name and within its jurisdiction proceedings for the civil enforcement, or to restrain violations, of section 341, 343 (b), 343 (c), 343 (d), 343 (e), 343 (f), 343 (g), 343 (h), 343 (i), 343 (k), 343 (q), or 343 (r) of this title if the food that is the subject of the proceedings is located in the State.
(2) No proceeding may be commenced by a State under paragraph (1)
(A) before 30 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary that the State intends to bring such proceeding,
(B) before 90 days after the State has given notice to the Secretary of such intent if the Secretary has, within such 30 days, commenced an informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to the food which would be the subject of such proceeding, or
(C) if the Secretary is diligently prosecuting a proceeding in court pertaining to such food, has settled such proceeding, or has settled the informal or formal enforcement action pertaining to such food.

In any court proceeding described in subparagraph (C), a State may intervene as a matter of right.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER IV - FOOD

21 USC 341 - Definitions and standards for food

Whenever in the judgment of the Secretary such action will promote honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, he shall promulgate regulations fixing and establishing for any food, under its common or usual name so far as practicable, a reasonable definition and standard of identity, a reasonable standard of quality, or reasonable standards of fill of container. No definition and standard of identity and no standard of quality shall be established for fresh or dried fruits, fresh or dried vegetables, or butter, except that definitions and standards of identity may be established for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, and melons. In prescribing any standard of fill of container, the Secretary shall give due consideration to the natural shrinkage in storage and in transit of fresh natural food and to need for the necessary packing and protective material. In the prescribing of any standard of quality for any canned fruit or canned vegetable, consideration shall be given and due allowance made for the differing characteristics of the several varieties of such fruit or vegetable. In prescribing a definition and standard of identity for any food or class of food in which optional ingredients are permitted, the Secretary shall, for the purpose of promoting honesty and fair dealing in the interest of consumers, designate the optional ingredients which shall be named on the label. Any definition and standard of identity prescribed by the Secretary for avocadoes, cantaloupes, citrus fruits, or melons shall relate only to maturity and to the effects of freezing.

21 USC 342 - Adulterated food

A food shall be deemed to be adulterated
(a) Poisonous, insanitary, etc., ingredients 

(1) If it bears or contains any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render it injurious to health; but in case the substance is not an added substance such food shall not be considered adulterated under this clause if the quantity of such substance in such food does not ordinarily render it injurious to health.[1]
(2) 
(A)  if it bears or contains any added poisonous or added deleterious substance (other than a substance that is a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity or processed food, a food additive, a color additive, or a new animal drug) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346 of this title; or
(B)  if it bears or contains a pesticide chemical residue that is unsafe within the meaning of section 346a (a) of this title; or
(C)  if it is or if it bears or contains
(i)  any food additive that is unsafe within the meaning of section 348 of this title; or
(ii)  a new animal drug (or conversion product thereof) that is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title; or
(3)  if it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or if it is otherwise unfit for food; or
(4)  if it has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; or
(5)  if it is, in whole or in part, the product of a diseased animal or of an animal which has died otherwise than by slaughter; or
(6)  if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or
(7)  if it has been intentionally subjected to radiation, unless the use of the radiation was in conformity with a regulation or exemption in effect pursuant to section 348 of this title.
(b) Absence, substitution, or addition of constituents 

(1) If any valuable constituent has been in whole or in part omitted or abstracted therefrom; or
(2)  if any substance has been substituted wholly or in part therefor; or
(3)  if damage or inferiority has been concealed in any manner; or
(4)  if any substance has been added thereto or mixed or packed therewith so as to increase its bulk or weight, or reduce its quality or strength, or make it appear better or of greater value than it is.
(c) Color additives 
If it is, or it bears or contains, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 379e (a) of this title.
(d) Confectionery containing alcohol or nonnutritive substance 
If it is confectionery, and
(1) has partially or completely imbedded therein any nonnutritive object, except that this subparagraph shall not apply in the case of any nonnutritive object if, in the judgment of the Secretary as provided by regulations, such object is of practical functional value to the confectionery product and would not render the product injurious or hazardous to health;
(2) bears or contains any alcohol other than alcohol not in excess of one-half of 1 per centum by volume derived solely from the use of flavoring extracts, except that this clause shall not apply to confectionery which is introduced or delivered for introduction into, or received or held for sale in, interstate commerce if the sale of such confectionery is permitted under the laws of the State in which such confectionery is intended to be offered for sale;
(3) bears or contains any nonnutritive substance, except that this subparagraph shall not apply to a safe nonnutritive substance which is in or on confectionery by reason of its use for some practical functional purpose in the manufacture, packaging, or storage of such confectionery if the use of the substance does not promote deception of the consumer or otherwise result in adulteration or misbranding in violation of any provision of this chapter, except that the Secretary may, for the purpose of avoiding or resolving uncertainty as to the application of this subparagraph, issue regulations allowing or prohibiting the use of particular nonnutritive substances.
(e) Oleomargarine containing filthy, putrid, etc., matter 
If it is oleomargarine or margarine or butter and any of the raw material used therein consisted in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance, or such oleomargarine or margarine or butter is otherwise unfit for food.
(f) Dietary supplement or ingredient: safety 

(1) If it is a dietary supplement or contains a dietary ingredient that
(A) presents a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury under
(i) conditions of use recommended or suggested in labeling, or
(ii) if no conditions of use are suggested or recommended in the labeling, under ordinary conditions of use;
(B) is a new dietary ingredient for which there is inadequate information to provide reasonable assurance that such ingredient does not present a significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury;
(C) the Secretary declares to pose an imminent hazard to public health or safety, except that the authority to make such declaration shall not be delegated and the Secretary shall promptly after such a declaration initiate a proceeding in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5 to affirm or withdraw the declaration; or
(D) is or contains a dietary ingredient that renders it adulterated under paragraph (a)(1) under the conditions of use recommended or suggested in the labeling of such dietary supplement.

In any proceeding under this subparagraph, the United States shall bear the burden of proof on each element to show that a dietary supplement is adulterated. The court shall decide any issue under this paragraph on a de novo basis.

(2) Before the Secretary may report to a United States attorney a violation of paragraph[2] (1)(A) for a civil proceeding, the person against whom such proceeding would be initiated shall be given appropriate notice and the opportunity to present views, orally and in writing, at least 10 days before such notice, with regard to such proceeding.
(g) Dietary supplement: manufacturing practices 

(1) If it is a dietary supplement and it has been prepared, packed, or held under conditions that do not meet current good manufacturing practice regulations, including regulations requiring, when necessary, expiration date labeling, issued by the Secretary under subparagraph (2).
(2) The Secretary may by regulation prescribe good manufacturing practices for dietary supplements. Such regulations shall be modeled after current good manufacturing practice regulations for food and may not impose standards for which there is no current and generally available analytical methodology. No standard of current good manufacturing practice may be imposed unless such standard is included in a regulation promulgated after notice and opportunity for comment in accordance with chapter 5 of title 5.
(h) Reoffer of food previously denied admission 
If it is an article of food imported or offered for import into the United States and the article of food has previously been refused admission under section 381 (a) of this title, unless the person reoffering the article affirmatively establishes, at the expense of the owner or consignee of the article, that the article complies with the applicable requirements of this chapter, as determined by the Secretary.
(i) Noncompliance with sanitary transportation practices 
If it is transported or offered for transport by a shipper, carrier by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receiver, or any other person engaged in the transportation of food under conditions that are not in compliance with regulations promulgated under section 350e of this title.
[1] So in original. The period probably should be “; or”.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph”.

21 USC 343 - Misbranded food

A food shall be deemed to be misbranded
(a) False or misleading label 
If
(1)  its labeling is false or misleading in any particular, or
(2)  in the case of a food to which section 350 of this title applies, its advertising is false or misleading in a material respect or its labeling is in violation of section 350 (b)(2) of this title.
(b) Offer for sale under another name 
If it is offered for sale under the name of another food.
(c) Imitation of another food 
If it is an imitation of another food, unless its label bears, in type of uniform size and prominence, the word imitation and, immediately thereafter, the name of the food imitated.
(d) Misleading container 
If its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading.
(e) Package form 
If in package form unless it bears a label containing
(1)  the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and
(2)  an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count, except that under clause (2) of this paragraph reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages shall be established, by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(f) Prominence of information on label 
If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness (as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.
(g) Representation as to definition and standard of identity 
If it purports to be or is represented as a food for which a definition and standard of identity has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, unless
(1)  it conforms to such definition and standard, and
(2)  its label bears the name of the food specified in the definition and standard, and, insofar as may be required by such regulations, the common names of optional ingredients (other than spices, flavoring, and coloring) present in such food.
(h) Representation as to standards of quality and fill of container 
If it purports to be or is represented as
(1) a food for which a standard of quality has been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and its quality falls below such standard, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard;
(2) a food for which a standard or standards of fill of container have been prescribed by regulations as provided by section 341 of this title, and it falls below the standard of fill of container applicable thereto, unless its label bears, in such manner and form as such regulations specify, a statement that it falls below such standard; or
(3) a food that is pasteurized unless
(A) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that is prescribed as pasteurization for such food in a regulation promulgated under this chapter; or
(B) 
(i) such food has been subjected to a safe process or treatment that
(I) is reasonably certain to achieve destruction or elimination in the food of the most resistant microorganisms of public health significance that are likely to occur in the food;
(II) is at least as protective of the public health as a process or treatment described in subparagraph (A);
(III) is effective for a period that is at least as long as the shelf life of the food when stored under normal and moderate abuse conditions; and
(IV) is the subject of a notification to the Secretary, including effectiveness data regarding the process or treatment; and
(ii) at least 120 days have passed after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary without the Secretary making a determination that the process or treatment involved has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of clause (i).

For purposes of paragraph (3), a determination by the Secretary that a process or treatment has not been shown to meet the requirements of subclauses (I) through (III) of subparagraph (B)(i) shall constitute final agency action under such subclauses.

(i) Label where no representation as to definition and standard of identity 
Unless its label bears
(1)  the common or usual name of the food, if any there be, and
(2)  in case it is fabricated from two or more ingredients, the common or usual name of each such ingredient and if the food purports to be a beverage containing vegetable or fruit juice, a statement with appropriate prominence on the information panel of the total percentage of such fruit or vegetable juice contained in the food; except that spices, flavorings, and colors not required to be certified under section 379e (c) of this title[1] unless sold as spices, flavorings, or such colors, may be designated as spices, flavorings, and colorings without naming each. To the extent that compliance with the requirements of clause (2) of this paragraph is impracticable, or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(j) Representation for special dietary use 
If it purports to be or is represented for special dietary uses, unless its label bears such information concerning its vitamin, mineral, and other dietary properties as the Secretary determines to be, and by regulations prescribes as, necessary in order fully to inform purchasers as to its value for such uses.
(k) Artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservatives 
If it bears or contains any artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical preservative, unless it bears labeling stating that fact, except that to the extent that compliance with the requirements of this paragraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary. The provisions of this paragraph and paragraphs (g) and (i) with respect to artificial coloring shall not apply in the case of butter, cheese, or ice cream. The provisions of this paragraph with respect to chemical preservatives shall not apply to a pesticide chemical when used in or on a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil.
(l) Pesticide chemicals on raw agricultural commodities 
If it is a raw agricultural commodity which is the produce of the soil, bearing or containing a pesticide chemical applied after harvest, unless the shipping container of such commodity bears labeling which declares the presence of such chemical in or on such commodity and the common or usual name and the function of such chemical, except that no such declaration shall be required while such commodity, having been removed from the shipping container, is being held or displayed for sale at retail out of such container in accordance with the custom of the trade.
(m) Color additives 
If it is a color additive, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with such packaging and labeling requirements, applicable to such color additive, as may be contained in regulations issued under section 379e of this title.
(n) Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations 
If its packaging or labeling is in violation of an applicable regulation issued pursuant to section 1472 or 1473 of title 15.
(o) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–554, § 1(a)(1) [title V, § 517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A–73 
(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–124, § 1, Apr. 1, 1996, 110 Stat. 882 
(q) Nutrition information 

(1) Except as provided in subparagraphs (3), (4), and (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption and is offered for sale, unless its label or labeling bears nutrition information that provides
(A) 
(i) the serving size which is an amount customarily consumed and which is expressed in a common household measure that is appropriate to the food, or
(ii) if the use of the food is not typically expressed in a serving size, the common household unit of measure that expresses the serving size of the food,
(B) the number of servings or other units of measure per container,
(C) the total number of calories
(i) derived from any source, and
(ii) derived from the total fat,

in each serving size or other unit of measure of the food,

(D) the amount of the following nutrients: Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, sugars, dietary fiber, and total protein contained in each serving size or other unit of measure,
(E) any vitamin, mineral, or other nutrient required to be placed on the label and labeling of food under this chapter before October 1, 1990, if the Secretary determines that such information will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.

The Secretary may by regulation require any information required to be placed on the label or labeling by this subparagraph or subparagraph (2)(A) to be highlighted on the label or labeling by larger type, bold type, or contrasting color if the Secretary determines that such highlighting will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices.

(2) 
(A) If the Secretary determines that a nutrient other than a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) should be included in the label or labeling of food subject to subparagraph (1) for purposes of providing information regarding the nutritional value of such food that will assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation require that information relating to such additional nutrient be included in the label or labeling of such food.
(B) If the Secretary determines that the information relating to a nutrient required by subparagraph (1)(C), (1)(D), or (1)(E) or clause (A) of this subparagraph to be included in the label or labeling of food is not necessary to assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices, the Secretary may by regulation remove information relating to such nutrient from such requirement.
(3) For food that is received in bulk containers at a retail establishment, the Secretary may, by regulation, provide that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be displayed at the location in the retail establishment at which the food is offered for sale.
(4) 
(A) The Secretary shall provide for furnishing the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) with respect to raw agricultural commodities and raw fish by issuing voluntary nutrition guidelines, as provided by clause (B) or by issuing regulations that are mandatory as provided by clause (D).
(B) 
(i) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary, after providing an opportunity for comment, shall issue guidelines for food retailers offering raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to provide nutrition information specified in subparagraphs (1) and (2). Such guidelines shall take into account the actions taken by food retailers during such 12-month period to provide to consumers nutrition information on raw agricultural commodities and raw fish. Such guidelines shall only apply
(I) in the case of raw agricultural commodities, to the 20 varieties of vegetables most frequently consumed during a year and the 20 varieties of fruit most frequently consumed during a year, and
(II) to the 20 varieties of raw fish most frequently consumed during a year.

The vegetables, fruits, and raw fish to which such guidelines apply shall be determined by the Secretary by regulation and the Secretary may apply such guidelines regionally.

(ii) Upon the expiration of 12 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a final regulation defining the circumstances that constitute substantial compliance by food retailers with the guidelines issued under subclause (i). The regulation shall provide that there is not substantial compliance if a significant number of retailers have failed to comply with the guidelines. The size of the retailers and the portion of the market served by retailers in compliance with the guidelines shall be considered in determining whether the substantial-compliance standard has been met.
(C) 
(i) Upon the expiration of 30 months after November 8, 1990, the Secretary shall issue a report on actions taken by food retailers to provide consumers with nutrition information for raw agricultural commodities and raw fish under the guidelines issued under clause (A). Such report shall include a determination of whether there is substantial compliance with the guidelines.
(ii) If the Secretary finds that there is substantial compliance with the guidelines, the Secretary shall issue a report and make a determination of the type required in subclause (i) every two years.
(D) 
(i) If the Secretary determines that there is not substantial compliance with the guidelines issued under clause (A), the Secretary shall at the time such determination is made issue proposed regulations requiring that any person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers provide, in a manner prescribed by regulations, the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2). The Secretary shall issue final regulations imposing such requirements 6 months after issuing the proposed regulations. The final regulations shall become effective 6 months after the date of their promulgation.
(ii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) may require that the nutrition information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) be provided for more than 20 varieties of vegetables, 20 varieties of fruit, and 20 varieties of fish most frequently consumed during a year if the Secretary finds that a larger number of such products are frequently consumed. Such regulations shall permit such information to be provided in a single location in each area in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. Such regulations may provide that information shall be expressed as an average or range per serving of the same type of raw agricultural commodity or raw fish. The Secretary shall develop and make available to the persons who offer such food to consumers the information required by subparagraphs (1) and (2).
(iii) Regulations issued under subclause (i) shall permit the required information to be provided in each area of an establishment in which raw agricultural commodities and raw fish are offered for sale. The regulations shall permit food retailers to display the required information by supplying copies of the information provided by the Secretary, by making the information available in brochure, notebook or leaflet form, or by posting a sign disclosing the information. Such regulations shall also permit presentation of the required information to be supplemented by a video, live demonstration, or other media which the Secretary approves.
(E) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term fish includes freshwater or marine fin fish, crustaceans, and mollusks, including shellfish, amphibians, and other forms of aquatic animal life.
(F) No person who offers raw agricultural commodities or raw fish to consumers may be prosecuted for minor violations of this subparagraph if there has been substantial compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.
(5) 
(A) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food
(i) which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments,
(ii) which is processed and prepared primarily in a retail establishment, which is ready for human consumption, which is of the type described in subclause (i), and which is offered for sale to consumers but not for immediate human consumption in such establishment and which is not offered for sale outside such establishment,
(iii) which is an infant formula subject to section 350a of this title,
(iv) which is a medical food as defined in section 360ee (b) of this title, or
(v) which is described in section 345 (2) of this title.
(B) Subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to the label of a food if the Secretary determines by regulations that compliance with such subparagraphs is impracticable because the package of such food is too small to comply with the requirements of such subparagraphs and if the label of such food does not contain any nutrition information.
(C) If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of all the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be listed in the label or labeling of food, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to such food if the label, labeling, or advertising of such food does not make any claim with respect to the nutritional value of such food. If a food contains insignificant amounts, as determined by the Secretary, of more than one-half the nutrients required by subparagraphs (1) and (2) to be in the label or labeling of the food, the Secretary shall require the amounts of such nutrients to be stated in a simplified form prescribed by the Secretary.
(D) If a person offers food for sale and has annual gross sales made or business done in sales to consumers which is not more than $500,000 or has annual gross sales made or business done in sales of food to consumers which is not more than $50,000, the requirements of subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply with respect to food sold by such person to consumers unless the label or labeling of food offered by such person provides nutrition information or makes a nutrition claim.
(E) 
(i) During the 12-month period for which an exemption from subparagraphs (1) and (2) is claimed pursuant to this subclause, the requirements of such subparagraphs shall not apply to any food product if
(I) the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r),
(II) the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 100 full-time equivalent employees,
(III) such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and
(IV) in the case of a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which an exemption was claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product were sold in the United States during such preceding period, or in the case of a food product which was not sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which such exemption is claimed, fewer than 100,000 units of such product are reasonably anticipated to be sold in the United States during the period for which such exemption is claimed.
(ii) During the 12-month period after the applicable date referred to in this sentence, the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall not apply to any food product which was first introduced into interstate commerce before May 8, 1994, if the labeling for such product does not provide nutrition information or make a claim subject to paragraph (r), if such person provided the notice described in subclause (iii), and if
(I) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1994, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 600,000 units of such product were sold in the United States,
(II) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1995, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 300 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 400,000 units of such product were sold in the United States, or
(III) during the 12-month period preceding May 8, 1996, the person who claims for such product an exemption from such subparagraphs employed fewer than an average of 200 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 200,000 units of such product were sold in the United States.
(iii) The notice referred to in subclauses (i) and (ii) shall be given to the Secretary prior to the beginning of the period during which the exemption under subclause (i) or (ii) is to be in effect, shall state that the person claiming such exemption for a food product has complied with the applicable requirements of subclause (i) or (ii), and shall
(I) state the average number of full-time equivalent employees such person employed during the 12 months preceding the date such person claims such exemption,
(II) state the approximate number of units the person claiming the exemption sold in the United States,
(III) if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was sold in the 12-month period preceding the period for which the exemption was claimed, state the approximate number of units of such product which were sold in the United States during such preceding period, and, if the exemption is claimed for a food product which was not sold in such preceding period, state the number of units of such product which such person reasonably anticipates will be sold in the United States during the period for which the exemption was claimed, and
(IV) contain such information as the Secretary may require to verify the information required by the preceding provisions of this subclause if the Secretary has questioned the validity of such information.

If a person is not an importer, has fewer than 10 full-time equivalent employees, and sells fewer than 10,000 units of any food product in any year, such person is not required to file a notice for such product under this subclause for such year.

(iv) In the case of a person who claimed an exemption under subclause (i) or (ii), if, during the period of such exemption, the number of full-time equivalent employees of such person exceeds the number in such subclause or if the number of food products sold in the United States exceeds the number in such subclause, such exemption shall extend to the expiration of 18 months after the date the number of full-time equivalent employees or food products sold exceeded the applicable number.
(v) For any food product first introduced into interstate commerce after May 8, 2002, the Secretary may by regulation lower the employee or units of food products requirement of subclause (i) if the Secretary determines that the cost of compliance with such lower requirement will not place an undue burden on persons subject to such lower requirement.
(vi) For purposes of subclauses (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v)
(I) the term unit means the packaging or, if there is no packaging, the form in which a food product is offered for sale to consumers,
(II) the term food product means food in any sized package which is manufactured by a single manufacturer or which bears the same brand name, which bears the same statement of identity, and which has similar preparation methods, and
(III) the term person in the case of a corporation includes all domestic and foreign affiliates of the corporation.
(F) A dietary supplement product (including a food to which section 350 of this title applies) shall comply with the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) in a manner which is appropriate for the product and which is specified in regulations of the Secretary which shall provide that
(i) nutrition information shall first list those dietary ingredients that are present in the product in a significant amount and for which a recommendation for daily consumption has been established by the Secretary, except that a dietary ingredient shall not be required to be listed if it is not present in a significant amount, and shall list any other dietary ingredient present and identified as having no such recommendation;
(ii) the listing of dietary ingredients shall include the quantity of each such ingredient (or of a proprietary blend of such ingredients) per serving;
(iii) the listing of dietary ingredients may include the source of a dietary ingredient; and
(iv) the nutrition information shall immediately precede the ingredient information required under subclause (i), except that no ingredient identified pursuant to subclause (i) shall be required to be identified a second time.
(G) Subparagraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) shall not apply to food which is sold by a food distributor if the food distributor principally sells food to restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption and does not manufacture, process, or repackage the food it sells.
(r) Nutrition levels and health-related claims 

(1) Except as provided in clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), if it is a food intended for human consumption which is offered for sale and for which a claim is made in the label or labeling of the food which expressly or by implication
(A) characterizes the level of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (2), or
(B) characterizes the relationship of any nutrient which is of the type required by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) to be in the label or labeling of the food to a disease or a health-related condition unless the claim is made in accordance with subparagraph (3) or (5)(D).

A statement of the type required by paragraph (q) that appears as part of the nutrition information required or permitted by such paragraph is not a claim which is subject to this paragraph and a claim subject to clause (A) is not subject to clause (B).

(2) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (4)(A)(ii) and (4)(A)(iii) and clauses (A) through (C) of subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A)
(i) may be made only if the characterization of the level made in the claim uses terms which are defined in regulations of the Secretary,
(ii) may not state the absence of a nutrient unless
(I) the nutrient is usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food as defined by the Secretary by regulation, or
(II) the Secretary by regulation permits such a statement on the basis of a finding that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the statement discloses that the nutrient is not usually present in the food,
(iii) may not be made with respect to the level of cholesterol in the food if the food contains, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, fat or saturated fat in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of disease or a health related condition which is diet related unless
(I) the Secretary finds by regulation that the level of cholesterol is substantially less than the level usually present in the food or in a food which substitutes for the food and which has a significant market share, or the Secretary by regulation permits a statement regarding the absence of cholesterol on the basis of a finding that cholesterol is not usually present in the food and that such a statement would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and the regulation requires that the statement disclose that cholesterol is not usually present in the food, and
(II) the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of such fat or saturated fat in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of cholesterol,
(iv) may not be made with respect to the level of saturated fat in the food if the food contains cholesterol unless the label or labeling of the food discloses the level of cholesterol in the food in immediate proximity to such claim and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of saturated fat,
(v) may not state that a food is high in dietary fiber unless the food is low in total fat as defined by the Secretary or the label or labeling discloses the level of total fat in the food in immediate proximity to such statement and with appropriate prominence which shall be no less than one-half the size of the claim with respect to the level of dietary fiber, and
(vi) may not be made if the Secretary by regulation prohibits the claim because the claim is misleading in light of the level of another nutrient in the food.
(B) If a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) is made with respect to a nutrient in a food and the Secretary makes a determination that the food contains a nutrient at a level that increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition that is diet related, the label or labeling of such food shall contain, prominently and in immediate proximity to such claim, the following statement: See nutrition information for XXX content. The blank shall identify the nutrient associated with the increased disease or health-related condition risk. In making the determination described in this clause, the Secretary shall take into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet.
(C) Subparagraph (2)(A) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) and contained in the label or labeling of a food if such claim is contained in the brand name of such food and such brand name was in use on such food before October 25, 1989, unless the brand name contains a term defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).
(D) Subparagraph (2) does not apply to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) which uses the term diet and is contained in the label or labeling of a soft drink if
(i)  such claim is contained in the brand name of such soft drink,
(ii)  such brand name was in use on such soft drink before October 25, 1989, and
(iii)  the use of the term diet was in conformity with section 105.66 of title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Such a claim is subject to paragraph (a).
(E) Subclauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) do not apply to a statement in the label or labeling of food which describes the percentage of vitamins and minerals in the food in relation to the amount of such vitamins and minerals recommended for daily consumption by the Secretary.
(F) Subclause (i) clause (A) does not apply to a statement in the labeling of a dietary supplement that characterizes the percentage level of a dietary ingredient for which the Secretary has not established a reference daily intake, daily recommended value, or other recommendation for daily consumption.
(G) A claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(A) for a nutrient, for which the Secretary has not promulgated a regulation under clause (A)(i), shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if
(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, which identifies the nutrient level to which the claim refers;
(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim,
(I)  a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied,
(II)  a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and
(III)  a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the nutrient level to which the claim refers;
(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clauses (A) and (B), and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321 (n) of this title; and
(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.

For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(H) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (G) may be made until
(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation
(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or
(II) finding that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner had not submitted all the information required by such clause; or
(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III of this chapter has determined that the requirements of clause (G) have not been met.
(3) 
(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (5), a claim described in subparagraph (1)(B) may only be made
(i) if the claim meets the requirements of the regulations of the Secretary promulgated under clause (B), and
(ii) if the food for which the claim is made does not contain, as determined by the Secretary by regulation, any nutrient in an amount which increases to persons in the general population the risk of a disease or health-related condition which is diet related, taking into account the significance of the food in the total daily diet, except that the Secretary may by regulation permit such a claim based on a finding that such a claim would assist consumers in maintaining healthy dietary practices and based on a requirement that the label contain a disclosure of the type required by subparagraph (2)(B).
(B) 
(i) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations authorizing claims of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) only if the Secretary determines, based on the totality of publicly available scientific evidence (including evidence from well-designed studies conducted in a manner which is consistent with generally recognized scientific procedures and principles), that there is significant scientific agreement, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate such claims, that the claim is supported by such evidence.
(ii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall describe
(I) the relationship between a nutrient of the type required in the label or labeling of food by paragraph (q)(1) or (q)(2) and a disease or health-related condition, and
(II) the significance of each such nutrient in affecting such disease or health-related condition.
(iii) A regulation described in subclause (i) shall require such claim to be stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the matters set out in subclause (ii) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.
(C) Notwithstanding the provisions of clauses (A)(i) and (B), a claim of the type described in subparagraph (1)(B) which is not authorized by the Secretary in a regulation promulgated in accordance with clause (B) shall be authorized and may be made with respect to a food if
(i) a scientific body of the United States Government with official responsibility for public health protection or research directly relating to human nutrition (such as the National Institutes of Health or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) or the National Academy of Sciences or any of its subdivisions has published an authoritative statement, which is currently in effect, about the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;
(ii) a person has submitted to the Secretary, at least 120 days (during which the Secretary may notify any person who is making a claim as authorized by clause (C) that such person has not submitted all the information required by such clause) before the first introduction into interstate commerce of the food with a label containing the claim,
(I)  a notice of the claim, which shall include the exact words used in the claim and shall include a concise description of the basis upon which such person relied for determining that the requirements of subclause (i) have been satisfied,
(II)  a copy of the statement referred to in subclause (i) upon which such person relied in making the claim, and
(III)  a balanced representation of the scientific literature relating to the relationship between a nutrient and a disease or health-related condition to which the claim refers;
(iii) the claim and the food for which the claim is made are in compliance with clause (A)(ii) and are otherwise in compliance with paragraph (a) and section 321 (n) of this title; and
(iv) the claim is stated in a manner so that the claim is an accurate representation of the authoritative statement referred to in subclause (i) and so that the claim enables the public to comprehend the information provided in the claim and to understand the relative significance of such information in the context of a total daily diet.

For purposes of this clause, a statement shall be regarded as an authoritative statement of a scientific body described in subclause (i) only if the statement is published by the scientific body and shall not include a statement of an employee of the scientific body made in the individual capacity of the employee.

(D) A claim submitted under the requirements of clause (C) may be made until
(i) such time as the Secretary issues a regulation under the standard in clause (B)(i)
(I) prohibiting or modifying the claim and the regulation has become effective, or
(II) finding that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met, including finding that the petitioner has not submitted all the information required by such clause; or
(ii) a district court of the United States in an enforcement proceeding under subchapter III of this chapter has determined that the requirements of clause (C) have not been met.
(4) 
(A) 
(i) Any person may petition the Secretary to issue a regulation under subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (3)(B) relating to a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B). Not later than 100 days after the petition is received by the Secretary, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or file the petition for further action by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not act within such 100 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary denies the petition or the petition is deemed to be denied, the petition shall not be made available to the public. If the Secretary files the petition, the Secretary shall deny the petition or issue a proposed regulation to take the action requested in the petition not later than 90 days after the date of such decision. If the Secretary does not act within such 90 days, the petition shall be deemed to be denied unless an extension is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner. If the Secretary issues a proposed regulation, the rulemaking shall be completed within 540 days of the date the petition is received by the Secretary. If the Secretary does not issue a regulation within such 540 days, the Secretary shall provide the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate the reasons action on the regulation did not occur within such 540 days.
(ii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use in a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) terms that are consistent with the terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). Within 90 days of the submission of such a petition, the Secretary shall issue a final decision denying the petition or granting such permission.
(iii) Any person may petition the Secretary for permission to use an implied claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) in a brand name. After publishing notice of an opportunity to comment on the petition in the Federal Register and making the petition available to the public, the Secretary shall grant the petition if the Secretary finds that such claim is not misleading and is consistent with terms defined by the Secretary under subparagraph (2)(A)(i). The Secretary shall grant or deny the petition within 100 days of the date it is submitted to the Secretary and the petition shall be considered granted if the Secretary does not act on it within such 100 days.
(B) A petition under clause (A)(i) respecting a claim described in subparagraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) shall include an explanation of the reasons why the claim meets the requirements of this paragraph and a summary of the scientific data which supports such reasons.
(C) If a petition for a regulation under subparagraph (3)(B) relies on a report from an authoritative scientific body of the United States, the Secretary shall consider such report and shall justify any decision rejecting the conclusions of such report.
(5) 
(A) This paragraph does not apply to infant formulas subject to section 350a (h) of this title and medical foods as defined in section 360ee (b) of this title.
(B) Subclauses (iii) through (v) of subparagraph (2)(A) and subparagraph (2)(B) do not apply to food which is served in restaurants or other establishments in which food is served for immediate human consumption or which is sold for sale or use in such establishments.
(C) A subparagraph (1)(A) claim made with respect to a food which claim is required by a standard of identity issued under section 341 of this title shall not be subject to subparagraph (2)(A)(i) or (2)(B).
(D) A subparagraph (1)(B) claim made with respect to a dietary supplement of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional substances shall not be subject to subparagraph (3) but shall be subject to a procedure and standard, respecting the validity of such claim, established by regulation of the Secretary.
(6) For purposes of paragraph (r)(1)(B), a statement for a dietary supplement may be made if
(A) the statement claims a benefit related to a classical nutrient deficiency disease and discloses the prevalence of such disease in the United States, describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or function in humans, characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to maintain such structure or function, or describes general well-being from consumption of a nutrient or dietary ingredient,
(B) the manufacturer of the dietary supplement has substantiation that such statement is truthful and not misleading, and
(C) the statement contains, prominently displayed and in boldface type, the following: This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease..

A statement under this subparagraph may not claim to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure, or prevent a specific disease or class of diseases. If the manufacturer of a dietary supplement proposes to make a statement described in the first sentence of this subparagraph in the labeling of the dietary supplement, the manufacturer shall notify the Secretary no later than 30 days after the first marketing of the dietary supplement with such statement that such a statement is being made.

(7) The Secretary may make proposed regulations issued under this paragraph effective upon publication pending consideration of public comment and publication of a final regulation if the Secretary determines that such action is necessary
(A) to enable the Secretary to review and act promptly on petitions the Secretary determines provide for information necessary to
(i) enable consumers to develop and maintain healthy dietary practices;
(ii) enable consumers to be informed promptly and effectively of important new knowledge regarding nutritional and health benefits of food; or
(iii) ensure that scientifically sound nutritional and health information is provided to consumers as soon as possible; or
(B) to enable the Secretary to act promptly to ban or modify a claim under this paragraph.

Such proposed regulations shall be deemed final agency action for purposes of judicial review.

(s) Dietary supplements 
If
(1) it is a dietary supplement; and
(2) 
(A) the label or labeling of the supplement fails to list
(i) the name of each ingredient of the supplement that is described in section 321 (ff) of this title; and
(ii) 
(I) the quantity of each such ingredient; or
(II) with respect to a proprietary blend of such ingredients, the total quantity of all ingredients in the blend;
(B) the label or labeling of the dietary supplement fails to identify the product by using the term dietary supplement, which term may be modified with the name of such an ingredient;
(C) the supplement contains an ingredient described in section 321 (ff)(1)(C) of this title, and the label or labeling of the supplement fails to identify any part of the plant from which the ingredient is derived;
(D) the supplement
(i) is covered by the specifications of an official compendium;
(ii) is represented as conforming to the specifications of an official compendium; and
(iii) fails to so conform; or
(E) the supplement
(i) is not covered by the specifications of an official compendium; and
(ii) 
(I) fails to have the identity and strength that the supplement is represented to have; or
(II) fails to meet the quality (including tablet or capsule disintegration), purity, or compositional specifications, based on validated assay or other appropriate methods, that the supplement is represented to meet.

A dietary supplement shall not be deemed misbranded solely because its label or labeling contains directions or conditions of use or warnings.

(t) Catfish 
If it purports to be or is represented as catfish, unless it is fish classified within the family Ictaluridae.
(u) Ginseng 
If it purports to be or is represented as ginseng, unless it is an herb or herbal ingredient derived from a plant classified within the genus Panax.
(v) Failure to label; health threat 
If
(1) it fails to bear a label required by the Secretary under section 381 (n)(1) of this title (relating to food refused admission into the United States);
(2) the Secretary finds that the food presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals; and
(3) upon or after notifying the owner or consignee involved that the label is required under section 381 of this title, the Secretary informs the owner or consignee that the food presents such a threat.
(w) Major food allergen labeling requirements 

(1) If it is not a raw agricultural commodity and it is, or it contains an ingredient that bears or contains, a major food allergen, unless either
(A) the word Contains, followed by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, is printed immediately after or is adjacent to the list of ingredients (in a type size no smaller than the type size used in the list of ingredients) required under subsections (g) and (i) of this section; or
(B) the common or usual name of the major food allergen in the list of ingredients required under subsections (g) and (i) of this section is followed in parentheses by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, except that the name of the food source is not required when
(i) the common or usual name of the ingredient uses the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived; or
(ii) the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived appears elsewhere in the ingredient list, unless the name of the food source that appears elsewhere in the ingredient list appears as part of the name of a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen under section 321 (qq)(2)(A) or (B) of this title.
(2) As used in this subsection, the term name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived means the name described in section 321 (qq)(1) of this title; provided that in the case of a tree nut, fish, or Crustacean shellfish, the term name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived means the name of the specific type of nut or species of fish or Crustacean shellfish.
(3) The information required under this subsection may appear in labeling in lieu of appearing on the label only if the Secretary finds that such other labeling is sufficient to protect the public health. A finding by the Secretary under this paragraph (including any change in an earlier finding under this paragraph) is effective upon publication in the Federal Register as a notice.
(4) Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k) of this section, or any other law, a flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a major food allergen shall be subject to the labeling requirements of this subsection.
(5) The Secretary may by regulation modify the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), or eliminate either the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), if the Secretary determines that the modification or elimination of the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) is necessary to protect the public health.
(6) 
(A) Any person may petition the Secretary to exempt a food ingredient described in section 321 (qq)(2) of this title from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection.
(B) The Secretary shall approve or deny such petition within 180 days of receipt of the petition or the petition shall be deemed denied, unless an extension of time is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner.
(C) The burden shall be on the petitioner to provide scientific evidence (including the analytical method used to produce the evidence) that demonstrates that such food ingredient, as derived by the method specified in the petition, does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health.
(D) A determination regarding a petition under this paragraph shall constitute final agency action.
(E) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all petitions received under this paragraph within 14 days of receipt and the Secretary shall promptly post the Secretarys response to each.
(7) 
(A) A person need not file a petition under paragraph (6) to exempt a food ingredient described in section 321 (qq)(2) of this title from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection, if the person files with the Secretary a notification containing
(i) scientific evidence (including the analytical method used) that demonstrates that the food ingredient (as derived by the method specified in the notification, where applicable) does not contain allergenic protein; or
(ii) a determination by the Secretary that the ingredient does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health under a premarket approval or notification program under section 348 of this title.
(B) The food ingredient may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce as a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen 90 days after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary, unless the Secretary determines within the 90-day period that the notification does not meet the requirements of this paragraph, or there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine that the food ingredient does not contain allergenic protein or does not cause an allergenic response that poses a risk to human health.
(C) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all notifications received under this subparagraph within 14 days of receipt and promptly post any objections thereto by the Secretary.
(x) Nonmajor food allergen labeling requirements 
Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k) of this section, or any other law, a spice, flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a food allergen (other than a major food allergen), as determined by the Secretary by regulation, shall be disclosed in a manner specified by the Secretary by regulation.
(y) Dietary supplements 
If it is a dietary supplement that is marketed in the United States, unless the label of such dietary supplement includes a domestic address or domestic phone number through which the responsible person (as described in section 379aa–1 of this title) may receive a report of a serious adverse event with such dietary supplement.
[1] So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

21 USC 3431 - National uniform nutrition labeling

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no State or political subdivision of a State may directly or indirectly establish under any authority or continue in effect as to any food in interstate commerce
(1) any requirement for a food which is the subject of a standard of identity established under section 341 of this title that is not identical to such standard of identity or that is not identical to the requirement of section 343 (g) of this title, except that this paragraph does not apply to a standard of identity of a State or political subdivision of a State for maple syrup that is of the type required by sections 341 and 343 (g) of this title,
(2) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343 (c), 343 (e), 343 (i)(2), 343 (w), or 343 (x) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343 (c) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,
(3) any requirement for the labeling of food of the type required by section 343 (b), 343 (d), 343 (f), 343 (h), 343 (i)(1), or 343 (k) of this title that is not identical to the requirement of such section, except that this paragraph does not apply to a requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that is of the type required by section 343 (h)(1) of this title and that is applicable to maple syrup,
(4) any requirement for nutrition labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343 (q) of this title, except a requirement for nutrition labeling of food which is exempt under subclause (i) or (ii) of section 343 (q)(5)(A) of this title, or
(5) any requirement respecting any claim of the type described in section 343 (r)(1) of this title made in the label or labeling of food that is not identical to the requirement of section 343 (r) of this title, except a requirement respecting a claim made in the label or labeling of food which is exempt under section 343 (r)(5)(B) of this title.

Paragraph (3) shall take effect in accordance with section 6(b) of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990.

(b) Upon petition of a State or a political subdivision of a State, the Secretary may exempt from subsection (a) of this section, under such conditions as may be prescribed by regulation, any State or local requirement that
(1) would not cause any food to be in violation of any applicable requirement under Federal law,
(2) would not unduly burden interstate commerce, and
(3) is designed to address a particular need for information which need is not met by the requirements of the sections referred to in subsection (a) of this section.

21 USC 3432 - Dietary supplement labeling exemptions

(a) In general 
A publication, including an article, a chapter in a book, or an official abstract of a peer-reviewed scientific publication that appears in an article and was prepared by the author or the editors of the publication, which is reprinted in its entirety, shall not be defined as labeling when used in connection with the sale of a dietary supplement to consumers when it
(1) is not false or misleading;
(2) does not promote a particular manufacturer or brand of a dietary supplement;
(3) is displayed or presented, or is displayed or presented with other such items on the same subject matter, so as to present a balanced view of the available scientific information on a dietary supplement;
(4) if displayed in an establishment, is physically separate from the dietary supplements; and
(5) does not have appended to it any information by sticker or any other method.
(b) Application 
Subsection (a) of this section shall not apply to or restrict a retailer or wholesaler of dietary supplements in any way whatsoever in the sale of books or other publications as a part of the business of such retailer or wholesaler.
(c) Burden of proof 
In any proceeding brought under subsection (a) of this section, the burden of proof shall be on the United States to establish that an article or other such matter is false or misleading.

21 USC 3433 - Disclosure

(a) No provision of section 321 (n), 343 (a), or 348 of this title shall be construed to require on the label or labeling of a food a separate radiation disclosure statement that is more prominent than the declaration of ingredients required by section 343 (i)(2) of this title.
(b) In this section, the term radiation disclosure statement means a written statement that discloses that a food has been intentionally subject to radiation.

21 USC 343a - Repealed. Pub. L. 106554, 1(a)(1) [title V, 517], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A73

Section, Pub. L. 95–203, § 4(c), (d), Nov. 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 1453, 1454, related to distribution of information on health risks of saccharin.

21 USC 344 - Emergency permit control

(a) Conditions on manufacturing, processing, etc., as health measure 
Whenever the Secretary finds after investigation that the distribution in interstate commerce of any class of food may, by reason of contamination with micro-organisms during the manufacture, processing, or packing thereof in any locality, be injurious to health, and that such injurious nature cannot be adequately determined after such articles have entered interstate commerce, he then, and in such case only, shall promulgate regulations providing for the issuance, to manufacturers, processors, or packers of such class of food in such locality, of permits to which shall be attached such conditions governing the manufacture, processing, or packing of such class of food, for such temporary period of time, as may be necessary to protect the public health; and after the effective date of such regulations, and during such temporary period, no person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any such food manufactured, processed, or packed by any such manufacturer, processor, or packer unless such manufacturer, processor, or packer holds a permit issued by the Secretary as provided by such regulations.
(b) Violation of permit; suspension and reinstatement 
The Secretary is authorized to suspend immediately upon notice any permit issued under authority of this section if it is found that any of the conditions of the permit have been violated. The holder of a permit so suspended shall be privileged at any time to apply for the reinstatement of such permit, and the Secretary shall, immediately after prompt hearing and an inspection of the establishment, reinstate such permit if it is found that adequate measures have been taken to comply with and maintain the conditions of the permit, as originally issued or as amended.
(c) Inspection of permit-holding establishments 
Any officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary shall have access to any factory or establishment, the operator of which holds a permit from the Secretary, for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the conditions of the permit are being complied with, and denial of access for such inspection shall be ground for suspension of the permit until such access is freely given by the operator.

21 USC 345 - Regulations making exemptions

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations exempting from any labeling requirement of this chapter
(1)  small open containers of fresh fruits and fresh vegetables and
(2)  food which is, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled, or repacked in substantial quantities at establishments other than those where originally processed or packed, on condition that such food is not adulterated or misbranded under the provisions of this chapter upon removal from such processing, labeling, or repacking establishment. This section does not apply to the labeling requirements of sections 343 (q) and 343 (r) of this title.

21 USC 346 - Tolerances for poisonous or deleterious substances in food; regulations

Any poisonous or deleterious substance added to any food, except where such substance is required in the production thereof or cannot be avoided by good manufacturing practice shall be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342 (a) of this title; but when such substance is so required or cannot be so avoided, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations limiting the quantity therein or thereon to such extent as he finds necessary for the protection of public health, and any quantity exceeding the limits so fixed shall also be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application of clause (2)(A) of section 342 (a) of this title. While such a regulation is in effect limiting the quantity of any such substance in the case of any food, such food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing any added amount of such substance, be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of clause (1) of section 342 (a) of this title. In determining the quantity of such added substance to be tolerated in or on different articles of food the Secretary shall take into account the extent to which the use of such substance is required or cannot be avoided in the production of each such article, and the other ways in which the consumer may be affected by the same or other poisonous or deleterious substances.

21 USC 346a - Tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues

(a) Requirement for tolerance or exemption 

(1) General rule 
Except as provided in paragraph (2) or (3), any pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall be deemed unsafe for the purpose of section 342 (a)(2)(B) of this title unless
(A) a tolerance for such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food is in effect under this section and the quantity of the residue is within the limits of the tolerance; or
(B) an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is in effect under this section for the pesticide chemical residue.

For the purposes of this section, the term food, when used as a noun without modification, shall mean a raw agricultural commodity or processed food.

(2) Processed food 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1)
(A) if a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342 (a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue in or on the processed food if the pesticide chemical has been used in or on the raw agricultural commodity in conformity with a tolerance under this section, such residue in or on the raw agricultural commodity has been removed to the extent possible in good manufacturing practice, and the concentration of the pesticide chemical residue in the processed food is not greater than the tolerance prescribed for the pesticide chemical residue in the raw agricultural commodity; or
(B) if an exemption for the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a raw agricultural commodity, a pesticide chemical residue that is present in or on a processed food because the food is made from that raw agricultural commodity shall not be considered unsafe within the meaning of section 342 (a)(2)(B) of this title.
(3) Residues of degradation products 
If a pesticide chemical residue is present in or on a food because it is a metabolite or other degradation product of a precursor substance that itself is a pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue, such a residue shall not be considered to be unsafe within the meaning of section 342 (a)(2)(B) of this title despite the lack of a tolerance or exemption from the need for a tolerance for such residue in or on such food if
(A) the Administrator has not determined that the degradation product is likely to pose any potential health risk from dietary exposure that is of a different type than, or of a greater significance than, any risk posed by dietary exposure to the precursor substance;
(B) either
(i) a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food, and the combined level of residues of the degradation product and the precursor substance in or on the food is at or below the stoichiometrically equivalent level that would be permitted by the tolerance if the residue consisted only of the precursor substance rather than the degradation product; or
(ii) an exemption from the need for a tolerance is in effect under this section for residues of the precursor substance in or on the food; and
(C) the tolerance or exemption for residues of the precursor substance does not state that it applies only to particular named substances and does not state that it does not apply to residues of the degradation product.
(4) Effect of tolerance or exemption 
While a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue with respect to any food, the food shall not by reason of bearing or containing any amount of such a residue be considered to be adulterated within the meaning of section 342 (a)(1) of this title.
(b) Authority and standard for tolerance 

(1) Authority 
The Administrator may issue regulations establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food
(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d) of this section; or
(B) on the Administrators own initiative under subsection (e) of this section.

As used in this section, the term modify shall not mean expanding the tolerance to cover additional foods.

(2) Standard 

(A) General rule 

(i) Standard The Administrator may establish or leave in effect a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food only if the Administrator determines that the tolerance is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke a tolerance if the Administrator determines it is not safe.
(ii) Determination of safety As used in this section, the term safe, with respect to a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.
(iii) Rule of construction With respect to a tolerance, a pesticide chemical residue meeting the standard under clause (i) is not an eligible pesticide chemical residue for purposes of subparagraph (B).
(B) Tolerances for eligible pesticide chemical residues 

(i) Definition As used in this subparagraph, the term eligible pesticide chemical residue means a pesticide chemical residue as to which
(I) the Administrator is not able to identify a level of exposure to the residue at which the residue will not cause or contribute to a known or anticipated harm to human health (referred to in this section as a nonthreshold effect);
(II) the lifetime risk of experiencing the nonthreshold effect is appropriately assessed by quantitative risk assessment; and
(III) with regard to any known or anticipated harm to human health for which the Administrator is able to identify a level at which the residue will not cause such harm (referred to in this section as a threshold effect), the Administrator determines that the level of aggregate exposure is safe.
(ii) Determination of tolerance Notwithstanding subparagraph (A)(i), a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue may be left in effect or modified under this subparagraph if
(I) at least one of the conditions described in clause (iii) is met; and
(II) both of the conditions described in clause (iv) are met.
(iii) Conditions regarding use For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:
(I) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue protects consumers from adverse effects on health that would pose a greater risk than the dietary risk from the residue.
(II) Use of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue is necessary to avoid a significant disruption in domestic production of an adequate, wholesome, and economical food supply.
(iv) Conditions regarding risk For purposes of clause (ii), the conditions described in this clause with respect to a tolerance for an eligible pesticide chemical residue are the following:
(I) The yearly risk associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue does not exceed 10 times the yearly risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.
(II) The tolerance is limited so as to ensure that the risk over a lifetime associated with the nonthreshold effect from aggregate exposure to the residue is not greater than twice the lifetime risk that would be allowed under subparagraph (A) for such effect.
(v) Review Five years after the date on which the Administrator makes a determination to leave in effect or modify a tolerance under this subparagraph, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, the Administrator shall determine, after notice and opportunity for comment, whether it has been demonstrated to the Administrator that a condition described in clause (iii)(I) or clause (iii)(II) continues to exist with respect to the tolerance and that the yearly and lifetime risks from aggregate exposure to such residue continue to comply with the limits specified in clause (iv). If the Administrator determines by such date that such demonstration has not been made, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date of such determination, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance.
(vi) Infants and children Any tolerance under this subparagraph shall meet the requirements of subparagraph (C).
(C) Exposure of infants and children 
In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator
(i) shall assess the risk of the pesticide chemical residue based on
(I) available information about consumption patterns among infants and children that are likely to result in disproportionately high consumption of foods containing or bearing such residue among infants and children in comparison to the general population;
(II) available information concerning the special susceptibility of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residues, including neurological differences between infants and children and adults, and effects of in utero exposure to pesticide chemicals; and
(III) available information concerning the cumulative effects on infants and children of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity; and
(ii) shall
(I) ensure that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result to infants and children from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue; and
(II) publish a specific determination regarding the safety of the pesticide chemical residue for infants and children.

The Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Administrator, shall conduct surveys to document dietary exposure to pesticides among infants and children. In the case of threshold effects, for purposes of clause (ii)(I) an additional tenfold margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue and other sources of exposure shall be applied for infants and children to take into account potential pre- and post-natal toxicity and completeness of the data with respect to exposure and toxicity to infants and children. Notwithstanding such requirement for an additional margin of safety, the Administrator may use a different margin of safety for the pesticide chemical residue only if, on the basis of reliable data, such margin will be safe for infants and children.

(D) Factors 
In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator shall consider, among other relevant factors
(i) the validity, completeness, and reliability of the available data from studies of the pesticide chemical and pesticide chemical residue;
(ii) the nature of any toxic effect shown to be caused by the pesticide chemical or pesticide chemical residue in such studies;
(iii) available information concerning the relationship of the results of such studies to human risk;
(iv) available information concerning the dietary consumption patterns of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers);
(v) available information concerning the cumulative effects of such residues and other substances that have a common mechanism of toxicity;
(vi) available information concerning the aggregate exposure levels of consumers (and major identifiable subgroups of consumers) to the pesticide chemical residue and to other related substances, including dietary exposure under the tolerance and all other tolerances in effect for the pesticide chemical residue, and exposure from other non-occupational sources;
(vii) available information concerning the variability of the sensitivities of major identifiable subgroups of consumers;
(viii) such information as the Administrator may require on whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects; and
(ix) safety factors which in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of food additives are generally recognized as appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data.
(E) Data and information regarding anticipated and actual residue levels 

(i) Authority In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may consider available data and information on the anticipated residue levels of the pesticide chemical in or on food and the actual residue levels of the pesticide chemical that have been measured in food, including residue data collected by the Food and Drug Administration.
(ii) Requirement If the Administrator relies on anticipated or actual residue levels in establishing, modifying, or leaving in effect a tolerance, the Administrator shall pursuant to subsection (f)(1) of this section require that data be provided five years after the date on which the tolerance is established, modified, or left in effect, and thereafter as the Administrator deems appropriate, demonstrating that such residue levels are not above the levels so relied on. If such data are not so provided, or if the data do not demonstrate that the residue levels are not above the levels so relied on, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the data were required to be provided, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section, or an order under subsection (f)(2) of this section, as appropriate, to modify or revoke the tolerance.
(F) Percent of food actually treated 
In establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue, the Administrator may, when assessing chronic dietary risk, consider available data and information on the percent of food actually treated with the pesticide chemical (including aggregate pesticide use data collected by the Department of Agriculture) only if the Administrator
(i) finds that the data are reliable and provide a valid basis to show what percentage of the food derived from such crop is likely to contain such pesticide chemical residue;
(ii) finds that the exposure estimate does not understate exposure for any significant subpopulation group;
(iii) finds that, if data are available on pesticide use and consumption of food in a particular area, the population in such area is not dietarily exposed to residues above those estimated by the Administrator; and
(iv) provides for the periodic reevaluation of the estimate of anticipated dietary exposure.
(3) Detection methods 

(A) General rule 
A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary, that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food.
(B) Detection limit 
A tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food shall not be established at or modified to a level lower than the limit of detection of the method for detecting and measuring the pesticide chemical residue specified by the Administrator under subparagraph (A).
(4) International standards 
In establishing a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food, the Administrator shall determine whether a maximum residue level for the pesticide chemical has been established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. If a Codex maximum residue level has been established for the pesticide chemical and the Administrator does not propose to adopt the Codex level, the Administrator shall publish for public comment a notice explaining the reasons for departing from the Codex level.
(c) Authority and standard for exemptions 

(1) Authority 
The Administrator may issue a regulation establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food
(A) in response to a petition filed under subsection (d) of this section; or
(B) on the Administrators initiative under subsection (e) of this section.
(2) Standard 

(A) General rule 

(i) Standard The Administrator may establish or leave in effect an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food only if the Administrator determines that the exemption is safe. The Administrator shall modify or revoke an exemption if the Administrator determines it is not safe.
(ii) Determination of safety The term safe, with respect to an exemption for a pesticide chemical residue, means that the Administrator has determined that there is a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.
(B) Factors 
In making a determination under this paragraph, the Administrator shall take into account, among other relevant considerations, the considerations set forth in subparagraphs (C) and (D) of subsection (b)(2) of this section.
(3) Limitation 
An exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food shall not be established or modified by the Administrator unless the Administrator determines, after consultation with the Secretary
(A) that there is a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of such pesticide chemical residue in or on food; or
(B) that there is no need for such a method, and states the reasons for such determination in issuing the regulation establishing or modifying the exemption.
(d) Petition for tolerance or exemption 

(1) Petitions and petitioners 
Any person may file with the Administrator a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation
(A) establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food; or
(B) establishing, modifying, or revoking an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for such a residue.
(2) Petition contents 

(A) Establishment 
A petition under paragraph (1) to establish a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue shall be supported by such data and information as are specified in regulations issued by the Administrator, including
(i) 
(I) an informative summary of the petition and of the data, information, and arguments submitted or cited in support of the petition; and
(II) a statement that the petitioner agrees that such summary or any information it contains may be published as a part of the notice of filing of the petition to be published under this subsection and as part of a proposed or final regulation issued under this section;
(ii) the name, chemical identity, and composition of the pesticide chemical residue and of the pesticide chemical that produces the residue;
(iii) data showing the recommended amount, frequency, method, and time of application of that pesticide chemical;
(iv) full reports of tests and investigations made with respect to the safety of the pesticide chemical, including full information as to the methods and controls used in conducting those tests and investigations;
(v) full reports of tests and investigations made with respect to the nature and amount of the pesticide chemical residue that is likely to remain in or on the food, including a description of the analytical methods used;
(vi) a practical method for detecting and measuring the levels of the pesticide chemical residue in or on the food, or for exemptions, a statement why such a method is not needed;
(vii) a proposed tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue, if a tolerance is proposed;
(viii) if the petition relates to a tolerance for a processed food, reports of investigations conducted using the processing method(s) used to produce that food;
(ix) such information as the Administrator may require to make the determination under subsection (b)(2)(C) of this section;
(x) such information as the Administrator may require on whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects;
(xi) information regarding exposure to the pesticide chemical residue due to any tolerance or exemption already granted for such residue;
(xii) practical methods for removing any amount of the residue that would exceed any proposed tolerance; and
(xiii) such other data and information as the Administrator requires by regulation to support the petition.

If information or data required by this subparagraph is available to the Administrator, the person submitting the petition may cite the availability of the information or data in lieu of submitting it. The Administrator may require a petition to be accompanied by samples of the pesticide chemical with respect to which the petition is filed.

(B) Modification or revocation 
The Administrator may by regulation establish the requirements for information and data to support a petition to modify or revoke a tolerance or to modify or revoke an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance.
(3) Notice 
A notice of the filing of a petition that the Administrator determines has met the requirements of paragraph (2) shall be published by the Administrator within 30 days after such determination. The notice shall announce the availability of a description of the analytical methods available to the Administrator for the detection and measurement of the pesticide chemical residue with respect to which the petition is filed or shall set forth the petitioners statement of why such a method is not needed. The notice shall include the summary required by paragraph (2)(A)(i)(I).
(4) Actions by the Administrator 

(A) In general 
The Administrator shall, after giving due consideration to a petition filed under paragraph (1) and any other information available to the Administrator
(i) issue a final regulation (which may vary from that sought by the petition) establishing, modifying, or revoking a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue or an exemption of the pesticide chemical residue from the requirement of a tolerance (which final regulation shall be issued without further notice and without further period for public comment);
(ii) issue a proposed regulation under subsection (e) of this section, and thereafter issue a final regulation under such subsection; or
(iii) issue an order denying the petition.
(B) Priorities 
The Administrator shall give priority to petitions for the establishment or modification of a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue that appears to pose a significantly lower risk to human health from dietary exposure than pesticide chemical residues that have tolerances in effect for the same or similar uses.
(C) Expedited review of certain petitions 

(i) Date certain for review If a person files a complete petition with the Administrator proposing the issuance of a regulation establishing a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue that presents a lower risk to human health than a pesticide chemical residue for which a tolerance has been left in effect or modified under subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section, the Administrator shall complete action on such petition under this paragraph within 1 year.
(ii) Required determinations If the Administrator issues a final regulation establishing a tolerance or exemption for a safer pesticide chemical residue under clause (i), the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the regulation is issued, determine whether a condition described in subclause (I) or (II) of subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii) of this section continues to exist with respect to a tolerance that has been left in effect or modified under subsection (b)(2)(B) of this section. If such condition does not continue to exist, the Administrator shall, not later than 180 days after the date on which the determination under the preceding sentence is made, issue a regulation under subsection (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance.
(e) Action on Administrator’s own initiative 

(1) General rule 
The Administrator may issue a regulation
(A) establishing, modifying, suspending under subsection (l)(3) of this section, or revoking a tolerance for a pesticide chemical or a pesticide chemical residue;
(B) establishing, modifying, suspending under subsection (l)(3) of this section, or revoking an exemption of a pesticide chemical residue from the requirement of a tolerance; or
(C) establishing general procedures and requirements to implement this section.
(2) Notice 
Before issuing a final regulation under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall issue a notice of proposed rulemaking and provide a period of not less than 60 days for public comment on the proposed regulation, except that a shorter period for comment may be provided if the Administrator for good cause finds that it would be in the public interest to do so and states the reasons for the finding in the notice of proposed rulemaking.
(f) Special data requirements 

(1) Requiring submission of additional data 
If the Administrator determines that additional data or information are reasonably required to support the continuation of a tolerance or exemption that is in effect under this section for a pesticide chemical residue on a food, the Administrator shall
(A) issue a notice requiring the person holding the pesticide registrations associated with such tolerance or exemption to submit the data or information under section 3(c)(2)(B) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a (c)(2)(B)];
(B) issue a rule requiring that testing be conducted on a substance or mixture under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2603]; or
(C) publish in the Federal Register, after first providing notice and an opportunity for comment of not less than 60 days duration, an order
(i) requiring the submission to the Administrator by one or more interested persons of a notice identifying the person or persons who will submit the required data and information;
(ii) describing the type of data and information required to be submitted to the Administrator and stating why the data and information could not be obtained under the authority of section 3(c)(2)(B) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a (c)(2)(B)] or section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2603];
(iii) describing the reports of the Administrator required to be prepared during and after the collection of the data and information;
(iv) requiring the submission to the Administrator of the data, information, and reports referred to in clauses (ii) and (iii); and
(v) establishing dates by which the submissions described in clauses (i) and (iv) must be made.

The Administrator may under subparagraph (C) revise any such order to correct an error. The Administrator may under this paragraph require data or information pertaining to whether the pesticide chemical may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen or other endocrine effects.

(2) Noncompliance 
If a submission required by a notice issued in accordance with paragraph (1)(A), a rule issued under paragraph (1)(B), or an order issued under paragraph (1)(C) is not made by the time specified in such notice, rule, or order, the Administrator may by order published in the Federal Register modify or revoke the tolerance or exemption in question. In any review of such an order under subsection (g)(2) of this section, the only material issue shall be whether a submission required under paragraph (1) was not made by the time specified.
(g) Effective date, objections, hearings, and administrative review 

(1) Effective date 
A regulation or order issued under subsection (d)(4), (e)(1), or (f)(2) of this section shall take effect upon publication unless the regulation or order specifies otherwise. The Administrator may stay the effectiveness of the regulation or order if, after issuance of such regulation or order, objections are filed with respect to such regulation or order pursuant to paragraph (2).
(2) Further proceedings 

(A) Objections 
Within 60 days after a regulation or order is issued under subsection (d)(4), (e)(1)(A), (e)(1)(B), (f)(2), (n)(3), or (n)(5)(C) of this section, any person may file objections thereto with the Administrator, specifying with particularity the provisions of the regulation or order deemed objectionable and stating reasonable grounds therefor. If the regulation or order was issued in response to a petition under subsection (d)(1) of this section, a copy of each objection filed by a person other than the petitioner shall be served by the Administrator on the petitioner.
(B) Hearing 
An objection may include a request for a public evidentiary hearing upon the objection. The Administrator shall, upon the initiative of the Administrator or upon the request of an interested person and after due notice, hold a public evidentiary hearing if and to the extent the Administrator determines that such a public hearing is necessary to receive factual evidence relevant to material issues of fact raised by the objections. The presiding officer in such a hearing may authorize a party to obtain discovery from other persons and may upon a showing of good cause made by a party issue a subpoena to compel testimony or production of documents from any person. The presiding officer shall be governed by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in making any order for the protection of the witness or the content of documents produced and shall order the payment of reasonable fees and expenses as a condition to requiring testimony of the witness. On contest, such a subpoena may be enforced by a Federal district court.
(C) Final decision 
As soon as practicable after receiving the arguments of the parties, the Administrator shall issue an order stating the action taken upon each such objection and setting forth any revision to the regulation or prior order that the Administrator has found to be warranted. If a hearing was held under subparagraph (B), such order and any revision to the regulation or prior order shall, with respect to questions of fact at issue in the hearing, be based only on substantial evidence of record at such hearing, and shall set forth in detail the findings of facts and the conclusions of law or policy upon which the order or regulation is based.
(h) Judicial review 

(1) Petition 
In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any regulation issued under subsection (e)(1)(C) of this section, or any order issued under subsection (f)(1)(C) or (g)(2)(C) of this section, or any regulation that is the subject of such an order, any person who will be adversely affected by such order or regulation may obtain judicial review by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein that person resides or has its principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within 60 days after publication of such order or regulation, a petition praying that the order or regulation be set aside in whole or in part.
(2) Record and jurisdiction 
A copy of the petition under paragraph (1) shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Administrator, or any officer designated by the Administrator for that purpose, and thereupon the Administrator shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the Administrator based the order or regulation, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such a petition, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to affirm or set aside the order or regulation complained of in whole or in part. As to orders issued following a public evidentiary hearing, the findings of the Administrator with respect to questions of fact shall be sustained only if supported by substantial evidence when considered on the record as a whole.
(3) Additional evidence 
If a party applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence and shows to the satisfaction of the court that the additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce the evidence in the proceeding before the Administrator, the court may order that the additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) shall be taken before the Administrator in the manner and upon the terms and conditions the court deems proper. The Administrator may modify prior findings as to the facts by reason of the additional evidence so taken and may modify the order or regulation accordingly. The Administrator shall file with the court any such modified finding, order, or regulation.
(4) Final judgment; Supreme Court review 
The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any regulation or any order and any regulation which is the subject of such an order shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States as provided in section 1254 of title 28. The commencement of proceedings under this subsection shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court to the contrary, operate as a stay of a regulation or order.
(5) Application 
Any issue as to which review is or was obtainable under this subsection shall not be the subject of judicial review under any other provision of law.
(i) Confidentiality and use of data 

(1) General rule 
Data and information that are or have been submitted to the Administrator under this section or section 348 of this title in support of a tolerance or an exemption from a tolerance shall be entitled to confidential treatment for reasons of business confidentiality and to exclusive use and data compensation to the same extent provided by sections 3 and 10 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a, 136h].
(2) Exceptions 

(A) In general 
Data and information that are entitled to confidential treatment under paragraph (1) may be disclosed, under such security requirements as the Administrator may provide by regulation, to
(i) employees of the United States authorized by the Administrator to examine such data and information in the carrying out of their official duties under this chapter or other Federal statutes intended to protect the public health; or
(ii) contractors with the United States authorized by the Administrator to examine such data and information in the carrying out of contracts under this chapter or such statutes.
(B) Congress 
This subsection does not authorize the withholding of data or information from either House of Congress or from, to the extent of matter within its jurisdiction, any committee or subcommittee of such committee or any joint committee of Congress or any subcommittee of such joint committee.
(3) Summaries 
Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection or other law, the Administrator may publish the informative summary required by subsection (d)(2)(A)(i) of this section and may, in issuing a proposed or final regulation or order under this section, publish an informative summary of the data relating to the regulation or order.
(j) Status of previously issued regulations 

(1) Regulations under section 346 
Regulations affecting pesticide chemical residues in or on raw agricultural commodities promulgated, in accordance with section 371 (e) of this title, under the authority of section 346 (a)1 of this title upon the basis of public hearings instituted before January 1, 1953, shall be deemed to be regulations issued under this section and shall be subject to modification or revocation under subsections (d) and (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.
(2) Regulations under section 348 
Regulations that established tolerances for substances that are pesticide chemical residues in or on processed food, or that otherwise stated the conditions under which such pesticide chemicals could be safely used, and that were issued under section 348 of this title on or before August 3, 1996, shall be deemed to be regulations issued under this section and shall be subject to modification or revocation under subsection (d) or (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.
(3) Regulations under section 346a 
Regulations that established tolerances or exemptions under this section that were issued on or before August 3, 1996, shall remain in effect unless modified or revoked under subsection (d) or (e) of this section, and shall be subject to review under subsection (q) of this section.
(4) Certain substances 
With respect to a substance that is not included in the definition of the term pesticide chemical under section 321 (q)(1) of this title but was so included on the day before October 30, 1998, the following applies as of October 30, 1998:
(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (2), any regulation applying to the use of the substance that was in effect on the day before October 30, 1998, and was on such day deemed in such paragraph to have been issued under this section, shall be considered to have been issued under section 348 of this title.
(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (3), any regulation applying to the use of the substance that was in effect on such day and was issued under this section (including any such regulation issued before August 3, 1996) is deemed to have been issued under section 348 of this title.
(k) Transitional provision 
If, on the day before August 3, 1996, a substance that is a pesticide chemical was, with respect to a particular pesticidal use of the substance and any resulting pesticide chemical residue in or on a particular food
(1) regarded by the Administrator or the Secretary as generally recognized as safe for use within the meaning of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section or section 321 (s) of this title as then in effect; or
(2) regarded by the Secretary as a substance described by section 321 (s)(4) of this title;

such a pesticide chemical residue shall be regarded as exempt from the requirement for a tolerance, as of August 3, 1996. The Administrator shall by regulation indicate which substances are described by this subsection. Any exemption under this subsection may be modified or revoked as if it had been issued under subsection (c) of this section.

(l) Harmonization with action under other laws 

(1) Coordination with FIFRA 
To the extent practicable and consistent with the review deadlines in subsection (q) of this section, in issuing a final rule under this subsection that suspends or revokes a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue in or on food, the Administrator shall coordinate such action with any related necessary action under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.].
(2) Revocation of tolerance or exemption following cancellation of associated registrations 
If the Administrator, acting under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, cancels the registration of each pesticide that contains a particular pesticide chemical and that is labeled for use on a particular food, or requires that the registration of each such pesticide be modified to prohibit its use in connection with the production, storage, or transportation of such food, due in whole or in part to dietary risks to humans posed by residues of that pesticide chemical on that food, the Administrator shall revoke any tolerance or exemption that allows the presence of the pesticide chemical, or any pesticide chemical residue that results from its use, in or on that food. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this paragraph. A revocation under this paragraph shall become effective not later than 180 days after
(A) the date by which each such cancellation of a registration has become effective; or
(B) the date on which the use of the canceled pesticide becomes unlawful under the terms of the cancellation, whichever is later.
(3) Suspension of tolerance or exemption following suspension of associated registrations 

(A) Suspension 
If the Administrator, acting under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, suspends the use of each registered pesticide that contains a particular pesticide chemical and that is labeled for use on a particular food, due in whole or in part to dietary risks to humans posed by residues of that pesticide chemical on that food, the Administrator shall suspend any tolerance or exemption that allows the presence of the pesticide chemical, or any pesticide chemical residue that results from its use, in or on that food. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this paragraph. A suspension under this paragraph shall become effective not later than 60 days after the date by which each such suspension of use has become effective.
(B) Effect of suspension 
The suspension of a tolerance or exemption under subparagraph (A) shall be effective as long as the use of each associated registration of a pesticide is suspended under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. While a suspension of a tolerance or exemption is effective the tolerance or exemption shall not be considered to be in effect. If the suspension of use of the pesticide under that Act is terminated, leaving the registration of the pesticide for such use in effect under that Act, the Administrator shall rescind any associated suspension of tolerance or exemption.
(4) Tolerances for unavoidable residues 
In connection with action taken under paragraph (2) or (3), or with respect to pesticides whose registrations were suspended or canceled prior to August 3, 1996, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, if the Administrator determines that a residue of the canceled or suspended pesticide chemical will unavoidably persist in the environment and thereby be present in or on a food, the Administrator may establish a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue. In establishing such a tolerance, the Administrator shall take into account both the factors set forth in subsection (b)(2) of this section and the unavoidability of the residue. Subsection (e) of this section shall apply to the establishment of such tolerance. The Administrator shall review any such tolerance periodically and modify it as necessary so that it allows no greater level of the pesticide chemical residue than is unavoidable.
(5) Pesticide residues resulting from lawful application of pesticide 
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if a tolerance or exemption for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food has been revoked, suspended, or modified under this section, an article of that food shall not be deemed unsafe solely because of the presence of such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that
(A) the residue is present as the result of an application or use of a pesticide at a time and in a manner that was lawful under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act; and
(B) the residue does not exceed a level that was authorized at the time of that application or use to be present on the food under a tolerance, exemption, food additive regulation, or other sanction then in effect under this chapter;

unless, in the case of any tolerance or exemption revoked, suspended, or modified under this subsection or subsection (d) or (e) of this section, the Administrator has issued a determination that consumption of the legally treated food during the period of its likely availability in commerce will pose an unreasonable dietary risk.

(6) Tolerance for use of pesticides under an emergency exemption 
If the Administrator grants an exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136p) for a pesticide chemical, the Administrator shall establish a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for the pesticide chemical residue. Such a tolerance or exemption from a tolerance shall have an expiration date. The Administrator may establish such a tolerance or exemption without providing notice or a period for comment on the tolerance or exemption. The Administrator shall promulgate regulations within 365 days after August 3, 1996, governing the establishment of tolerances and exemptions under this paragraph. Such regulations shall be consistent with the safety standard under subsections (b)(2) and (c)(2) of this section and with section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.
(m) Fees 

(1) Amount 
The Administrator shall by regulation require the payment of such fees as will in the aggregate, in the judgment of the Administrator, be sufficient over a reasonable term to provide, equip, and maintain an adequate service for the performance of the Administrators functions under this section. Under the regulations, the performance of the Administrators services or other functions under this section, including
(A) the acceptance for filing of a petition submitted under subsection (d) of this section;
(B) establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking a tolerance or establishing, modifying, leaving in effect, or revoking an exemption from the requirement for a tolerance under this section;
(C) the acceptance for filing of objections under subsection (g) of this section; or
(D) the certification and filing in court of a transcript of the proceedings and the record under subsection (h) of this section;

may be conditioned upon the payment of such fees. The regulations may further provide for waiver or refund of fees in whole or in part when in the judgment of the Administrator such a waiver or refund is equitable and not contrary to the purposes of this subsection.

(2) Deposit 
All fees collected under paragraph (1) shall be deposited in the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Fund created by section 4(k) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a–1 (k)]. Such fees shall be available to the Administrator, without fiscal year limitation, for the performance of the Administrators services or functions as specified in paragraph (1).
(3) Prohibition 
During the period beginning on October 1, 2007, and ending on September 30, 2012, the Administrator shall not collect any tolerance fees under paragraph (1).
(n) National uniformity of tolerances 

(1) “Qualifying pesticide chemical residue” defined 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualifying pesticide chemical residue means a pesticide chemical residue resulting from the use, in production, processing, or storage of a food, of a pesticide chemical that is an active ingredient and that
(A) was first approved for such use in a registration of a pesticide issued under section 3(c)(5) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136a (c)(5)] on or after April 25, 1985, on the basis of data determined by the Administrator to meet all applicable requirements for data prescribed by regulations in effect under that Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.] on April 25, 1985; or
(B) was approved for such use in a reregistration eligibility determination issued under section 4(g) of that Act [7 U.S.C. 136a–1 (g)] on or after August 3, 1996.
(2) “Qualifying Federal determination” defined 
For purposes of this subsection, the term qualifying Federal determination means a tolerance or exemption from the requirement for a tolerance for a qualifying pesticide chemical residue that
(A) is issued under this section after August 3, 1996, and determined by the Administrator to meet the standard under subsection (b)(2)(A) (in the case of a tolerance) or (c)(2) (in the case of an exemption) of this section; or
(B) 
(i) pursuant to subsection (j) of this section is remaining in effect or is deemed to have been issued under this section, or is regarded under subsection (k) of this section as exempt from the requirement for a tolerance; and
(ii) is determined by the Administrator to meet the standard under subsection (b)(2)(A) (in the case of a tolerance) or (c)(2) (in the case of an exemption) of this section.
(3) Limitation 
The Administrator may make the determination described in paragraph (2)(B)(ii) only by issuing a rule in accordance with the procedure set forth in subsection (d) or (e) of this section and only if the Administrator issues a proposed rule and allows a period of not less than 30 days for comment on the proposed rule. Any such rule shall be reviewable in accordance with subsections (g) and (h) of this section.
(4) State authority 
Except as provided in paragraphs (5), (6), and (8) no State or political subdivision may establish or enforce any regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on any food if a qualifying Federal determination applies to the presence of such pesticide chemical residue in or on such food, unless such State regulatory limit is identical to such qualifying Federal determination. A State or political subdivision shall be deemed to establish or enforce a regulatory limit on a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food if it purports to prohibit or penalize the production, processing, shipping, or other handling of a food because it contains a pesticide residue (in excess of a prescribed limit).
(5) Petition procedure 

(A) In general 
Any State may petition the Administrator for authorization to establish in such State a regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on any food that is not identical to the qualifying Federal determination applicable to such qualifying pesticide chemical residue.
(B) Petition requirements 
Any petition under subparagraph (A) shall
(i) satisfy any requirements prescribed, by rule, by the Administrator; and
(ii) be supported by scientific data about the pesticide chemical residue that is the subject of the petition or about chemically related pesticide chemical residues, data on the consumption within such State of food bearing the pesticide chemical residue, and data on exposure of humans within such State to the pesticide chemical residue.
(C) Authorization 
The Administrator may, by order, grant the authorization described in subparagraph (A) if the Administrator determines that the proposed State regulatory limit
(i) is justified by compelling local conditions; and
(ii) would not cause any food to be a violation of Federal law.
(D) Treatment 
In lieu of any action authorized under subparagraph (C), the Administrator may treat a petition under this paragraph as a petition under subsection (d) of this section to modify or revoke a tolerance or an exemption. If the Administrator determines to treat a petition under this paragraph as a petition under subsection (d) of this section, the Administrator shall thereafter act on the petition pursuant to subsection (d) of this section.
(E) Review 
Any order of the Administrator granting or denying the authorization described in subparagraph (A) shall be subject to review in the manner described in subsections (g) and (h) of this section.
(6) Urgent petition procedure 
Any State petition to the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (5) that demonstrates that consumption of a food containing such pesticide residue level during the period of the foods likely availability in the State will pose a significant public health threat from acute exposure shall be considered an urgent petition. If an order by the Administrator to grant or deny the requested authorization in an urgent petition is not made within 30 days of receipt of the petition, the petitioning State may establish and enforce a temporary regulatory limit on a qualifying pesticide chemical residue in or on the food. The temporary regulatory limit shall be validated or terminated by the Administrators final order on the petition.
(7) Residues from lawful application 
No State or political subdivision may enforce any regulatory limit on the level of a pesticide chemical residue that may appear in or on any food if, at the time of the application of the pesticide that resulted in such residue, the sale of such food with such residue level was lawful under this section and under the law of such State, unless the State demonstrates that consumption of the food containing such pesticide residue level during the period of the foods likely availability in the State will pose an unreasonable dietary risk to the health of persons within such State.
(8) Savings 
Nothing in this chapter preempts the authority of any State or political subdivision to require that a food containing a pesticide chemical residue bear or be the subject of a warning or other statement relating to the presence of the pesticide chemical residue in or on such food.
(o) Consumer right to know 
Not later than 2 years after August 3, 1996, and annually thereafter, the Administrator shall, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, publish in a format understandable to a lay person, and distribute to large retail grocers for public display (in a manner determined by the grocer), the following information, at a minimum:
(1) A discussion of the risks and benefits of pesticide chemical residues in or on food purchased by consumers.
(2) A listing of actions taken under subparagraph (B) of subsection (b)(2) of this section that may result in pesticide chemical residues in or on food that present a yearly or lifetime risk above the risk allowed under subparagraph (A) of such subsection, and the food on which the pesticide chemicals producing the residues are used.
(3) Recommendations to consumers for reducing dietary exposure to pesticide chemical residues in a manner consistent with maintaining a healthy diet, including a list of food that may reasonably substitute for food listed under paragraph (2). Nothing in this subsection shall prevent retail grocers from providing additional information.
(p) Estrogenic substances screening program 

(1) Development 
Not later than 2 years after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services develop a screening program, using appropriate validated test systems and other scientifically relevant information, to determine whether certain substances may have an effect in humans that is similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen, or such other endocrine effect as the Administrator may designate.
(2) Implementation 
Not later than 3 years after August 3, 1996, after obtaining public comment and review of the screening program described in paragraph (1) by the scientific advisory panel established under section 25(d) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136w (d)] or the science advisory board established by section 43652 of title 42, the Administrator shall implement the program.
(3) Substances 
In carrying out the screening program described in paragraph (1), the Administrator
(A) shall provide for the testing of all pesticide chemicals; and
(B) may provide for the testing of any other substance that may have an effect that is cumulative to an effect of a pesticide chemical if the Administrator determines that a substantial population may be exposed to such substance.
(4) Exemption 
Notwithstanding paragraph (3), the Administrator may, by order, exempt from the requirements of this section a biologic substance or other substance if the Administrator determines that the substance is anticipated not to produce any effect in humans similar to an effect produced by a naturally occurring estrogen.
(5) Collection of information 

(A) In general 
The Administrator shall issue an order to a registrant of a substance for which testing is required under this subsection, or to a person who manufactures or imports a substance for which testing is required under this subsection, to conduct testing in accordance with the screening program described in paragraph (1), and submit information obtained from the testing to the Administrator, within a reasonable time period that the Administrator determines is sufficient for the generation of the information.
(B) Procedures 
To the extent practicable the Administrator shall minimize duplicative testing of the same substance for the same endocrine effect, develop, as appropriate, procedures for fair and equitable sharing of test costs, and develop, as necessary, procedures for handling of confidential business information.
(C) Failure of registrants to submit information 

(i) Suspension If a registrant of a substance referred to in paragraph (3)(A) fails to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Administrator shall issue a notice of intent to suspend the sale or distribution of the substance by the registrant. Any suspension proposed under this paragraph shall become final at the end of the 30-day period beginning on the date that the registrant receives the notice of intent to suspend, unless during that period a person adversely affected by the notice requests a hearing or the Administrator determines that the registrant has complied fully with this paragraph.
(ii) Hearing If a person requests a hearing under clause (i), the hearing shall be conducted in accordance with section 554 of title 5. The only matter for resolution at the hearing shall be whether the registrant has failed to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. A decision by the Administrator after completion of a hearing shall be considered to be a final agency action.
(iii) Termination of suspensions The Administrator shall terminate a suspension under this subparagraph issued with respect to a registrant if the Administrator determines that the registrant has complied fully with this paragraph.
(D) Noncompliance by other persons 
Any person (other than a registrant) who fails to comply with an order under subparagraph (A) shall be liable for the same penalties and sanctions as are provided under section 16 of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2615] in the case of a violation referred to in that section. Such penalties and sanctions shall be assessed and imposed in the same manner as provided in such section 16.
(6) Agency action 
In the case of any substance that is found, as a result of testing and evaluation under this section, to have an endocrine effect on humans, the Administrator shall, as appropriate, take action under such statutory authority as is available to the Administrator, including consideration under other sections of this chapter, as is necessary to ensure the protection of public health.
(7) Report to Congress 
Not later than 4 years after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall prepare and submit to Congress a report containing
(A) the findings of the Administrator resulting from the screening program described in paragraph (1);
(B) recommendations for further testing needed to evaluate the impact on human health of the substances tested under the screening program; and
(C) recommendations for any further actions (including any action described in paragraph (6)) that the Administrator determines are appropriate based on the findings.
(q) Schedule for review 

(1) In general 
The Administrator shall review tolerances and exemptions for pesticide chemical residues in effect on the day before August 3, 1996, as expeditiously as practicable, assuring that
(A) 33 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 3 years of August 3, 1996;
(B) 66 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 6 years of August 3, 1996; and
(C) 100 percent of such tolerances and exemptions are reviewed within 10 years of August 3, 1996. In conducting a review of a tolerance or exemption, the Administrator shall determine whether the tolerance or exemption meets the requirements of subsections[3] (b)(2) or (c)(2) of this section and shall, by the deadline for the review of the tolerance or exemption, issue a regulation under subsection (d)(4) or (e)(1) of this section to modify or revoke the tolerance or exemption if the tolerance or exemption does not meet such requirements.
(2) Priorities 
In determining priorities for reviewing tolerances and exemptions under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall give priority to the review of the tolerances or exemptions that appear to pose the greatest risk to public health.
(3) Publication of schedule 
Not later than 12 months after August 3, 1996, the Administrator shall publish a schedule for review of tolerances and exemptions established prior to August 3, 1996. The determination of priorities for the review of tolerances and exemptions pursuant to this subsection is not a rulemaking and shall not be subject to judicial review, except that failure to take final action pursuant to the schedule established by this paragraph shall be subject to judicial review.
(r) Temporary tolerance or exemption 
The Administrator may, upon the request of any person who has obtained an experimental permit for a pesticide chemical under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.] or upon the Administrators own initiative, establish a temporary tolerance or exemption for the pesticide chemical residue for the uses covered by the permit. Subsections (b)(2), (c)(2), (d), and (e) of this section shall apply to actions taken under this subsection.
(s) Savings clause 
Nothing in this section shall be construed to amend or modify the provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act [15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.] or the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act [7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.].
[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] See References in Text note below.
[3] So in original. Probably should be “subsection”.

21 USC 346b - Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary for the purpose and administration of sections 321 (q), (r), 342 (a)(2), and 346a of this title.

21 USC 347 - Intrastate sales of colored oleomargarine

(a) Law governing 
Colored oleomargarine or colored margarine which is sold in the same State or Territory in which it is produced shall be subject in the same manner and to the same extent to the provisions of this chapter as if it had been introduced in interstate commerce.
(b) Labeling and packaging requirements 
No person shall sell, or offer for sale, colored oleomargarine or colored margarine unless
(1) such oleomargarine or margarine is packaged,
(2) the net weight of the contents of any package sold in a retail establishment is one pound or less,
(3) there appears on the label of the package
(A)  the word oleomargarine or margarine in type or lettering at least as large as any other type or lettering on such label, and
(B)  a full and accurate statement of all the ingredients contained in such oleomargarine or margarine, and
(4) each part of the contents of the package is contained in a wrapper which bears the word oleomargarine or margarine in type or lettering not smaller than 20-point type.

The requirements of this subsection shall be in addition to and not in lieu of any of the other requirements of this chapter.

(c) Sales in public eating places 
No person shall possess in a form ready for serving colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place unless a notice that oleomargarine or margarine is served is displayed prominently and conspicuously in such place and in such manner as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual being served in such eating place or is printed or is otherwise set forth on the menu in type or lettering not smaller than that normally used to designate the serving of other food items. No person shall serve colored oleomargarine or colored margarine at a public eating place, whether or not any charge is made therefor, unless
(1)  each separate serving bears or is accompanied by labeling identifying it as oleomargarine or margarine, or
(2)  each separate serving thereof is triangular in shape.
(d) Exemption from labeling requirements 
Colored oleomargarine or colored margarine when served with meals at a public eating place shall at the time of such service be exempt from the labeling requirements of section 343 of this title (except paragraphs (a) and (f)) if it complies with the requirements of subsection (b) of this section.
(e) Color content of oleomargarine 
For the purpose of this section colored oleomargarine or colored margarine is oleomargarine or margarine having a tint or shade containing more than one and six-tenths degrees of yellow, or of yellow and red collectively, but with an excess of yellow over red, measured in terms of Lovibond tintometer scale or its equivalent.

21 USC 347a - Congressional declaration of policy regarding oleomargarine sales

The Congress finds and declares that the sale, or the serving in public eating places, of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine without clear identification as such or which is otherwise adulterated or misbranded within the meaning of this chapter depresses the market in interstate commerce for butter and for oleomargarine or margarine clearly identified and neither adulterated nor misbranded, and constitutes a burden on interstate commerce in such articles. Such burden exists, irrespective of whether such oleomargarine or margarine originates from an interstate source or from the State in which it is sold.

21 USC 347b - Contravention of State laws

Nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing the possession, sale, or serving of colored oleomargarine or colored margarine in any State or Territory in contravention of the laws of such State or Territory.

21 USC 348 - Food additives

(a) Unsafe food additives; exception for conformity with exemption or regulation 
A food additive shall, with respect to any particular use or intended use of such additives, be deemed to be unsafe for the purposes of the application of clause (2)(C) of section 342 (a) of this title, unless
(1) it and its use or intended use conform to the terms of an exemption which is in effect pursuant to subsection (j) of this section;
(2) there is in effect, and it and its use or intended use are in conformity with, a regulation issued under this section prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used; or
(3) in the case of a food additive as defined in this chapter that is a food contact substance, there is
(A) in effect, and such substance and the use of such substance are in conformity with, a regulation issued under this section prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used; or
(B) a notification submitted under subsection (h) of this section that is effective.

While such a regulation relating to a food additive, or such a notification under subsection (h)(1) of this section relating to a food additive that is a food contact substance, is in effect, and has not been revoked pursuant to subsection (i) of this section, a food shall not, by reason of bearing or containing such a food additive in accordance with the regulation or notification, be considered adulterated under section 342 (a)(1) of this title.

(b) Petition for regulation prescribing conditions of safe use; contents; description of production methods and controls; samples; notice of regulation 

(1) Any person may, with respect to any intended use of a food additive, file with the Secretary a petition proposing the issuance of a regulation prescribing the conditions under which such additive may be safely used.
(2) Such petition shall, in addition to any explanatory or supporting data, contain
(A) the name and all pertinent information concerning such food additive, including, where available, its chemical identity and composition;
(B) a statement of the conditions of the proposed use of such additive, including all directions, recommendations, and suggestions proposed for the use of such additive, and including specimens of its proposed labeling;
(C) all relevant data bearing on the physical or other technical effect such additive is intended to produce, and the quantity of such additive required to produce such effect;
(D) a description of practicable methods for determining the quantity of such additive in or on food, and any substance formed in or on food, because of its use; and
(E) full reports of investigations made with respect to the safety for use of such additive, including full information as to the methods and controls used in conducting such investigations.
(3) Upon request of the Secretary, the petitioner shall furnish (or, if the petitioner is not the manufacturer of such additive, the petitioner shall have the manufacturer of such additive furnish, without disclosure to the petitioner) a full description of the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the production of such additive.
(4) Upon request of the Secretary, the petitioner shall furnish samples of the food additive involved, or articles used as components thereof, and of the food in or on which the additive is proposed to be used.
(5) Notice of the regulation proposed by the petitioner shall be published in general terms by the Secretary within thirty days after filing.
(c) Approval or denial of petition; time for issuance of order; evaluation of data; factors 

(1) The Secretary shall
(A) by order establish a regulation (whether or not in accord with that proposed by the petitioner) prescribing, with respect to one or more proposed uses of the food additive involved, the conditions under which such additive may be safely used (including, but not limited to, specifications as to the particular food or classes of food in or in which such additive may be used, the maximum quantity which may be used or permitted to remain in or on such food, the manner in which such additive may be added to or used in or on such food, and any directions or other labeling or packaging requirements for such additive deemed necessary by him to assure the safety of such use), and shall notify the petitioner of such order and the reasons for such action; or
(B) by order deny the petition, and shall notify the petitioner of such order and of the reasons for such action.
(2) The order required by paragraph (1)(A) or (B) of this subsection shall be issued within ninety days after the date of filing of the petition, except that the Secretary may (prior to such ninetieth day), by written notice to the petitioner, extend such ninety-day period to such time (not more than one hundred and eighty days after the date of filing of the petition) as the Secretary deems necessary to enable him to study and investigate the petition.
(3) No such regulation shall issue if a fair evaluation of the data before the Secretary
(A) fails to establish that the proposed use of the food additive, under the conditions of use to be specified in the regulation, will be safe: Provided, That no additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal, except that this proviso shall not apply with respect to the use of a substance as an ingredient of feed for animals which are raised for food production, if the Secretary finds
(i)  that, under the conditions of use and feeding specified in proposed labeling and reasonably certain to be followed in practice, such additive will not adversely affect the animals for which such feed is intended, and
(ii)  that no residue of the additive will be found (by methods of examination prescribed or approved by the Secretary by regulations, which regulations shall not be subject to subsections (f) and (g) of this section) in any edible portion of such animal after slaughter or in any food yielded by or derived from the living animal; or
(B) shows that the proposed use of the additive would promote deception of the consumer in violation of this chapter or would otherwise result in adulteration or in misbranding of food within the meaning of this chapter.
(4) If, in the judgment of the Secretary, based upon a fair evaluation of the data before him, a tolerance limitation is required in order to assure that the proposed use of an additive will be safe, the Secretary
(A) shall not fix such tolerance limitation at a level higher than he finds to be reasonably required to accomplish the physical or other technical effect for which such additive is intended; and
(B) shall not establish a regulation for such proposed use if he finds upon a fair evaluation of the data before him that such data do not establish that such use would accomplish the intended physical or other technical effect.
(5) In determining, for the purposes of this section, whether a proposed use of a food additive is safe, the Secretary shall consider among other relevant factors
(A) the probable consumption of the additive and of any substance formed in or on food because of the use of the additive;
(B) the cumulative effect of such additive in the diet of man or animals, taking into account any chemically or pharmacologically related substance or substances in such diet; and
(C) safety factors which in the opinion of experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety of food additives are generally recognized as appropriate for the use of animal experimentation data.
(d) Regulation issued on Secretary’s initiative 
The Secretary may at any time, upon his own initiative, propose the issuance of a regulation prescribing, with respect to any particular use of a food additive, the conditions under which such additive may be safely used, and the reasons therefor. After the thirtieth day following publication of such a proposal, the Secretary may by order establish a regulation based upon the proposal.
(e) Publication and effective date of orders 
Any order, including any regulation established by such order, issued under subsection (c) or (d) of this section, shall be published and shall be effective upon publication, but the Secretary may stay such effectiveness if, after issuance of such order, a hearing is sought with respect to such order pursuant to subsection (f) of this section.
(f) Objections and public hearing; basis and contents of order; statement 

(1) Within thirty days after publication of an order made pursuant to subsection (c) or (d) of this section, any person adversely affected by such an order may file objections thereto with the Secretary, specifying with particularity the provisions of the order deemed objectionable, stating reasonable grounds therefor, and requesting a public hearing upon such objections. The Secretary shall, after due notice, as promptly as possible hold such public hearing for the purpose of receiving evidence relevant and material to the issues raised by such objections. As soon as practicable after completion of the hearing, the Secretary shall by order act upon such objections and make such order public.
(2) Such order shall be based upon a fair evaluation of the entire record at such hearing, and shall include a statement setting forth in detail the findings and conclusions upon which the order is based.
(3) The Secretary shall specify in the order the date on which it shall take effect, except that it shall not be made to take effect prior to the ninetieth day after its publication, unless the Secretary finds that emergency conditions exist necessitating an earlier effective date, in which event the Secretary shall specify in the order his findings as to such conditions.
(g) Judicial review 

(1) In a case of actual controversy as to the validity of any order issued under subsection (f) of this section, including any order thereunder with respect to amendment or repeal of a regulation issued under this section, any person who will be adversely affected by such order may obtain judicial review by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein such person resides or has his principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within sixty days after the entry of such order, a petition praying that the order be set aside in whole or in part.
(2) A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or any officer designated by him for that purpose, and thereupon the Secretary shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which he based his order, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such petition the court shall have jurisdiction, which upon the filing of the record with it shall be exclusive, to affirm or set aside the order complained of in whole or in part. Until the filing of the record the Secretary may modify or set aside his order. The findings of the Secretary with respect to questions of fact shall be sustained if based upon a fair evaluation of the entire record at such hearing.
(3) The court, on such judicial review, shall not sustain the order of the Secretary if he failed to comply with any requirement imposed on him by subsection (f)(2) of this section.
(4) If application is made to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper, if such evidence is material and there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the proceedings below. The Secretary may modify his findings as to the facts and order by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and shall file with the court such modified findings and order.
(5) The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside, in whole or in part, any order under this section shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28. The commencement of proceedings under this section shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court to the contrary, operate as a stay of an order.
(h) Notification relating to food contact substance 

(1) Subject to such regulations as may be promulgated under paragraph (3), a manufacturer or supplier of a food contact substance may, at least 120 days prior to the introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of the food contact substance, notify the Secretary of the identity and intended use of the food contact substance, and of the determination of the manufacturer or supplier that the intended use of such food contact substance is safe under the standard described in subsection (c)(3)(A) of this section. The notification shall contain the information that forms the basis of the determination and all information required to be submitted by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(2) 
(A) A notification submitted under paragraph (1) shall become effective 120 days after the date of receipt by the Secretary and the food contact substance may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, unless the Secretary makes a determination within the 120-day period that, based on the data and information before the Secretary, such use of the food contact substance has not been shown to be safe under the standard described in subsection (c)(3)(A) of this section, and informs the manufacturer or supplier of such determination.
(B) A decision by the Secretary to object to a notification shall constitute final agency action subject to judicial review.
(C) In this paragraph, the term food contact substance means the substance that is the subject of a notification submitted under paragraph (1), and does not include a similar or identical substance manufactured or prepared by a person other than the manufacturer identified in the notification.
(3) 
(A) The process in this subsection shall be utilized for authorizing the marketing of a food contact substance except where the Secretary determines that submission and review of a petition under subsection (b) of this section is necessary to provide adequate assurance of safety, or where the Secretary and any manufacturer or supplier agree that such manufacturer or supplier may submit a petition under subsection (b) of this section.
(B) The Secretary is authorized to promulgate regulations to identify the circumstances in which a petition shall be filed under subsection (b) of this section, and shall consider criteria such as the probable consumption of such food contact substance and potential toxicity of the food contact substance in determining the circumstances in which a petition shall be filed under subsection (b) of this section.
(4) The Secretary shall keep confidential any information provided in a notification under paragraph (1) for 120 days after receipt by the Secretary of the notification. After the expiration of such 120 days, the information shall be available to any interested party except for any matter in the notification that is a trade secret or confidential commercial information.
(5) 
(A) 
(i) Except as provided in clause (ii), the notification program established under this subsection shall not operate in any fiscal year unless
(I) an appropriation equal to or exceeding the applicable amount under clause (iv) is made for such fiscal year for carrying out such program in such fiscal year; and
(II) the Secretary certifies that the amount appropriated for such fiscal year for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the Food and Drug Administration (exclusive of the appropriation referred to in subclause (I)) equals or exceeds the amount appropriated for the Center for fiscal year 1997, excluding any amount appropriated for new programs.
(ii) The Secretary shall, not later than April 1, 1999, begin accepting and reviewing notifications submitted under the notification program established under this subsection if
(I) an appropriation equal to or exceeding the applicable amount under clause (iii) is made for the last six months of fiscal year 1999 for carrying out such program during such period; and
(II) the Secretary certifies that the amount appropriated for such period for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition of the Food and Drug Administration (exclusive of the appropriation referred to in subclause (I)) equals or exceeds an amount equivalent to one-half the amount appropriated for the Center for fiscal year 1997, excluding any amount appropriated for new programs.
(iii) For the last six months of fiscal year 1999, the applicable amount under this clause is $1,500,000, or the amount specified in the budget request of the President for the six-month period involved for carrying out the notification program in fiscal year 1999, whichever is less.
(iv) For fiscal year 2000 and subsequent fiscal years, the applicable amount under this clause is $3,000,000, or the amount specified in the budget request of the President for the fiscal year involved for carrying out the notification program under this subsection, whichever is less.
(B) For purposes of carrying out the notification program under this subsection, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1999 through fiscal year 2003, except that such authorization of appropriations is not effective for a fiscal year for any amount that is less than the applicable amount under clause (iii) or (iv) of subparagraph (A), whichever is applicable.
(C) Not later than April 1 of fiscal year 1998 and February 1 of each subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate, the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Labor and Human Resources of the Senate that provides an estimate of the Secretary of the costs of carrying out the notification program established under this subsection for the next fiscal year.
(6) In this section, the term food contact substance means any substance intended for use as a component of materials used in manufacturing, packing, packaging, transporting, or holding food if such use is not intended to have any technical effect in such food.
(i) Amendment or repeal of regulations 
The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which regulations under the foregoing provisions of this section may be amended or repealed, and such procedure shall conform to the procedure provided in this section for the promulgation of such regulations. The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the procedure by which the Secretary may deem a notification under subsection (h) of this section to no longer be effective.
(j) Exemptions for investigational use 
Without regard to subsections (b) to (i), inclusive, of this section, the Secretary shall by regulation provide for exempting from the requirements of this section any food additive, and any food bearing or containing such additive, intended solely for investigational use by qualified experts when in his opinion such exemption is consistent with the public health.

21 USC 349 - Bottled drinking water standards; publication in Federal Register

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, whenever the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency prescribes interim or revised national primary drinking water regulations under section 1412 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300g–1], the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator and within 180 days after the promulgation of such drinking water regulations either promulgate amendments to regulations under this chapter applicable to bottled drinking water or publish in the Federal Register his reasons for not making such amendments.
(b) 
(1) Not later than 180 days before the effective date of a national primary drinking water regulation promulgated by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for a contaminant under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the Secretary shall promulgate a standard of quality regulation under this subsection for that contaminant in bottled water or make a finding that such a regulation is not necessary to protect the public health because the contaminant is contained in water in public water systems (as defined under section 1401(4) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 300f (4))) but not in water used for bottled drinking water. The effective date for any such standard of quality regulation shall be the same as the effective date for such national primary drinking water regulation, except for any standard of quality of regulation promulgated by the Secretary before August 6, 1996, for which (as of August 6, 1996) an effective date had not been established. In the case of a standard of quality regulation to which such exception applies, the Secretary shall promulgate monitoring requirements for the contaminants covered by the regulation not later than 2 years after August 6, 1996.
(2) A regulation issued by the Secretary as provided in this subsection shall include any monitoring requirements that the Secretary determines appropriate for bottled water.
(3) A regulation issued by the Secretary as provided in this subsection shall require the following:
(A) In the case of contaminants for which a maximum contaminant level is established in a national primary drinking water regulation under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the regulation under this subsection shall establish a maximum contaminant level for the contaminant in bottled water which is no less stringent than the maximum contaminant level provided in the national primary drinking water regulation.
(B) In the case of contaminants for which a treatment technique is established in a national primary drinking water regulation under section 1412 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300g–1), the regulation under this subsection shall require that bottled water be subject to requirements no less protective of the public health than those applicable to water provided by public water systems using the treatment technique required by the national primary drinking water regulation.
(4) 
(A) If the Secretary does not promulgate a regulation under this subsection within the period described in paragraph (1), the national primary drinking water regulation referred to in paragraph (1) shall be considered, as of the date on which the Secretary is required to establish a regulation under paragraph (1), as the regulation applicable under this subsection to bottled water.
(B) In the case of a national primary drinking water regulation that pursuant to subparagraph (A) is considered to be a standard of quality regulation, the Secretary shall, not later than the applicable date referred to in such subparagraph, publish in the Federal Register a notice
(i) specifying the contents of such regulation, including monitoring requirements; and
(ii) providing that for purposes of this paragraph the effective date for such regulation is the same as the effective date for the regulation for purposes of the Safe Drinking Water Act [42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.] (or, if the exception under paragraph (1) applies to the regulation, that the effective date for the regulation is not later than 2 years and 180 days after August 6, 1996).

21 USC 350 - Vitamins and minerals

(a) Authority and limitations of Secretary; applicability 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2)
(A) the Secretary may not establish, under section 321 (n), 341, or 343 of this title, maximum limits on the potency of any synthetic or natural vitamin or mineral within a food to which this section applies;
(B) the Secretary may not classify any natural or synthetic vitamin or mineral (or combination thereof) as a drug solely because it exceeds the level of potency which the Secretary determines is nutritionally rational or useful;
(C) the Secretary may not limit, under section 321 (n), 341, or 343 of this title, the combination or number of any synthetic or natural
(i) vitamin,
(ii) mineral, or
(iii) other ingredient of food, within a food to which this section applies.
(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply in the case of a vitamin, mineral, other ingredient of food, or food, which is represented for use by individuals in the treatment or management of specific diseases or disorders, by children, or by pregnant or lactating women. For purposes of this subparagraph,[1] the term children means individuals who are under the age of twelve years.
(b) Labeling and advertising requirements for foods 

(1) A food to which this section applies shall not be deemed under section 343 of this title to be misbranded solely because its label bears, in accordance with section 343 (i)(2) of this title, all the ingredients in the food or its advertising contains references to ingredients in the food which are not vitamins or minerals.
(2) The labeling for any food to which this section applies may not list its ingredients which are not dietary supplement ingredients described in section 321 (ff) of this title
(i)  except as a part of a list of all the ingredients of such food, and
(ii)  unless such ingredients are listed in accordance with applicable regulations under section 343 of this title. To the extent that compliance with clause (i) of this subparagraph is impracticable or results in deception or unfair competition, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(c) Definitions 

(1) For purposes of this section, the term food to which this section applies means a food for humans which is a food for special dietary use
(A) which is or contains any natural or synthetic vitamin or mineral, and
(B) which
(i) is intended for ingestion in tablet, capsule, powder, softgel, gelcap, or liquid form, or
(ii) if not intended for ingestion in such a form, is not represented as conventional food and is not represented for use as a sole item of a meal or of the diet.
(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(i), a food shall be considered as intended for ingestion in liquid form only if it is formulated in a fluid carrier and it is intended for ingestion in daily quantities measured in drops or similar small units of measure.
(3) For purposes of paragraph (1) and of section 343 (j) of this title insofar as that section is applicable to food to which this section applies, the term special dietary use as applied to food used by man means a particular use for which a food purports or is represented to be used, including but not limited to the following:
(A) Supplying a special dietary need that exists by reason of a physical, physiological, pathological, or other condition, including but not limited to the condition of disease, convalescence, pregnancy, lactation, infancy, allergic hypersensitivity to food, underweight, overweight, or the need to control the intake of sodium.
(B) Supplying a vitamin, mineral, or other ingredient for use by man to supplement his diet by increasing the total dietary intake.
(C) Supplying a special dietary need by reason of being a food for use as the sole item of the diet.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “paragraph”.

21 USC 350a - Infant formulas

(a) Adulteration 
An infant formula, including an infant formula powder, shall be deemed to be adulterated if
(1) such infant formula does not provide nutrients as required by subsection (i) of this section,
(2) such infant formula does not meet the quality factor requirements prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(1) of this section, or
(3) the processing of such infant formula is not in compliance with the good manufacturing practices and the quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under subsection (b)(2) of this section.
(b) Requirements for quality factors, good manufacturing practices, and retention of records 

(1) The Secretary shall by regulation establish requirements for quality factors for infant formulas to the extent possible consistent with current scientific knowledge, including quality factor requirements for the nutrients required by subsection (i) of this section.
(2) 
(A) The Secretary shall by regulation establish good manufacturing practices for infant formulas, including quality control procedures that the Secretary determines are necessary to assure that an infant formula provides nutrients in accordance with this subsection and subsection (i) of this section and is manufactured in a manner designed to prevent adulteration of the infant formula.
(B) The good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) shall include requirements for
(i) the testing, in accordance with paragraph (3) and by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer, of each batch of infant formula for each nutrient required by subsection (i) of this section before the distribution of such batch,
(ii) regularly scheduled testing, by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer, of samples of infant formulas during the shelf life of such formulas to ensure that such formulas are in compliance with this section,
(iii) in-process controls including, where necessary, testing required by good manufacturing practices designed to prevent adulteration of each batch of infant formula, and
(iv) the conduct by the manufacturer of an infant formula or an agent of such manufacturer of regularly scheduled audits to determine that such manufacturer has complied with the regulations prescribed under subparagraph (A).

In prescribing requirements for audits under clause (iv), the Secretary shall provide that such audits be conducted by appropriately trained individuals who do not have any direct responsibility for the manufacture or production of infant formula.

(3) 
(A) At the final product stage, each batch of infant formula shall be tested for vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin C, and vitamin E to ensure that such infant formula is in compliance with the requirements of this subsection and subsection (i) of this section relating to such vitamins.
(B) Each nutrient premix used in the manufacture of an infant formula shall be tested for each relied upon nutrient required by subsection (i) of this section which is contained in such premix to ensure that such premix is in compliance with its specifications or certifications by a premix supplier.
(C) During the manufacturing process or at the final product stage and before distribution of an infant formula, an infant formula shall be tested for all nutrients required to be included in such formula by subsection (i) of this section for which testing has not been conducted pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B). Testing under this subparagraph shall be conducted to
(i) ensure that each batch of such infant formula is in compliance with the requirements of subsection (i) of this section relating to such nutrients, and
(ii) confirm that nutrients contained in any nutrient premix used in such infant formula are present in each batch of such infant formula in the proper concentration.
(D) If the Secretary adds a nutrient to the list of nutrients in the table in subsection (i) of this section, the Secretary shall by regulation require that the manufacturer of an infant formula test each batch of such formula for such new nutrient in accordance with subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).
(E) For purposes of this paragraph, the term final product stage means the point in the manufacturing process, before distribution of an infant formula, at which an infant formula is homogenous and is not subject to further degradation.
(4) 
(A) The Secretary shall by regulation establish requirements respecting the retention of records. Such requirements shall provide for
(i) the retention of all records necessary to demonstrate compliance with the good manufacturing practices and quality control procedures prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2), including records containing the results of all testing required under paragraph (2)(B),
(ii) the retention of all certifications or guarantees of analysis by premix suppliers,
(iii) the retention by a premix supplier of all records necessary to confirm the accuracy of all premix certifications and guarantees of analysis,
(iv) the retention of
(I) all records pertaining to the microbiological quality and purity of raw materials used in infant formula powder and in finished infant formula, and
(II) all records pertaining to food packaging materials which show that such materials do not cause an infant formula to be adulterated within the meaning of section 342 (a)(2)(C) of this title,
(v) the retention of all records of the results of regularly scheduled audits conducted pursuant to the requirements prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2)(B)(iv), and
(vi) the retention of all complaints and the maintenance of files with respect to, and the review of, complaints concerning infant formulas which may reveal the possible existence of a hazard to health.
(B) 
(i) Records required under subparagraph (A) with respect to an infant formula shall be retained for at least one year after the expiration of the shelf life of such infant formula. Except as provided in clause (ii), such records shall be made available to the Secretary for review and duplication upon request of the Secretary.
(ii) A manufacturer need only provide written assurances to the Secretary that the regularly scheduled audits required by paragraph (2)(B)(iv) are being conducted by the manufacturer, and need not make available to the Secretary the actual written reports of such audits.
(c) Registration of persons distributing new infant formula 

(1) No person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any new infant formula unless
(A) such person has, before introducing such new infant formula, or delivering such new infant formula for introduction, into interstate commerce, registered with the Secretary the name of such person, the place of business of such person, and all establishments at which such person intends to manufacture such new infant formula, and
(B) such person has at least 90 days before marketing such new infant formula, made the submission to the Secretary required by subsection (c)(1) of this section.
(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term new infant formula includes
(A) an infant formula manufactured by a person which has not previously manufactured an infant formula, and
(B) an infant formula manufactured by a person which has previously manufactured infant formula and in which there is a major change, in processing or formulation, from a current or any previous formulation produced by such manufacturer.

For purposes of this paragraph, the term major change has the meaning given to such term in section 106.30(c)(2) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on August 1, 1986), and guidelines issued thereunder.

(d) Submission of information about new infant formula required 

(1) A person shall, with respect to any infant formula subject to subsection (c) of this section, make a submission to the Secretary which shall include
(A) the quantitative formulation of the infant formula,
(B) a description of any reformulation of the formula or change in processing of the infant formula,
(C) assurances that the infant formula will not be marketed unless it meets the requirements of subsections (b)(1) and (i) of this section, as demonstrated by the testing required under subsection (b)(3) of this section, and
(D) assurances that the processing of the infant formula complies with subsection (b)(2) of this section.
(2) After the first production of an infant formula subject to subsection (c) of this section, and before the introduction into interstate commerce of such formula, the manufacturer of such formula shall submit to the Secretary, in such form as may be prescribed by the Secretary, a written verification which summarizes test results and records demonstrating that such formula complies with the requirements of subsections (b)(1), (b)(2)(A), (b)(2)(B)(i), (b)(2)(B)(iii), (b)(3)(A), (b)(3)(C), and (i) of this section.
(3) If the manufacturer of an infant formula for commercial or charitable distribution for human consumption determines that a change in the formulation of the formula or a change in the processing of the formula may affect whether the formula is adulterated under subsection (a) of this section, the manufacturer shall, before the first processing of such formula, make the submission to the Secretary required by paragraph (1).
(e) Additional notice requirements for manufacturer 

(1) If the manufacturer of an infant formula has knowledge which reasonably supports the conclusion that an infant formula which has been processed by the manufacturer and which has left an establishment subject to the control of the manufacturer
(A) may not provide the nutrients required by subsection (i) of this section, or
(B) may be otherwise adulterated or misbranded,

the manufacturer shall promptly notify the Secretary of such knowledge. If the Secretary determines that the infant formula presents a risk to human health, the manufacturer shall immediately take all actions necessary to recall shipments of such infant formula from all wholesale and retail establishments, consistent with recall regulations and guidelines issued by the Secretary.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the term knowledge as applied to a manufacturer means
(A)  the actual knowledge that the manufacturer had, or
(B)  the knowledge which a reasonable person would have had under like circumstances or which would have been obtained upon the exercise of due care.
(f) Procedures applicable to recalls by manufacturer; regulatory oversight 

(1) If a recall of infant formula is begun by a manufacturer, the recall shall be carried out in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall prescribe under paragraph (2) and
(A) the Secretary shall, not later than the 15th day after the beginning of such recall and at least once every 15 days thereafter until the recall is terminated, review the actions taken under the recall to determine whether the recall meets the requirements prescribed under paragraph (2), and
(B) the manufacturer shall, not later than the 14th day after the beginning of such recall and at least once every 14 days thereafter until the recall is terminated, report to the Secretary the actions taken to implement the recall.
(2) The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the scope and extent of recalls of infant formulas necessary and appropriate for the degree of risks to human health presented by the formula subject to the recall.
(3) The Secretary shall by regulation require each manufacturer of an infant formula who begins a recall of such formula because of a risk to human health to request each retail establishment at which such formula is sold or available for sale to post at the point of purchase of such formula a notice of such recall at such establishment for such time that the Secretary determines necessary to inform the public of such recall.
(g) Recordkeeping requirements for manufacturer; regulatory oversight and enforcement 

(1) Each manufacturer of an infant formula shall make and retain such records respecting the distribution of the infant formula through any establishment owned or operated by such manufacturer as may be necessary to effect and monitor recalls of the formula. Such records shall be retained for at least one year after the expiration of the shelf life of the infant formula.
(2) To the extent that the Secretary determines that records are not being made or maintained in accordance with paragraph (1), the Secretary may by regulation prescribe the records required to be made under paragraph (1) and requirements respecting the retention of such records under such paragraph. Such regulations shall take effect on such date as the Secretary prescribes but not sooner than the 180th day after the date such regulations are promulgated. Such regulations shall apply only with respect to distributions of infant formulas made after such effective date.
(h) Exemptions; regulatory oversight 

(1) Any infant formula which is represented and labeled for use by an infant
(A) who has an inborn error of metabolism or a low birth weight, or
(B) who otherwise has an unusual medical or dietary problem,

is exempt from the requirements of subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section. The manufacturer of an infant formula exempt under this paragraph shall, in the case of the exempt formula, be required to provide the notice required by subsection (e)(1) of this section only with respect to adulteration or misbranding described in subsection (e)(1)(B) of this section and to comply with the regulations prescribed by the Secretary under paragraph (2).

(2) The Secretary may by regulation establish terms and conditions for the exemption of an infant formula from the requirements of subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section. An exemption of an infant formula under paragraph (1) may be withdrawn by the Secretary if such formula is not in compliance with applicable terms and conditions prescribed under this paragraph.
(i) Nutrient requirements 

(1) An infant formula shall contain nutrients in accordance with the table set out in this subsection or, if revised by the Secretary under paragraph (2), as so revised.
(2) The Secretary may by regulation
(A) revise the list of nutrients in the table in this subsection, and
(B) revise the required level for any nutrient required by the table.

21 USC 350b - New dietary ingredients

(a) In general 
A dietary supplement which contains a new dietary ingredient shall be deemed adulterated under section 342 (f) of this title unless it meets one of the following requirements:
(1) The dietary supplement contains only dietary ingredients which have been present in the food supply as an article used for food in a form in which the food has not been chemically altered.
(2) There is a history of use or other evidence of safety establishing that the dietary ingredient when used under the conditions recommended or suggested in the labeling of the dietary supplement will reasonably be expected to be safe and, at least 75 days before being introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, the manufacturer or distributor of the dietary ingredient or dietary supplement provides the Secretary with information, including any citation to published articles, which is the basis on which the manufacturer or distributor has concluded that a dietary supplement containing such dietary ingredient will reasonably be expected to be safe.

The Secretary shall keep confidential any information provided under paragraph (2) for 90 days following its receipt. After the expiration of such 90 days, the Secretary shall place such information on public display, except matters in the information which are trade secrets or otherwise confidential, commercial information.

(b) Petition 
Any person may file with the Secretary a petition proposing the issuance of an order prescribing the conditions under which a new dietary ingredient under its intended conditions of use will reasonably be expected to be safe. The Secretary shall make a decision on such petition within 180 days of the date the petition is filed with the Secretary. For purposes of chapter 7 of title 5, the decision of the Secretary shall be considered final agency action.
(c) “New dietary ingredient” defined 
For purposes of this section, the term new dietary ingredient means a dietary ingredient that was not marketed in the United States before October 15, 1994 and does not include any dietary ingredient which was marketed in the United States before October 15, 1994.

21 USC 350c - Maintenance and inspection of records

(a) Records inspection 
If the Secretary has a reasonable belief that an article of food is adulterated and presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals, each person (excluding farms and restaurants) who manufactures, processes, packs, distributes, receives, holds, or imports such article shall, at the request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Secretary, permit such officer or employee, upon presentation of appropriate credentials and a written notice to such person, at reasonable times and within reasonable limits and in a reasonable manner, to have access to and copy all records relating to such article that are needed to assist the Secretary in determining whether the food is adulterated and presents a threat of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals. The requirement under the preceding sentence applies to all records relating to the manufacture, processing, packing, distribution, receipt, holding, or importation of such article maintained by or on behalf of such person in any format (including paper and electronic formats) and at any location.
(b) Regulations concerning recordkeeping 
The Secretary, in consultation and coordination, as appropriate, with other Federal departments and agencies with responsibilities for regulating food safety, may by regulation establish requirements regarding the establishment and maintenance, for not longer than two years, of records by persons (excluding farms and restaurants) who manufacture, process, pack, transport, distribute, receive, hold, or import food, which records are needed by the Secretary for inspection to allow the Secretary to identify the immediate previous sources and the immediate subsequent recipients of food, including its packaging, in order to address credible threats of serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals. The Secretary shall take into account the size of a business in promulgating regulations under this section.
(c) Protection of sensitive information 
The Secretary shall take appropriate measures to ensure that there are in effect effective procedures to prevent the unauthorized disclosure of any trade secret or confidential information that is obtained by the Secretary pursuant to this section.
(d) Limitations 
This section shall not be construed
(1) to limit the authority of the Secretary to inspect records or to require establishment and maintenance of records under any other provision of this chapter;
(2) to authorize the Secretary to impose any requirements with respect to a food to the extent that it is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to the Federal Meat Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 451 et seq.), or the Egg Products Inspection Act (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.);
(3) to have any legal effect on section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18; or
(4) to extend to recipes for food, financial data, pricing data, personnel data, research data, or sales data (other than shipment data regarding sales).

21 USC 350d - Registration of food facilities

(a) Registration 

(1) In general 
The Secretary shall by regulation require that any facility engaged in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding food for consumption in the United States be registered with the Secretary. To be registered
(A) for a domestic facility, the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the facility shall submit a registration to the Secretary; and
(B) for a foreign facility, the owner, operator, or agent in charge of the facility shall submit a registration to the Secretary and shall include with the registration the name of the United States agent for the facility.
(2) Registration 
An entity (referred to in this section as the registrant) shall submit a registration under paragraph (1) to the Secretary containing information necessary to notify the Secretary of the name and address of each facility at which, and all trade names under which, the registrant conducts business and, when determined necessary by the Secretary through guidance, the general food category (as identified under section 170.3 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations) of any food manufactured, processed, packed, or held at such facility. The registrant shall notify the Secretary in a timely manner of changes to such information.
(3) Procedure 
Upon receipt of a completed registration described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall notify the registrant of the receipt of such registration and assign a registration number to each registered facility.
(4) List 
The Secretary shall compile and maintain an up-to-date list of facilities that are registered under this section. Such list and any registration documents submitted pursuant to this subsection shall not be subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5. Information derived from such list or registration documents shall not be subject to disclosure under section 552 of title 5 to the extent that it discloses the identity or location of a specific registered person.
(b) Facility 
For purposes of this section:
(1) The term facility includes any factory, warehouse, or establishment (including a factory, warehouse, or establishment of an importer) that manufactures, processes, packs, or holds food. Such term does not include farms; restaurants; other retail food establishments; nonprofit food establishments in which food is prepared for or served directly to the consumer; or fishing vessels (except such vessels engaged in processing as defined in section 123.3(k) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations).
(2) The term domestic facility means a facility located in any of the States or Territories.
(3) 
(A) The term foreign facility means a facility that manufacturers, processes, packs, or holds food, but only if food from such facility is exported to the United States without further processing or packaging outside the United States.
(B) A food may not be considered to have undergone further processing or packaging for purposes of subparagraph (A) solely on the basis that labeling was added or that any similar activity of a de minimis nature was carried out with respect to the food.
(c) Rule of construction 
Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the Secretary to require an application, review, or licensing process.

21 USC 350e - Sanitary transportation practices

(a) Definitions 
In this section:
(1) Bulk vehicle 
The term bulk vehicle includes a tank truck, hopper truck, rail tank car, hopper car, cargo tank, portable tank, freight container, or hopper bin, and any other vehicle in which food is shipped in bulk, with the food coming into direct contact with the vehicle.
(2) Transportation 
The term transportation means any movement in commerce by motor vehicle or rail vehicle.
(b) Regulations 
The Secretary shall by regulation require shippers, carriers by motor vehicle or rail vehicle, receivers, and other persons engaged in the transportation of food to use sanitary transportation practices prescribed by the Secretary to ensure that food is not transported under conditions that may render the food adulterated.
(c) Contents 
The regulations under subsection (b) of this section shall
(1) prescribe such practices as the Secretary determines to be appropriate relating to
(A) sanitation;
(B) packaging, isolation, and other protective measures;
(C) limitations on the use of vehicles;
(D) information to be disclosed
(i) to a carrier by a person arranging for the transport of food; and
(ii) to a manufacturer or other person that
(I) arranges for the transportation of food by a carrier; or
(II) furnishes a tank vehicle or bulk vehicle for the transportation of food; and
(E) recordkeeping; and
(2) include
(A) a list of nonfood products that the Secretary determines may, if shipped in a bulk vehicle, render adulterated food that is subsequently transported in the same vehicle; and
(B) a list of nonfood products that the Secretary determines may, if shipped in a motor vehicle or rail vehicle (other than a tank vehicle or bulk vehicle), render adulterated food that is simultaneously or subsequently transported in the same vehicle.
(d) Waivers 

(1) In general 
The Secretary may waive any requirement under this section, with respect to any class of persons, vehicles, food, or nonfood products, if the Secretary determines that the waiver
(A) will not result in the transportation of food under conditions that would be unsafe for human or animal health; and
(B) will not be contrary to the public interest.
(2) Publication 
The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register any waiver and the reasons for the waiver.
(e) Preemption 

(1) In general 
A requirement of a State or political subdivision of a State that concerns the transportation of food is preempted if
(A) complying with a requirement of the State or political subdivision and a requirement of this section, or a regulation prescribed under this section, is not possible; or
(B) the requirement of the State or political subdivision as applied or enforced is an obstacle to accomplishing and carrying out this section or a regulation prescribed under this section.
(2) Applicability 
This subsection applies to transportation that occurs on or after the effective date of the regulations promulgated under subsection (b) of this section.
(f) Assistance of other agencies 
The Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, and the heads of other Federal agencies, as appropriate, shall provide assistance on request, to the extent resources are available, to the Secretary for the purposes of carrying out this section.

21 USC 350f - Reportable food registry

(a) Definitions 
In this section:
(1) Responsible party 
The term responsible party, with respect to an article of food, means a person that submits the registration under section 350d (a) of this title for a food facility that is required to register under section 350d (a) of this title, at which such article of food is manufactured, processed, packed, or held.
(2) Reportable food 
The term reportable food means an article of food (other than infant formula) for which there is a reasonable probability that the use of, or exposure to, such article of food will cause serious adverse health consequences or death to humans or animals.
(b) Establishment 

(1) In general 
Not later than 1 year after September 27, 2007, the Secretary shall establish within the Food and Drug Administration a Reportable Food Registry to which instances of reportable food may be submitted by the Food and Drug Administration after receipt of reports under subsection (d), via an electronic portal, from
(A) Federal, State, and local public health officials; or
(B) responsible parties.
(2) Review by Secretary 
The Secretary shall promptly review and assess the information submitted under paragraph (1) for the purposes of identifying reportable food, submitting entries to the Reportable Food Registry, acting under subsection (c), and exercising other existing food safety authorities under this chapter to protect the public health.
(c) Issuance of an alert by the Secretary 

(1) In general 
The Secretary shall issue, or cause to be issued, an alert or a notification with respect to a reportable food using information from the Reportable Food Registry as the Secretary deems necessary to protect the public health.
(2) Effect 
Paragraph (1) shall not affect the authority of the Secretary to issue an alert or a notification under any other provision of this chapter.
(d) Reporting and notification 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), as soon as practicable, but in no case later than 24 hours after a responsible party determines that an article of food is a reportable food, the responsible party shall
(A) submit a report to the Food and Drug Administration through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) that includes the data elements described in subsection (e) (except the elements described in paragraphs (8), (9), and (10) of such subsection); and
(B) investigate the cause of the adulteration if the adulteration of the article of food may have originated with the responsible party.
(2) No report required 
A responsible party is not required to submit a report under paragraph (1) if
(A) the adulteration originated with the responsible party;
(B) the responsible party detected the adulteration prior to any transfer to another person of such article of food; and
(C) the responsible party
(i) corrected such adulteration; or
(ii) destroyed or caused the destruction of such article of food.
(3) Reports by public health officials 
A Federal, State, or local public health official may submit a report about a reportable food to the Food and Drug Administration through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) that includes the data elements described in subsection (e) that the official is able to provide.
(4) Report number 
The Secretary shall ensure that, upon submission of a report under paragraph (1) or (3), a unique number is issued through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) to the person submitting such report, by which the Secretary is able to link reports about the reportable food submitted and amended under this subsection and identify the supply chain for such reportable food.
(5) Review 
The Secretary shall promptly review a report submitted under paragraph (1) or (3).
(6) Response to report submitted by a responsible party 
After consultation with the responsible party that submitted a report under paragraph (1), the Secretary may require such responsible party to perform, as soon as practicable, but in no case later than a time specified by the Secretary, 1 or more of the following:
(A) Amend the report submitted by the responsible party under paragraph (1) to include the data element described in subsection (e)(9).
(B) Provide a notification
(i) to the immediate previous source of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary;
(ii) to the immediate subsequent recipient of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary; and
(iii) that includes
(I) the data elements described in subsection (e) that the Secretary deems necessary;
(II) the actions described under paragraph (7) that the recipient of the notification shall perform, as required by the Secretary; and
(III) any other information that the Secretary may require.
(7) Subsequent reports and notifications 
Except as provided in paragraph (8), the Secretary may require a responsible party to perform, as soon as practicable, but in no case later than a time specified by the Secretary, after the responsible party receives a notification under subparagraph (C) or paragraph (6)(B), 1 or more of the following:
(A) Submit a report to the Food and Drug Administration through the electronic portal established under subsection (b) that includes those data elements described in subsection (e) and other information that the Secretary deems necessary.
(B) Investigate the cause of the adulteration if the adulteration of the article of food may have originated with the responsible party.
(C) Provide a notification
(i) to the immediate previous source of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary;
(ii) to the immediate subsequent recipient of the article of food, if the Secretary deems necessary; and
(iii) that includes
(I) the data elements described in subsection (e) that the Secretary deems necessary;
(II) the actions described under this paragraph that the recipient of the notification shall perform, as required by the Secretary; and
(III) any other information that the Secretary may require.
(8) Amended report 
If a responsible party receives a notification under paragraph (6)(B) or paragraph (7)(C) with respect to an article of food after the responsible party has submitted a report to the Food and Drug Administration under paragraph (1) with respect to such article of food
(A) the responsible party is not required to submit an additional report or make a notification under paragraph (7); and
(B) the responsible party shall amend the report submitted by the responsible party under paragraph (1) to include the data elements described in paragraph (9), and, with respect to both such notification and such report, paragraph (11) of subsection (e).
(e) Data elements 
The data elements described in this subsection are the following:
(1) The registration numbers of the responsible party under section 350d (a)(3) of this title.
(2) The date on which an article of food was determined to be a reportable food.
(3) A description of the article of food including the quantity or amount.
(4) The extent and nature of the adulteration.
(5) If the adulteration of the article of food may have originated with the responsible party, the results of the investigation required under paragraph (1)(B) or (7)(B) of subsection (d), as applicable and when known.
(6) The disposition of the article of food, when known.
(7) Product information typically found on packaging including product codes, use-by dates, and names of manufacturers, packers, or distributors sufficient to identify the article of food.
(8) Contact information for the responsible party.
(9) The contact information for parties directly linked in the supply chain and notified under paragraph (6)(B) or (7)(C) of subsection (d), as applicable.
(10) The information required by the Secretary to be included in a notification provided by the responsible party involved under paragraph (6)(B) or (7)(C) of subsection (d) or required in a report under subsection (d)(7)(A).
(11) The unique number described in subsection (d)(4).
(f) Coordination of Federal, State, and local efforts 

(1) Department of Agriculture 
In implementing this section, the Secretary shall
(A) share information and coordinate regulatory efforts with the Department of Agriculture; and
(B) if the Secretary receives a report submitted about a food within the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture, promptly provide such report to the Department of Agriculture.
(2) States and localities 
In implementing this section, the Secretary shall work with the State and local public health officials to share information and coordinate regulatory efforts, in order to
(A) help to ensure coverage of the safety of the food supply chain, including those food establishments regulated by the States and localities that are not required to register under section 350d of this title; and
(B) reduce duplicative regulatory efforts.
(g) Maintenance and inspection of records 
The responsible party shall maintain records related to each report received, notification made, and report submitted to the Food and Drug Administration under this section for 2 years. A responsible party shall, at the request of the Secretary, permit inspection of such records as provided for section[1] 350c of this title.
(h) Request for information 
Except as provided by section 350d (a)(4) of this title, section 552 of title 5 shall apply to any request for information regarding a record in the Reportable Food Registry.
(i) Safety report 
A report or notification under subsection (d) shall be considered to be a safety report under section 379v of this title and may be accompanied by a statement, which shall be part of any report released for public disclosure, that denies that the report or the notification constitutes an admission that the product involved caused or contributed to a death, serious injury, or serious illness.
(j) Admission 
A report or notification under this section shall not be considered an admission that the article of food involved is adulterated or caused or contributed to a death, serious injury, or serious illness.
(k) Homeland Security notification 
If, after receiving a report under subsection (d), the Secretary believes such food may have been deliberately adulterated, the Secretary shall immediately notify the Secretary of Homeland Security. The Secretary shall make relevant information from the Reportable Food Registry available to the Secretary of Homeland Security.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “in section”.

TITLE 21 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER V - DRUGS AND DEVICES

Part A - Drugs and Devices

21 USC 351 - Adulterated drugs and devices

A drug or device shall be deemed to be adulterated
(a) Poisonous, insanitary, etc., ingredients; adequate controls in manufacture 

(1) If it consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, or decomposed substance; or
(2) 
(A)  if it has been prepared, packed, or held under insanitary conditions whereby it may have been contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health; or
(B)  if it is a drug and the methods used in, or the facilities or controls used for, its manufacture, processing, packing, or holding do not conform to or are not operated or administered in conformity with current good manufacturing practice to assure that such drug meets the requirements of this chapter as to safety and has the identity and strength, and meets the quality and purity characteristics, which it purports or is represented to possess; or
(C)  if it is a compounded positron emission tomography drug and the methods used in, or the facilities and controls used for, its compounding, processing, packing, or holding do not conform to or are not operated or administered in conformity with the positron emission tomography compounding standards and the official monographs of the United States Pharmacopoeia to assure that such drug meets the requirements of this chapter as to safety and has the identity and strength, and meets the quality and purity characteristics, that it purports or is represented to possess; or
(3)  if its container is composed, in whole or in part, of any poisonous or deleterious substance which may render the contents injurious to health; or
(4)  if
(A)  it bears or contains, for purposes of coloring only, a color additive which is unsafe within the meaning of section 379e (a) of this title, or
(B)  it is a color additive the intended use of which in or on drugs or devices is for purposes of coloring only and is unsafe within the meaning of section 379e (a) of this title; or
(5)  if it is a new animal drug which is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title; or
(6)  if it is an animal feed bearing or containing a new animal drug, and such animal feed is unsafe within the meaning of section 360b of this title.
(b) Strength, quality, or purity differing from official compendium 
If it purports to be or is represented as a drug the name of which is recognized in an official compendium, and its strength differs from, or its quality or purity falls below, the standard set forth in such compendium. Such determination as to strength, quality, or purity shall be made in accordance with the tests or methods of assay set forth in such compendium, except that whenever tests or methods of assay have not been prescribed in such compendium, or such tests or methods of assay as are prescribed are, in the judgment of the Secretary, insufficient for the making of such determination, the Secretary shall bring such fact to the attention of the appropriate body charged with the revision of such compendium, and if such body fails within a reasonable time to prescribe tests or methods of assay which, in the judgment of the Secretary, are sufficient for purposes of this paragraph, then the Secretary shall promulgate regulations prescribing appropriate tests or methods of assay in accordance with which such determination as to strength, quality, or purity shall be made. No drug defined in an official compendium shall be deemed to be adulterated under this paragraph because it differs from the standard of strength, quality, or purity therefor set forth in such compendium, if its difference in strength, quality, or purity from such standard is plainly stated on its label. Whenever a drug is recognized in both the United States Pharmacopoeia and the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States it shall be subject to the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homoeopathic drug, in which case it shall be subject to the provisions of the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States and not to those of the United States Pharmacopoeia.
(c) Misrepresentation of strength, etc., where drug is unrecognized in compendium 
If it is not subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section and its strength differs from, or its purity or quality falls below, that which it purports or is represented to possess.
(d) Mixture with or substitution of another substance 
If it is a drug and any substance has been
(1)  mixed or packed therewith so as to reduce its quality or strength or
(2)  substituted wholly or in part therefor.
(e) Devices not in conformity with performance standards 

(1) If it is, or purports to be or is represented as, a device which is subject to a performance standard established under section 360d of this title unless such device is in all respects in conformity with such standard.
(2) If it is declared to be, purports to be, or is represented as, a device that is in conformity with any standard recognized under section 360d (c) of this title unless such device is in all respects in conformity with such standard.
(f) Certain class III devices 

(1) If it is a class III device
(A) 
(i) which is required by a regulation promulgated under subsection (b) of section 360e of this title to have an approval under such section of an application for premarket approval and which is not exempt from section 360e of this title under section 360j (g) of this title, and
(ii) 
(I) for which an application for premarket approval or a notice of completion of a product development protocol was not filed with the Secretary within the ninety-day period beginning on the date of the promulgation of such regulation, or
(II) for which such an application was filed and approval of the application has been denied, suspended, or withdrawn, or such a notice was filed and has been declared not completed or the approval of the device under the protocol has been withdrawn;
(B) 
(i) which was classified under section 360c (f) of this title into class III, which under section 360e (a) of this title is required to have in effect an approved application for premarket approval, and which is not exempt from section 360e of this title under section 360j (g) of this title, and
(ii) which has an application which has been suspended or is otherwise not in effect; or
(C) which was classified under section 360j (l) of this title into class III, which under such section is required to have in effect an approved application under section 360e of this title, and which has an application which has been suspended or is otherwise not in effect.
(2) 
(A) In the case of a device classified under section 360c (f) of this title into class III and intended solely for investigational use, paragraph[1] (1)(B) shall not apply with respect to such device during the period ending on the ninetieth day after the date of the promulgation of the regulations prescribing the procedures and conditions required by section 360j (g)(2) of this title.
(B) In the case of a device subject to a regulation promulgated under subsection (b) of section 360e of this title, paragraph[1] (1) shall not apply with respect to such device during the period ending
(i) on the last day of the thirtieth calendar month beginning after the month in which the classification of the device in class III became effective under section 360c of this title, or
(ii) on the ninetieth day after the date of the promulgation of such regulation,

whichever occurs later.

(g) Banned devices 
If it is a banned device.
(h) Manufacture, packing, storage, or installation of device not in conformity with applicable requirements or conditions 
If it is a device and the methods used in, or the facilities or controls used for, its manufacture, packing, storage, or installation are not in conformity with applicable requirements under section 360j (f)(1) of this title or an applicable condition prescribed by an order under section 360j (f)(2) of this title.
(i) Failure to comply with requirements under which device was exempted for investigational use 
If it is a device for which an exemption has been granted under section 360j (g) of this title for investigational use and the person who was granted such exemption or any investigator who uses such device under such exemption fails to comply with a requirement prescribed by or under such section.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “subparagraph”.

21 USC 352 - Misbranded drugs and devices

A drug or device shall be deemed to be misbranded
(a) False or misleading label 
If its labeling is false or misleading in any particular. Health care economic information provided to a formulary committee, or other similar entity, in the course of the committee or the entity carrying out its responsibilities for the selection of drugs for managed care or other similar organizations, shall not be considered to be false or misleading under this paragraph if the health care economic information directly relates to an indication approved under section 355 of this title or under section 262 (a) of title 42 for such drug and is based on competent and reliable scientific evidence. The requirements set forth in section 355 (a) of this title or in section 262 (a) of title 42 shall not apply to health care economic information provided to such a committee or entity in accordance with this paragraph. Information that is relevant to the substantiation of the health care economic information presented pursuant to this paragraph shall be made available to the Secretary upon request. In this paragraph, the term health care economic information means any analysis that identifies, measures, or compares the economic consequences, including the costs of the represented health outcomes, of the use of a drug to the use of another drug, to another health care intervention, or to no intervention.
(b) Package form; contents of label 
If in package form unless it bears a label containing
(1)  the name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor; and
(2)  an accurate statement of the quantity of the contents in terms of weight, measure, or numerical count: Provided, That under clause (2) of this paragraph reasonable variations shall be permitted, and exemptions as to small packages shall be established, by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(c) Prominence of information on label 
If any word, statement, or other information required by or under authority of this chapter to appear on the label or labeling is not prominently placed thereon with such conspicuousness (as compared with other words, statements, designs, or devices, in the labeling) and in such terms as to render it likely to be read and understood by the ordinary individual under customary conditions of purchase and use.
(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 126(b), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2327 
(e) Designation of drugs or devices by established names 

(1) 
(A) If it is a drug, unless its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name (except the applicable systematic chemical name or the chemical formula)
(i) the established name (as defined in subparagraph (3)) of the drug, if there is such a name;
(ii) the established name and quantity or, if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, the proportion of each active ingredient, including the quantity, kind, and proportion of any alcohol, and also including whether active or not the established name and quantity or if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, the proportion of any bromides, ether, chloroform, acetanilide, acetophenetidin, amidopyrine, antipyrine, atropine, hyoscine, hyoscyamine, arsenic, digitalis, digitalis glucosides, mercury, ouabain, strophanthin, strychnine, thyroid, or any derivative or preparation of any such substances, contained therein, except that the requirement for stating the quantity of the active ingredients, other than the quantity of those specifically named in this subclause, shall not apply to nonprescription drugs not intended for human use; and
(iii) the established name of each inactive ingredient listed in alphabetical order on the outside container of the retail package and, if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, on the immediate container, as prescribed in regulation promulgated by the Secretary, except that nothing in this subclause shall be deemed to require that any trade secret be divulged, and except that the requirements of this subclause with respect to alphabetical order shall apply only to nonprescription drugs that are not also cosmetics and that this subclause shall not apply to nonprescription drugs not intended for human use.
(B) For any prescription drug the established name of such drug or ingredient, as the case may be, on such label (and on any labeling on which a name for such drug or ingredient is used) shall be printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used thereon for any proprietary name or designation for such drug or ingredient, except that to the extent that compliance with the requirements of subclause (ii) or (iii) of clause (A) or this clause is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(2) If it is a device and it has an established name, unless its label bears, to the exclusion of any other nonproprietary name, its established name (as defined in subparagraph (4)) prominently printed in type at least half as large as that used thereon for any proprietary name or designation for such device, except that to the extent compliance with the requirements of this subparagraph is impracticable, exemptions shall be established by regulations promulgated by the Secretary.
(3) As used in subparagraph (1), the term established name, with respect to a drug or ingredient thereof, means
(A)  the applicable official name designated pursuant to section 358 of this title, or (B), if there is no such name and such drug, or such ingredient, is an article recognized in an official compendium, then the official title thereof in such compendium, or
(C)  if neither clause (A) nor clause (B) of this subparagraph applies, then the common or usual name, if any, of such drug or of such ingredient, except that where clause (B) of this subparagraph applies to an article recognized in the United States Pharmacopeia and in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia under different official titles, the official title used in the United States Pharmacopeia shall apply unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homoeopathic drug, in which case the official title used in the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia shall apply.
(4) As used in subparagraph (2), the term established name with respect to a device means
(A)  the applicable official name of the device designated pursuant to section 358 of this title,
(B)  if there is no such name and such device is an article recognized in an official compendium, then the official title thereof in such compendium, or
(C)  if neither clause (A) nor clause (B) of this subparagraph applies, then any common or usual name of such device.
(f) Directions for use and warnings on label 
Unless its labeling bears
(1)  adequate directions for use; and
(2)  such adequate warnings against use in those pathological conditions or by children where its use may be dangerous to health, or against unsafe dosage or methods or duration of administration or application, in such manner and form, as are necessary for the protection of users, except that where any requirement of clause (1) of this paragraph, as applied to any drug or device, is not necessary for the protection of the public health, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations exempting such drug or device from such requirement. Required labeling for prescription devices intended for use in health care facilities or by a health care professional and required labeling for in vitro diagnostic devices intended for use by health care professionals or in blood establishments may be made available solely by electronic means, provided that the labeling complies with all applicable requirements of law, and that the manufacturer affords such users the opportunity to request the labeling in paper form, and after such request, promptly provides the requested information without additional cost.
(g) Representations as recognized drug; packing and labeling; inconsistent requirements for designation of drug 
If it purports to be a drug the name of which is recognized in an official compendium, unless it is packaged and labeled as prescribed therein. The method of packing may be modified with the consent of the Secretary. Whenever a drug is recognized in both the United States Pharmacopoeia and the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, it shall be subject to the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia with respect to packaging and labeling unless it is labeled and offered for sale as a homoeopathic drug, in which case it shall be subject to the provisions of the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States, and not those of the United States Pharmacopoeia, except that in the event of inconsistency between the requirements of this paragraph and those of paragraph (e) as to the name by which the drug or its ingredients shall be designated, the requirements of paragraph (e) shall prevail.
(h) Deteriorative drugs; packing and labeling 
If it has been found by the Secretary to be a drug liable to deterioration, unless it is packaged in such form and manner, and its label bears a statement of such precautions, as the Secretary shall by regulations require as necessary for the protection of the public health. No such regulation shall be established for any drug recognized in an official compendium until the Secretary shall have informed the appropriate body charged with the revision of such compendium of the need for such packaging or labeling requirements and such body shall have failed within a reasonable time to prescribe such requirements.
(i) Drug; misleading container; imitation; offer for sale under another name 

(1) If it is a drug and its container is so made, formed, or filled as to be misleading; or
(2)  if it is an imitation of another drug; or
(3)  if it is offered for sale under the name of another drug.
(j) Health-endangering when used as prescribed 
If it is dangerous to health when used in the dosage or manner, or with the frequency or duration prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof.
(k) , (l) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–115, title I, § 125(a)(2)(B), (b)(2)(D), Nov. 21, 1997, 111 Stat. 2325 
(m) Color additives; packing and labeling 
If it is a color additive the intended use of which is for the purpose of coloring only, unless its packaging and labeling are in conformity with such packaging and labeling requirements applicable to such color additive, as may be contained in regulations issued under section 379e of this title.
(n) Prescription drug advertisements: established name; quantitative formula; side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness; prior approval; false advertising; labeling; construction of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances 
In the case of any prescription drug distributed or offered for sale in any State, unless the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof includes in all advertisements and other descriptive printed matter issued or caused to be issued by the manufacturer, packer, or distributor with respect to that drug a true statement of
(1)  the established name as defined in paragraph (e) of this section, printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used for any trade or brand name thereof,
(2)  the formula showing quantitatively each ingredient of such drug to the extent required for labels under paragraph (e) of this section, and
(3)  such other information in brief summary relating to side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness as shall be required in regulations which shall be issued by the Secretary in accordance with section 371 (a) of this title, and in the case of published direct-to-consumer advertisements the following statement printed in conspicuous text: You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1800-FDA-1088., except that
(A)  except in extraordinary circumstances, no regulation issued under this paragraph shall require prior approval by the Secretary of the content of any advertisement, and
(B)  no advertisement of a prescription drug, published after the effective date of regulations issued under this paragraph applicable to advertisements of prescription drugs, shall with respect to the matters specified in this paragraph or covered by such regulations, be subject to the provisions of sections 52 to 57 of title 15. This paragraph (n) shall not be applicable to any printed matter which the Secretary determines to be labeling as defined in section 321 (m) of this title. Nothing in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, signed at Vienna, Austria, on February 21, 1971, shall be construed to prevent drug price communications to consumers. In the case of an advertisement for a drug subject to section 353 (b)(1) of this title presented directly to consumers in television or radio format and stating the name of the drug and its conditions of use, the major statement relating to side effects and contraindications shall be presented in a clear, conspicuous, and neutral manner.
(o) Drugs or devices from nonregistered establishments 
If it was manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed in an establishment in any State not duly registered under section 360 of this title, if it was not included in a list required by section 360 (j) of this title, if a notice or other information respecting it was not provided as required by such section or section 360 (k) of this title, or if it does not bear such symbols from the uniform system for identification of devices prescribed under section 360 (e) of this title as the Secretary by regulation requires.
(p) Packaging or labeling of drugs in violation of regulations 
If it is a drug and its packaging or labeling is in violation of an applicable regulation issued pursuant to section 1472 or 1473 of title 15.
(q) Restricted devices using false or misleading advertising or used in violation of regulations 
In the case of any restricted device distributed or offered for sale in any State, if
(1)  its advertising is false or misleading in any particular, or
(2)  it is sold, distributed, or used in violation of regulations prescribed under section 360j (e) of this title.
(r) Restricted devices not carrying requisite accompanying statements in advertisements and other descriptive printed matter 
In the case of any restricted device distributed or offered for sale in any State, unless the manufacturer, packer, or distributor thereof includes in all advertisements and other descriptive printed matter issued or caused to be issued by the manufacturer, packer, or distributor with respect to that device
(1)  a true statement of the devices established name as defined in subsection (e) of this section, printed prominently and in type at least half as large as that used for any trade or brand name thereof, and
(2)  a brief statement of the intended uses of the device and relevant warnings, precautions, side effects, and contraindications and, in the case of specific devices made subject to a finding by the Secretary after notice and opportunity for comment that such action is necessary to protect the public health, a full description of the components of such device or the formula showing quantitatively each ingredient of such device to the extent required in regulations which shall be issued by the Secretary after an opportunity for a hearing. Except in extraordinary circumstances, no regulation issued under this paragraph shall require prior approval by the Secretary of the content of any advertisement and no advertisement of a restricted device, published after the effective date of this paragraph shall, with respect to the matters specified in this paragraph or covered by regulations issued hereunder, be subject to the provisions of sections 52 through 55 of title 15. This paragraph shall not be applicable to any printed matter which the Secretary determines to be labeling as defined in section 321 (m) of this title.
(s) Devices subject to performance standards not bearing requisite labeling 
If it is a device subject to a performance standard established under section 360d of this title, unless it bears such labeling as may be prescribed in such performance standard.
(t) Devices for which there has been a failure or refusal to give required notification or to furnish required material or information 
If it is a device and there was a failure or refusal
(1)  to comply with any requirement prescribed under section 360h of this title respecting the device,
(2)  to furnish any material or information required by or under section 360i of this title respecting the device, or
(3)  to comply with a requirement under section 360l of this title.
(u) Identification of manufacturer 

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), if it is a reprocessed single-use device, unless it, or an attachment thereto, prominently and conspicuously bears the name of the manufacturer of the reprocessed device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer.
(2) If the original device or an attachment thereto does not prominently and conspicuously bear the name of the manufacturer of the original device, a generally recognized abbreviation of such name, or a unique and generally recognized symbol identifying such manufacturer, a reprocessed device may satisfy the requirements of paragraph (1) through the use of a detachable label on the packaging that identifies the manufacturer and is intended to be affixed to the medical record of a patient.
(v) Reprocessed single-use devices 
If it is a reprocessed single-use device, unless all labeling of the device prominently and conspicuously bears the statement Reprocessed device for single use. Reprocessed by XX. The name of the manufacturer of the reprocessed device shall be placed in the space identifying the person responsible for reprocessing.
(w) New animal drugs 
If it is a new animal drug
(1) that is conditionally approved under section 360ccc of this title and its labeling does not conform with the approved application or section 360ccc (f) of this title, or that is not conditionally approved under section 360ccc of this title and its label bears the statement set forth in section 360ccc (f)(1)(A) of this title; or
(2) that is indexed under section 360ccc–1 of this title and its labeling does not conform with the index listing under section 360ccc–1 (e) of this title or 360ccc1(h) of this title, or that has not been indexed under section 360ccc–1 of this title and its label bears the statement set forth in section 360ccc–1 (h) of this title.
(x) Nonprescription drugs 
If it is a nonprescription drug (as defined in section 379aa of this title) that is marketed in the United States, unless the label of such drug includes a domestic address or domestic phone number through which the responsible person (as described in section 379aa of this title) may receive a report of a serious adverse event (as defined in section 379aa of this title) with such drug.
(y) Drugs subject to approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy 
If it is a drug subject to an approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy pursuant to section 355 (p) of this title and the responsible person (as such term is used in section 355–1 of this title) fails to comply with a requirement of such strategy provided for under subsection (d), (e), or (f) of section 355–1 of this title.
(z) Postmarket studies and clinical trials; new safety information in labeling 
If it is a drug, and the responsible person (as such term is used in section 355 (o) of this title) is in violation of a requirement established under paragraph (3) (relating to postmarket studies and clinical trials) or paragraph (4) (relating to labeling) of section 355 (o) of this title with respect to such drug.

21 USC 353 - Exemptions and consideration for certain drugs, devices, and biological products

(a) Regulations for goods to be processed, labeled, or repacked elsewhere 
The Secretary is directed to promulgate regulations exempting from any labeling or packaging requirement of this chapter drugs and devices which are, in accordance with the practice of the trade, to be processed, labeled, or repacked in substantial quantities at establishments other than those where originally processed or packed, on condition that such drugs and devices are not adulterated or misbranded under the provisions of this chapter upon removal from such processing, labeling, or repacking establishment.
(b) Prescription by physician; exemption from labeling and prescription requirements; misbranded drugs; compliance with narcotic and marihuana laws 

(1) A drug intended for use by man which
(A) because of its toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, or the method of its use, or the collateral measures necessary to its use, is not safe for use except under the supervision of a practitioner licensed by law to administer such drug; or
(B) is limited by an approved application under section 355 of this title to use under the professional supervision of a practitioner licensed by law to administer such drug;

shall be dispensed only

(i)  upon a written prescription of a practitioner licensed by law to administer such drug, or
(ii)  upon an oral prescription of such practitioner which is reduced promptly to writing and filed by the pharmacist, or
(iii)  by refilling any such written or oral prescription if such refilling is authorized by the prescriber either in the original prescription or by oral order which is reduced promptly to writing and filed by the pharmacist. The act of dispensing a drug contrary to the provisions of this paragraph shall be deemed to be an act which results in the drug being misbranded while held for sale.
(2) Any drug dispensed by filling or refilling a written or oral prescription of a practitioner licensed by law to administer such drug shall be exempt from the requirements of section 352 of this title, except paragraphs (a), (i)(2) and (3), (k), and (l), and the packaging requirements of paragraphs (g), (h), and (p), if the drug bears a label containing the name and address of the dispenser, the serial number and date of the prescription or of its filling, the name of the prescriber, and, if stated in the prescription, the name of the patient, and the directions for use and cautionary statements, if any, contained in such prescription. This exemption shall not apply to any drug dispensed in the course of the conduct of a business of dispensing drugs pursuant to diagnosis by mail, or to a drug dispensed in violation of paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) The Secretary may by regulation remove drugs subject to section 355 of this title from the requirements of paragraph (1) of this subsection when such requirements are not necessary for the protection of the public health.
(4) 
(A) A drug that is subject to paragraph (1) shall be deemed to be misbranded if at any time prior to dispensing the label of the drug fails to bear, at a minimum, the symbol Rx only.
(B) A drug to which paragraph (1) does not apply shall be deemed to be misbranded if at any time prior to dispensing the label of the drug bears the symbol described in subparagraph (A).
(5) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to relieve any person from any requirement prescribed by or under authority of law with respect to drugs now included or which may hereafter be included within the classifications stated in sections 4721, 6001, and 6151 of title 26, or to marihuana as defined in section 4761 of title 26.
(c) Sales restrictions 

(1) No person may sell, purchase, or trade or offer to sell, purchase, or trade any drug sample. For purposes of this paragraph and subsection (d) of this section, the term drug sample means a unit of a drug, subject to subsection (b) of this section, which is not intended to be sold and is intended to promote the sale of the drug. Nothing in this paragraph shall subject an officer or executive of a drug manufacturer or distributor to criminal liability solely because of a sale, purchase, trade, or offer to sell, purchase, or trade in violation of this paragraph by other employees of the manufacturer or distributor.
(2) No person may sell, purchase, or trade, offer to sell, purchase, or trade, or counterfeit any coupon. For purposes of this paragraph, the term coupon means a form which may be redeemed, at no cost or at a reduced cost, for a drug which is prescribed in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.
(3) 
(A) No person may sell, purchase, or trade, or offer to sell, purchase, or trade, any drug
(i) which is subject to subsection (b) of this section, and
(ii) 
(I) which was purchased by a public or private hospital or other health care entity, or
(II) which was donated or supplied at a reduced price to a charitable organization described in section 501 (c)(3) of title 26.
(B) Subparagraph (A) does not apply to
(i) the purchase or other acquisition by a hospital or other health care entity which is a member of a group purchasing organization of a drug for its own use from the group purchasing organization or from other hospitals or health care entities which are members of such organization,
(ii) the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or an offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug by an organization described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) to a nonprofit affiliate of the organization to the extent otherwise permitted by law,
(iii) a sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or an offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug among hospitals or other health care entities which are under common control,
(iv) a sale, purchase, or trade of a drug or an offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug for emergency medical reasons, or
(v) a sale, purchase, or trade of a drug, an offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug, or the dispensing of a drug pursuant to a prescription executed in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.

For purposes of this paragraph, the term entity does not include a wholesale distributor of drugs or a retail pharmacy licensed under State law and the term emergency medical reasons includes transfers of a drug between health care entities or from a health care entity to a retail pharmacy undertaken to alleviate temporary shortages of the drug arising from delays in or interruptions of regular distribution schedules.

(d) Distribution of drug samples 

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), no person may distribute any drug sample. For purposes of this subsection, the term distribute does not include the providing of a drug sample to a patient by a
(A) practitioner licensed to prescribe such drug,
(B) health care professional acting at the direction and under the supervision of such a practitioner, or
(C) pharmacy of a hospital or of another health care entity that is acting at the direction of such a practitioner and that received such sample pursuant to paragraph (2) or (3).
(2) 
(A) The manufacturer or authorized distributor of record of a drug subject to subsection (b) of this section may, in accordance with this paragraph, distribute drug samples by mail or common carrier to practitioners licensed to prescribe such drugs or, at the request of a licensed practitioner, to pharmacies of hospitals or other health care entities. Such a distribution of drug samples may only be made
(i) in response to a written request for drug samples made on a form which meets the requirements of subparagraph (B), and
(ii) under a system which requires the recipient of the drug sample to execute a written receipt for the drug sample upon its delivery and the return of the receipt to the manufacturer or authorized distributor of record.
(B) A written request for a drug sample required by subparagraph (A)(i) shall contain
(i) the name, address, professional designation, and signature of the practitioner making the request,
(ii) the identity of the drug sample requested and the quantity requested,
(iii) the name of the manufacturer of the drug sample requested, and
(iv) the date of the request.
(C) Each drug manufacturer or authorized distributor of record which makes distributions by mail or common carrier under this paragraph shall maintain, for a period of 3 years, the request forms submitted for such distributions and the receipts submitted for such distributions and shall maintain a record of distributions of drug samples which identifies the drugs distributed and the recipients of the distributions. Forms, receipts, and records required to be maintained under this subparagraph shall be made available by the drug manufacturer or authorized distributor of record to Federal and State officials engaged in the regulation of drugs and in the enforcement of laws applicable to drugs.
(3) The manufacturer or authorized distributor of record of a drug subject to subsection (b) of this section may, by means other than mail or common carrier, distribute drug samples only if the manufacturer or authorized distributor of record makes the distributions in accordance with subparagraph (A) and carries out the activities described in subparagraphs (B) through (F) as follows:
(A) Drug samples may only be distributed
(i) to practitioners licensed to prescribe such drugs if they make a written request for the drug samples, or
(ii) at the written request of such a licensed practitioner, to pharmacies of hospitals or other health care entities.

A written request for drug samples shall be made on a form which contains the practitioners name, address, and professional designation, the identity of the drug sample requested, the quantity of drug samples requested, the name of the manufacturer or authorized distributor of record of the drug sample, the date of the request and signature of the practitioner making the request.

(B) Drug manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall store drug samples under conditions that will maintain their stability, integrity, and effectiveness and will assure that the drug samples will be free of contamination, deterioration, and adulteration.
(C) Drug manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall conduct, at least annually, a complete and accurate inventory of all drug samples in the possession of representatives of the manufacturer or authorized distributor of record. Drug manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall maintain lists of the names and address of each of their representatives who distribute drug samples and of the sites where drug samples are stored. Drug manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall maintain records for at least 3 years of all drug samples distributed, destroyed, or returned to the manufacturer or authorized distributor of record, of all inventories maintained under this subparagraph, of all thefts or significant losses of drug samples, and of all requests made under subparagraph (A) for drug samples. Records and lists maintained under this subparagraph shall be made available by the drug manufacturer or authorized distributor of record to the Secretary upon request.
(D) Drug manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall notify the Secretary of any significant loss of drug samples and any known theft of drug samples.
(E) Drug manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall report to the Secretary any conviction of their representatives for violations of subsection (c)(1) of this section or a State law because of the sale, purchase, or trade of a drug sample or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade a drug sample.
(F) Drug manufacturers or authorized distributors of record shall provide to the Secretary the name and telephone number of the individual responsible for responding to a request for information respecting drug samples.
(e) Wholesale distributors; guidelines for licensing; definitions 

(1) 
(A) Each person who is engaged in the wholesale distribution of a drug subject to subsection (b) of this section and who is not the manufacturer or an authorized distributor of record of such drug shall, before each wholesale distribution of such drug (including each distribution to an authorized distributor of record or to a retail pharmacy), provide to the person who receives the drug a statement (in such form and containing such information as the Secretary may require) identifying each prior sale, purchase, or trade of such drug (including the date of the transaction and the names and addresses of all parties to the transaction).
(B) Each manufacturer of a drug subject to subsection (b) of this section shall maintain at its corporate offices a current list of the authorized distributors of record of such drug.
(2) 
(A) No person may engage in the wholesale distribution in interstate commerce of drugs subject to subsection (b) of this section in a State unless such person is licensed by the State in accordance with the guidelines issued under subparagraph (B).
(B) The Secretary shall by regulation issue guidelines establishing minimum standards, terms, and conditions for the licensing of persons to make wholesale distributions in interstate commerce of drugs subject to subsection (b) of this section. Such guidelines shall prescribe requirements for the storage and handling of such drugs and for the establishment and maintenance of records of the distributions of such drugs.
(3) For the purposes of this subsection and subsection (d) of this section
(A) the term authorized distributors of record means those distributors with whom a manufacturer has established an ongoing relationship to distribute such manufacturers products, and
(B) the term wholesale distribution means distribution of drugs subject to subsection (b) of this section to other than the consumer or patient but does not include intracompany sales and does not include distributions of drugs described in subsection (c)(3)(B) of this section.
(f) Veterinary prescription drugs 

(1) 
(A) A drug intended for use by animals other than man, other than a veterinary feed directive drug intended for use in animal feed or an animal feed bearing or containing a veterinary feed directive drug, which
(i) because of its toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, or the method of its use, or the collateral measures necessary for its use, is not safe for animal use except under the professional supervision of a licensed veterinarian, or
(ii) is limited by an approved application under subsection (b) of section 360b of this title, a conditionally-approved application under section 360ccc of this title, or an index listing under section 360ccc–1 of this title to use under the professional supervision of a licensed veterinarian,

shall be dispensed only by or upon the lawful written or oral order of a licensed veterinarian in the course of the veterinarians professional practice.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), an order is lawful if the order
(i) is a prescription or other order authorized by law,
(ii) is, if an oral order, promptly reduced to writing by the person lawfully filling the order, and filed by that person, and
(iii) is refilled only if authorized in the original order or in a subsequent oral order promptly reduced to writing by the person lawfully filling the order, and filed by that person.
(C) The act of dispensing a drug contrary to the provisions of this paragraph shall be deemed to be an act which results in the drug being misbranded while held for sale.
(2) Any drug when dispensed in accordance with paragraph (1) of this subsection
(A) shall be exempt from the requirements of section 352 of this title, except subsections (a), (g), (h), (i)(2), (i)(3), and (p) of such section, and
(B) shall be exempt from the packaging requirements of subsections (g), (h), and (p) of such section, if
(i) when dispensed by a licensed veterinarian, the drug bears a label containing the name and address of the practitioner and any directions for use and cautionary statements specified by the practitioner, or
(ii) when dispensed by filling the lawful order of a licensed veterinarian, the drug bears a label containing the name and address of the dispenser, the serial number and date of the order or of its filling, the name of the licensed veterinarian, and the directions for use and cautionary statements, if any, contained in such order.

The preceding sentence shall not apply to any drug dispensed in the course of the conduct of a business of dispensing drugs pursuant to diagnosis by mail.

(3) The Secretary may by regulation exempt drugs for animals other than man subject to section 360b, 360ccc, or 360ccc–1 of this title from the requirements of paragraph (1) when such requirements are not necessary for the protection of the public health.
(4) A drug which is subject to paragraph (1) shall be deemed to be misbranded if at any time prior to dispensing its label fails to bear the statement Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.. A drug to which paragraph (1) does not apply shall be deemed to be misbranded if at any time prior to dispensing its label bears the statement specified in the preceding sentence.
(g) Regulation of combination products 

(1) The Secretary shall in accordance with this subsection assign an agency center to regulate products that constitute a combination of a drug, device, or biological product. The Secretary shall determine the primary mode of action of the combination product. If the Secretary determines that the primary mode of action is that of
(A) a drug (other than a biological product), the agency center charged with premarket review of drugs shall have primary jurisdiction,
(B) a device, the agency center charged with premarket review of devices shall have primary jurisdiction, or
(C) a biological product, the agency center charged with premarket review of biological products shall have primary jurisdiction.
(2) Nothing in this subsection shall prevent the Secretary from using any agency resources of the Food and Drug Administration necessary to ensure adequate review of the safety, effectiveness, or substantial equivalence of an article.
(3) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations to implement market clearance procedures in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (2) not later than 1 year after November 28, 1990.
(4) 
(A) Not later than 60 days after October 26, 2002, the Secretary shall establish within the Office of the Commissioner of Food and Drugs an office to ensure the prompt assignment of combination products to agency centers, the timely and effective premarket review of such products, and consistent and appropriate postmarket regulation of like products subject to the same statutory requirements to the extent permitted by law. Additionally, the office shall, in determining whether a product is to be designated a combination product, consult with the component within the Office of the Commissioner of Food and Drugs that is responsible for such determinations. Such office (referred to in this paragraph as the Office) shall have appropriate scientific and medical expertise, and shall be headed by a director.
(B) In carrying out this subsection, the Office shall, for each combination product, promptly assign an agency center with primary jurisdiction in accordance with paragraph (1) for the premarket review of such product.
(C) 
(i) In carrying out this subsection, the Office shall ensure timely and effective premarket reviews by overseeing the timeliness of and coordinating reviews involving more than one agency center.
(ii) In order to ensure the timeliness of the premarket review of a combination product, the agency center with primary jurisdiction for the product, and the consulting agency center, shall be responsible to the Office with respect to the timeliness of the premarket review.
(D) In carrying out this subsection, the Office shall ensure the consistency and appropriateness of postmarket regulation of like products subject to the same statutory requirements to the extent permitted by law.
(E) 
(i) Any dispute regarding the timeliness of the premarket review of a combination product may be presented to the Office for resolution, unless the dispute is clearly premature.
(ii) During the review process, any dispute regarding the substance of the premarket review may be presented to the Commissioner of Food and Drugs after first being considered by the agency center with primary jurisdiction of the premarket review, under the scientific dispute resolution procedures for such center. The Commissioner of Food and Drugs shall consult with the Director of the Office in resolving the substantive dispute.
(F) The Secretary, acting through the Office, shall review each agreement, guidance, or practice of the Secretary that is specific to the assignment of combination products to agency centers and shall determine whether the agreement, guidance, or practice is consistent with the requirements of this subsection. In carrying out such review, the Secretary shall consult with stakeholders and the directors of the agency centers. After such consultation, the Secretary shall determine whether to continue in effect, modify, revise, or eliminate such agreement, guidance, or practice, and shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of the availability of such modified or revised agreement, guidance or practice. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as preventing the Secretary from following each agreement, guidance, or practice until continued, modified, revised, or eliminated.
(G) Not later than one year after October 26, 2002, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall report to the appropriate committees of Congress on the activities and impact of the Office. The report shall include provisions
(i) describing the numbers and types of combination products under review and the timeliness in days of such assignments, reviews, and dispute resolutions;
(ii) identifying the number of premarket reviews of such products that involved a consulting agency center; and
(iii) describing improvements in the consistency of postmarket regulation of combination products.
(H) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to limit the regulatory authority of any agency center.
(5) As used in this subsection:
(A) The term agency center means a center or alternative organizational component of the Food and Drug Administration.
(B) The term biological product has the meaning given the term in section 262 (i) of title 42.
(C) The term market clearance includes
(i) approval of an application under section 355, 357,1 360e, or 360j (g) of this title,
(ii) a finding of substantial equivalence under this part, and
(iii) approval of a biologics license application under subsection (a) of section 262 of title 42.
[1] See References in Text note below.

21 USC 353a - Pharmacy compounding

(a) In general 
Sections 351 (a)(2)(B), 352 (f)(1), and 355 of this title shall not apply to a drug product if the drug product is compounded for an identified individual patient based on the unsolicited receipt of a valid prescription order or a notation, approved by the prescribing practitioner, on the prescription order that a compounded product is necessary for the identified patient, if the drug product meets the requirements of this section, and if the compounding
(1) is by
(A) a licensed pharmacist in a State licensed pharmacy or a Federal facility, or
(B) a licensed physician,

on the prescription order for such individual patient made by a licensed physician or other licensed practitioner authorized by State law to prescribe drugs; or

(2) 
(A) is by a licensed pharmacist or licensed physician in limited quantities before the receipt of a valid prescription order for such individual patient; and
(B) is based on a history of the licensed pharmacist or licensed physician receiving valid prescription orders for the compounding of the drug product, which orders have been generated solely within an established relationship between
(i) the licensed pharmacist or licensed physician; and
(ii) 
(I) such individual patient for whom the prescription order will be provided; or
(II) the physician or other licensed practitioner who will write such prescription order.
(b) Compounded drug 

(1) Licensed pharmacist and licensed physician 
A drug product may be compounded under subsection (a) of this section if the licensed pharmacist or licensed physician
(A) compounds the drug product using bulk drug substances, as defined in regulations of the Secretary published at section 207.3(a)(4) of title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations
(i) that
(I) comply with the standards of an applicable United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary monograph, if a monograph exists, and the United States Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding;
(II) if such a monograph does not exist, are drug substances that are components of drugs approved by the Secretary; or
(III) if such a monograph does not exist and the drug substance is not a component of a drug approved by the Secretary, that appear on a list developed by the Secretary through regulations issued by the Secretary under subsection (d) of this section;
(ii) that are manufactured by an establishment that is registered under section 360 of this title (including a foreign establishment that is registered under section 360 (i) of this title); and
(iii) that are accompanied by valid certificates of analysis for each bulk drug substance;
(B) compounds the drug product using ingredients (other than bulk drug substances) that comply with the standards of an applicable United States Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary monograph, if a monograph exists, and the United States Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding;
(C) does not compound a drug product that appears on a list published by the Secretary in the Federal Register of drug products that have been withdrawn or removed from the market because such drug products or components of such drug products have been found to be unsafe or not effective; and
(D) does not compound regularly or in inordinate amounts (as defined by the Secretary) any drug products that are essentially copies of a commercially available drug product.
(2) Definition 
For purposes of paragraph (1)(D), the term essentially a copy of a commercially available drug product does not include a drug product in which there is a change, made for an identified individual patient, which produces for that patient a significant difference, as determined by the prescribing practitioner, between the compounded drug and the comparable commercially available drug product.
(3) Drug product 
A drug product may be compounded under subsection (a) only if
(A) such drug product is not a drug product identified by the Secretary by regulation as a drug product that presents demonstrable difficulties for compounding that reasonably demonstrate an adverse effect on the safety or effectiveness of that drug product; and
(B) such drug product is compounded in a State
(i) that has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the Secretary which addresses the distribution of inordinate amounts of compounded drug products interstate and provides for appropriate investigation by a State agency of complaints relating to compounded drug products distributed outside such State; or
(ii) that has not entered into the memorandum of understanding described in clause (i) and the licensed pharmacist, licensed pharmacy, or licensed physician distributes (or causes to be distributed) compounded drug products out of the State in which they are compounded in quantities that do not exceed 5 percent of the total prescription orders dispensed or distributed by such pharmacy or physician.

The Secretary shall, in consultation with the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, develop a standard memorandum of understanding for use by the States in complying with subparagraph (B)(i).

(c) Advertising and promotion 
A drug may be compounded under subsection (a) of this section only if the pharmacy, licensed pharmacist, or licensed physician does not advertise or promote the compounding of any particular drug, class of drug, or type of drug. The pharmacy, licensed pharmacist, or licensed physician may advertise and promote the compounding service provided by the licensed pharmacist or licensed physician.
(d) Regulations 

(1) In general 
The Secretary shall issue regulations to implement this section. Before issuing regulations to implement subsections (b)(1)(A)(i)(III), (b)(1)(C), or (b)(3)(A) of this section, the Secretary shall convene and consult an advisory committee on compounding unless the Secretary determines that the issuance of such regulations before consultation is necessary to protect the public health. The advisory committee shall include representatives from the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, the United States Pharmacopoeia, pharmacy, physician, and consumer organizations, and other experts selected by the Secretary.
(2) Limiting compounding 
The Secretary, in consultation with the United States Pharmacopoeia Convention, Incorporated, shall promulgate regulations identifying drug substances that may be used in compounding under subsection (b)(1)(A)(i)(III) of this section for which a monograph does not exist or which are not components of drug products approved by the Secretary. The Secretary shall include in the regulation the criteria for such substances, which shall include historical use, reports in peer reviewed medical literature, or other criteria the Secretary may identify.
(e) Application 
This section shall not apply to
(1) compounded positron emission tomography drugs as defined in section 321 (ii) of this title; or
(2) radiopharmaceuticals.
(f) “Compounding” defined 
As used in this section, the term compounding does not include mixing, reconstituting, or other such acts that are performed in accordance with directions contained in approved labeling provided by the products manufacturer and other manufacturer directions consistent with that labeling.

21 USC 353b - Prereview of television advertisements

(a) In general 
The Secretary may require the submission of any television advertisement for a drug (including any script, story board, rough, or a completed video production of the television advertisement) to the Secretary for review under this section not later than 45 days before dissemination of the television advertisement.
(b) Review 
In conducting a review of a television advertisement under this section, the Secretary may make recommendations with respect to information included in the label of the drug
(1) on changes that are
(A) necessary to protect the consumer good and well-being; or
(B) consistent with prescribing information for the product under review; and
(2) if appropriate and if information exists, on statements for inclusion in the advertisement to address the specific efficacy of the drug as it relates to specific population groups, including elderly populations, children, and racial and ethnic minorities.
(c) No authority to require changes 
Except as provided by subsection (e), this section does not authorize the Secretary to make or direct changes in any material submitted pursuant to subsection (a).
(d) Elderly populations, children, racially and ethnically diverse communities 
In formulating recommendations under subsection (b), the Secretary shall take into consideration the impact of the advertised drug on elderly populations, children, and racially and ethnically diverse communities.
(e) Specific disclosures 

(1) Serious risk; safety protocol 
In conducting a review of a television advertisement under this section, if the Secretary determines that the advertisement would be false or misleading without a specific disclosure about a serious risk listed in the labeling of the drug involved, the Secretary may require inclusion of such disclosure in the advertisement.
(2) Date of approval 
In conducting a review of a television advertisement under this section, the Secretary may require the advertisement to include, for a period not to exceed 2 years from the date of the approval of the drug under section 355 of this title or section 262 of title 42, a specific disclosure of such date of approval if the Secretary determines that the advertisement would otherwise be false or misleading.
(f) Rule of construction 
Nothing in this section may be construed as having any effect on requirements under section 352 (n) of this title or on the authority of the Secretary under section 314.550, 314.640, 601.45, or 601.94 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations).

21 USC 354 - Veterinary feed directive drugs

(a) Lawful veterinary feed directive requirement 

(1) A drug intended for use in or on animal feed which is limited by an approved application filed pursuant to section 360b (b) of this title, a conditionally-approved application filed pursuant to section 360ccc of this title, or an index listing pursuant to section 360ccc–1 of this title to use under the professional supervision of a licensed veterinarian is a veterinary feed directive drug. Any animal feed bearing or containing a veterinary feed directive drug shall be fed to animals only by or upon a lawful veterinary feed directive issued by a licensed veterinarian in the course of the veterinarians professional practice. When labeled, distributed, held, and used in accordance with this section, a veterinary feed directive drug and any animal feed bearing or containing a veterinary feed directive drug shall be exempt from section 352 (f) of this title.
(2) A veterinary feed directive is lawful if it
(A) contains such information as the Secretary may by general regulation or by order require; and
(B) is in compliance with the conditions and indications for use of the drug set forth in the notice published pursuant to section 360b (i) of this title, or the index listing pursuant to section 360ccc–1 (e) of this title.
(3) 
(A) Any persons involved in the distribution or use of animal feed bearing or containing a veterinary feed directive drug and the licensed veterinarian issuing the veterinary feed directive shall maintain a copy of the veterinary feed directive applicable to each such feed, except in the case of a person distributing such feed to another person for further distribution. Such person distributing the feed shall maintain a written acknowledgment from the person to whom the feed is shipped stating that that person shall not ship or move such feed to an animal production facility without a veterinary feed directive or ship such feed to another person for further distribution unless that person has provided the same written acknowledgment to its immediate supplier.
(B) Every person required under subparagraph (A) to maintain records, and every person in charge or custody thereof, shall, upon request of an officer or employee designated by the Secretary, permit such officer or employee at all reasonable times to have access to and copy and verify such records.
(C) Any person who distributes animal feed bearing or containing a veterinary feed directive drug shall upon first engaging in such distribution notify the Secretary of that persons name and place of business. The failure to provide such notification shall be deemed to be an act which results in the drug being misbranded.
(b) Labeling and advertising 
A veterinary feed directive drug and any feed bearing or containing a veterinary feed directive drug shall be deemed to be misbranded if their labeling fails to bear such cautionary statement and such other information as the Secretary may by general regulation or by order prescribe, or their advertising fails to conform to the conditions and indications for use published pursuant to section 360b (i) of this title, or the index listing pursuant to section 360ccc–1 (e) of this title or fails to contain the general cautionary statement prescribed by the Secretary.
(c) Nonprescription status 
Neither a drug subject to this section, nor animal feed bearing or containing such a drug, shall be deemed to be a prescription article under any Federal or State law.

21 USC 355 - New drugs

(a) Necessity of effective approval of application 
No person shall introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any new drug, unless an approval of an application filed pursuant to subsection (b) or (j) of this section is effective with respect to such drug.
(b) Filing application; contents 

(1) Any person may file with the Secretary an application with respect to any drug subject to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section. Such person shall submit to the Secretary as a part of the application
(A)  full reports of investigations which have been made to show whether or not such drug is safe for use and whether such drug is effective in use;
(B)  a full list of the articles used as components of such drug;
(C)  a full statement of the composition of such drug;
(D)  a full description of the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture, processing, and packing of such drug;
(E)  such samples of such drug and of the articles used as components thereof as the Secretary may require;
(F)  specimens of the labeling proposed to be used for such drug, and
(G)  any assessments required under section 355c of this title. The applicant shall file with the application the patent number and the expiration date of any patent which claims the drug for which the applicant submitted the application or which claims a method of using such drug and with respect to which a claim of patent infringement could reasonably be asserted if a person not licensed by the owner engaged in the manufacture, use, or sale of the drug. If an application is filed under this subsection for a drug and a patent which claims such drug or a method of using such drug is issued after the filing date but before approval of the application, the applicant shall amend the application to include the information required by the preceding sentence. Upon approval of the application, the Secretary shall publish information submitted under the two preceding sentences. The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Director of the National Institutes of Health and with representatives of the drug manufacturing industry, review and develop guidance, as appropriate, on the inclusion of women and minorities in clinical trials required by clause (A).
(2) An application submitted under paragraph (1) for a drug for which the investigations described in clause (A) of such paragraph and relied upon by the applicant for approval of the application were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted shall also include
(A) a certification, in the opinion of the applicant and to the best of his knowledge, with respect to each patent which claims the drug for which such investigations were conducted or which claims a use for such drug for which the applicant is seeking approval under this subsection and for which information is required to be filed under paragraph (1) or subsection (c) of this section
(i) that such patent information has not been filed,
(ii) that such patent has expired,
(iii) of the date on which such patent will expire, or
(iv) that such patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use, or sale of the new drug for which the application is submitted; and
(B) if with respect to the drug for which investigations described in paragraph (1)(A) were conducted information was filed under paragraph (1) or subsection (c) of this section for a method of use patent which does not claim a use for which the applicant is seeking approval under this subsection, a statement that the method of use patent does not claim such a use.
(3) Notice of opinion that patent is invalid or will not be infringed.— 

(A) Agreement to give notice.— 
An applicant that makes a certification described in paragraph (2)(A)(iv) shall include in the application a statement that the applicant will give notice as required by this paragraph.
(B) Timing of notice.— 
An applicant that makes a certification described in paragraph (2)(A)(iv) shall give notice as required under this paragraph
(i) if the certification is in the application, not later than 20 days after the date of the postmark on the notice with which the Secretary informs the applicant that the application has been filed; or
(ii) if the certification is in an amendment or supplement to the application, at the time at which the applicant submits the amendment or supplement, regardless of whether the applicant has already given notice with respect to another such certification contained in the application or in an amendment or supplement to the application.
(C) Recipients of notice.— 
An applicant required under this paragraph to give notice shall give notice to
(i) each owner of the patent that is the subject of the certification (or a representative of the owner designated to receive such a notice); and
(ii) the holder of the approved application under this subsection for the drug that is claimed by the patent or a use of which is claimed by the patent (or a representative of the holder designated to receive such a notice).
(D) Contents of notice.— 
A notice required under this paragraph shall
(i) state that an application that contains data from bioavailability or bioequivalence studies has been submitted under this subsection for the drug with respect to which the certification is made to obtain approval to engage in the commercial manufacture, use, or sale of the drug before the expiration of the patent referred to in the certification; and
(ii) include a detailed statement of the factual and legal basis of the opinion of the applicant that the patent is invalid or will not be infringed.
(4) 
(A) An applicant may not amend or supplement an application referred to in paragraph (2) to seek approval of a drug that is a different drug than the drug identified in the application as submitted to the Secretary.
(B) With respect to the drug for which such an application is submitted, nothing in this subsection or subsection (c)(3) of this section prohibits an applicant from amending or supplementing the application to seek approval of a different strength.
(5) 
(A) The Secretary shall issue guidance for the individuals who review applications submitted under paragraph (1) or under section 262 of title 42, which shall relate to promptness in conducting the review, technical excellence, lack of bias and conflict of interest, and knowledge of regulatory and scientific standards, and which shall apply equally to all individuals who review such applications.
(B) The Secretary shall meet with a sponsor of an investigation or an applicant for approval for a drug under this subsection or section 262 of title 42 if the sponsor or applicant makes a reasonable written request for a meeting for the purpose of reaching agreement on the design and size of clinical trials intended to form the primary basis of an effectiveness claim. The sponsor or applicant shall provide information necessary for discussion and agreement on the design and size of the clinical trials. Minutes of any such meeting shall be prepared by the Secretary and made available to the sponsor or applicant upon request.
(C) Any agreement regarding the parameters of the design and size of clinical trials of a new drug under this paragraph that is reached between the Secretary and a sponsor or applicant shall be reduced to writing and made part of the administrative record by the Secretary. Such agreement shall not be changed after the testing begins, except
(i) with the written agreement of the sponsor or applicant; or
(ii) pursuant to a decision, made in accordance with subparagraph (D) by the director of the reviewing division, that a substantial scientific issue essential to determining the safety or effectiveness of the drug has been identified after the testing has begun.
(D) A decision under subparagraph (C)(ii) by the director shall be in writing and the Secretary shall provide to the sponsor or applicant an opportunity for a meeting at which the director and the sponsor or applicant will be present and at which the director will document the scientific issue involved.
(E) The written decisions of the reviewing division shall be binding upon, and may not directly or indirectly be changed by, the field or compliance division personnel unless such field or compliance division personnel demonstrate to the reviewing division why such decision should be modified.
(F) No action by the reviewing division may be delayed because of the unavailability of information from or action by field personnel unless the reviewing division determines that a delay is necessary to assure the marketing of a safe and effective drug.
(G) For purposes of this paragraph, the reviewing division is the division responsible for the review of an application for approval of a drug under this subsection or section 262 of title 42 (including all scientific and medical matters, chemistry, manufacturing, and controls).
(6) An application submitted under this subsection shall be accompanied by the certification required under section 282 (j)(5)(B) of title 42. Such certification shall not be considered an element of such application.
(c) Period for approval of application; period for, notice, and expedition of hearing; period for issuance of order 

(1) Within one hundred and eighty days after the filing of an application under subsection (b) of this section, or such additional period as may be agreed upon by the Secretary and the applicant, the Secretary shall either
(A) approve the application if he then finds that none of the grounds for denying approval specified in subsection (d) of this section applies, or
(B) give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing before the Secretary under subsection (d) of this section on the question whether such application is approvable. If the applicant elects to accept the opportunity for hearing by written request within thirty days after such notice, such hearing shall commence not more than ninety days after the expiration of such thirty days unless the Secretary and the applicant otherwise agree. Any such hearing shall thereafter be conducted on an expedited basis and the Secretarys order thereon shall be issued within ninety days after the date fixed by the Secretary for filing final briefs.
(2) If the patent information described in subsection (b) of this section could not be filed with the submission of an application under subsection (b) of this section because the application was filed before the patent information was required under subsection (b) of this section or a patent was issued after the application was approved under such subsection, the holder of an approved application shall file with the Secretary the patent number and the expiration date of any patent which claims the drug for which the application was submitted or which claims a method of using such drug and with respect to which a claim of patent infringement could reasonably be asserted if a person not licensed by the owner engaged in the manufacture, use, or sale of the drug. If the holder of an approved application could not file patent information under subsection (b) of this section because it was not required at the time the application was approved, the holder shall file such information under this subsection not later than thirty days after September 24, 1984, and if the holder of an approved application could not file patent information under subsection (b) of this section because no patent had been issued when an application was filed or approved, the holder shall file such information under this subsection not later than thirty days after the date the patent involved is issued. Upon the submission of patent information under this subsection, the Secretary shall publish it.
(3) The approval of an application filed under subsection (b) of this section which contains a certification required by paragraph (2) of such subsection shall be made effective on the last applicable date determined by applying the following to each certification made under subsection (b)(2)(A) of this section:
(A) If the applicant only made a certification described in clause (i) or (ii) of subsection (b)(2)(A) of this section or in both such clauses, the approval may be made effective immediately.
(B) If the applicant made a certification described in clause (iii) of subsection (b)(2)(A) of this section, the approval may be made effective on the date certified under clause (iii).
(C) If the applicant made a certification described in clause (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(A) of this section, the approval shall be made effective immediately unless, before the expiration of 45 days after the date on which the notice described in subsection (b)(3) of this section is received, an action is brought for infringement of the patent that is the subject of the certification and for which information was submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (2) or subsection (b)(1) of this section before the date on which the application (excluding an amendment or supplement to the application) was submitted. If such an action is brought before the expiration of such days, the approval may be made effective upon the expiration of the thirty-month period beginning on the date of the receipt of the notice provided under subsection (b)(3) of this section or such shorter or longer period as the court may order because either party to the action failed to reasonably cooperate in expediting the action, except that
(i) if before the expiration of such period the district court decides that the patent is invalid or not infringed (including any substantive determination that there is no cause of action for patent infringement or invalidity), the approval shall be made effective on
(I) the date on which the court enters judgment reflecting the decision; or
(II) the date of a settlement order or consent decree signed and entered by the court stating that the patent that is the subject of the certification is invalid or not infringed;
(ii) if before the expiration of such period the district court decides that the patent has been infringed
(I) if the judgment of the district court is appealed, the approval shall be made effective on
(aa) the date on which the court of appeals decides that the patent is invalid or not infringed (including any substantive determination that there is no cause of action for patent infringement or invalidity); or
(bb) the date of a settlement order or consent decree signed and entered by the court of appeals stating that the patent that is the subject of the certification is invalid or not infringed; or
(II) if the judgment of the district court is not appealed or is affirmed, the approval shall be made effective on the date specified by the district court in a court order under section 271 (e)(4)(A) of title 35;
(iii) if before the expiration of such period the court grants a preliminary injunction prohibiting the applicant from engaging in the commercial manufacture or sale of the drug until the court decides the issues of patent validity and infringement and if the court decides that such patent is invalid or not infringed, the approval shall be made effective as provided in clause (i); or
(iv) if before the expiration of such period the court grants a preliminary injunction prohibiting the applicant from engaging in the commercial manufacture or sale of the drug until the court decides the issues of patent validity and infringement and if the court decides that such patent has been infringed, the approval shall be made effective as provided in clause (ii).

In such an action, each of the parties shall reasonably cooperate in expediting the action.

(D) Civil action to obtain patent certainty.— 

(i) Declaratory judgment absent infringement action.— 

(I) In general.— 
No action may be brought under section 2201 of title 28 by an applicant referred to in subsection (b)(2) of this section for a declaratory judgment with respect to a patent which is the subject of the certification referred to in subparagraph (C) unless
(aa) the 45-day period referred to in such subparagraph has expired;
(bb) neither the owner of such patent nor the holder of the approved application under subsection (b) of this section for the drug that is claimed by the patent or a use of which is claimed by the patent brought a civil action against the applicant for infringement of the patent before the expiration of such period; and
(cc) in any case in which the notice provided under paragraph (2)(B) relates to noninfringement, the notice was accompanied by a document described in subclause (III).
(II) Filing of civil action.— 
If the conditions described in items (aa), (bb), and as applicable, (cc) of subclause (I) have been met, the applicant referred to in such subclause may, in accordance with section 2201 of title 28, bring a civil action under such section against the owner or holder referred to in such subclause (but not against any owner or holder that has brought such a civil action against the applicant, unless that civil action was dismissed without prejudice) for a declaratory judgment that the patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the drug for which the applicant seeks approval, except that such civil action may be brought for a declaratory judgment that the patent will not be infringed only in a case in which the condition described in subclause (I)(cc) is applicable. A civil action referred to in this subclause shall be brought in the judicial district where the defendant has its principal place of business or a regular and established place of business.
(III) Offer of confidential access to application.— 
For purposes of subclause (I)(cc), the document described in this subclause is a document providing an offer of confidential access to the application that is in the custody of the applicant referred to in subsection (b)(2) of this section for the purpose of determining whether an action referred to in subparagraph (C) should be brought. The document providing the offer of confidential access shall contain such restrictions as to persons entitled to access, and on the use and disposition of any information accessed, as would apply had a protective order been entered for the purpose of protecting trade secrets and other confidential business information. A request for access to an application under an offer of confidential access shall be considered acceptance of the offer of confidential access with the restrictions as to persons entitled to access, and on the use and disposition of any information accessed, contained in the offer of confidential access, and those restrictions and other terms of the offer of confidential access shall be considered terms of an enforceable contract. Any person provided an offer of confidential access shall review the application for the sole and limited purpose of evaluating possible infringement of the patent that is the subject of the certification under subsection (b)(2)(A)(iv) of this section and for no other purpose, and may not disclose information of no relevance to any issue of patent infringement to any person other than a person provided an offer of confidential access. Further, the application may be redacted by the applicant to remove any information of no relevance to any issue of patent infringement.
(ii) Counterclaim to infringement action.— 

(I) In general.— 
If an owner of the patent or the holder of the approved application under subsection (b) of this section for the drug that is claimed by the patent or a use of which is claimed by the patent brings a patent infringement action against the applicant, the applicant may assert a counterclaim seeking an order requiring the holder to correct or delete the patent information submitted by the holder under subsection (b) of this section or this subsection on the ground that the patent does not claim either
(aa) the drug for which the application was approved; or
(bb) an approved method of using the drug.
(II) No independent cause of action.— 
Subclause (I) does not authorize the assertion of a claim described in subclause (I) in any civil action or proceeding other than a counterclaim described in subclause (I).
(iii) No damages.— 
An applicant shall not be entitled to damages in a civil action under clause (i) or a counterclaim under clause (ii).
(E) 
(i) If an application (other than an abbreviated new drug application) submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, no active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) of which has been approved in any other application under subsection (b) of this section, was approved during the period beginning January 1, 1982, and ending on September 24, 1984, the Secretary may not make the approval of another application for a drug for which the investigations described in clause (A) of subsection (b)(1) of this section and relied upon by the applicant for approval of the application were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted effective before the expiration of ten years from the date of the approval of the application previously approved under subsection (b) of this section.
(ii) If an application submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, no active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) of which has been approved in any other application under subsection (b) of this section, is approved after September 24, 1984, no application which refers to the drug for which the subsection (b) application was submitted and for which the investigations described in clause (A) of subsection (b)(1) of this section and relied upon by the applicant for approval of the application were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted may be submitted under subsection (b) of this section before the expiration of five years from the date of the approval of the application under subsection (b) of this section, except that such an application may be submitted under subsection (b) of this section after the expiration of four years from the date of the approval of the subsection (b) application if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or noninfringement described in clause (iv) of subsection (b)(2)(A) of this section. The approval of such an application shall be made effective in accordance with this paragraph except that, if an action for patent infringement is commenced during the one-year period beginning forty-eight months after the date of the approval of the subsection (b) application, the thirty-month period referred to in subparagraph (C) shall be extended by such amount of time (if any) which is required for seven and one-half years to have elapsed from the date of approval of the subsection (b) application.
(iii) If an application submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, which includes an active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) that has been approved in another application approved under subsection (b) of this section, is approved after September 24, 1984, and if such application contains reports of new clinical investigations (other than bioavailability studies) essential to the approval of the application and conducted or sponsored by the applicant, the Secretary may not make the approval of an application submitted under subsection (b) of this section for the conditions of approval of such drug in the approved subsection (b) application effective before the expiration of three years from the date of the approval of the application under subsection (b) of this section if the investigations described in clause (A) of subsection (b)(1) of this section and relied upon by the applicant for approval of the application were not conducted by or for the applicant and if the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted.
(iv) If a supplement to an application approved under subsection (b) of this section is approved after September 24, 1984, and the supplement contains reports of new clinical investigations (other than bioavailabilty[1] studies) essential to the approval of the supplement and conducted or sponsored by the person submitting the supplement, the Secretary may not make the approval of an application submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a change approved in the supplement effective before the expiration of three years from the date of the approval of the supplement under subsection (b) of this section if the investigations described in clause (A) of subsection (b)(1) of this section and relied upon by the applicant for approval of the application were not conducted by or for the applicant and if the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted.
(v) If an application (or supplement to an application) submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, which includes an active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) that has been approved in another application under subsection (b) of this section, was approved during the period beginning January 1, 1982, and ending on September 24, 1984, the Secretary may not make the approval of an application submitted under this subsection and for which the investigations described in clause (A) of subsection (b)(1) of this section and relied upon by the applicant for approval of the application were not conducted by or for the applicant and for which the applicant has not obtained a right of reference or use from the person by or for whom the investigations were conducted and which refers to the drug for which the subsection (b) application was submitted effective before the expiration of two years from September 24, 1984.
(4) A drug manufactured in a pilot or other small facility may be used to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the drug and to obtain approval for the drug prior to manufacture of the drug in a larger facility, unless the Secretary makes a determination that a full scale production facility is necessary to ensure the safety or effectiveness of the drug.
(d) Grounds for refusing application; approval of application; “substantial evidence” defined 
If the Secretary finds, after due notice to the applicant in accordance with subsection (c) of this section and giving him an opportunity for a hearing, in accordance with said subsection, that
(1)  the investigations, reports of which are required to be submitted to the Secretary pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, do not include adequate tests by all methods reasonably applicable to show whether or not such drug is safe for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the proposed labeling thereof;
(2)  the results of such tests show that such drug is unsafe for use under such conditions or do not show that such drug is safe for use under such conditions;
(3)  the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture, processing, and packing of such drug are inadequate to preserve its identity, strength, quality, and purity;
(4)  upon the basis of the information submitted to him as part of the application, or upon the basis of any other information before him with respect to such drug, he has insufficient information to determine whether such drug is safe for use under such conditions; or
(5)  evaluated on the basis of the information submitted to him as part of the application and any other information before him with respect to such drug, there is a lack of substantial evidence that the drug will have the effect it purports or is represented to have under the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the proposed labeling thereof; or
(6)  the application failed to contain the patent information prescribed by subsection (b) of this section; or
(7)  based on a fair evaluation of all material facts, such labeling is false or misleading in any particular; he shall issue an order refusing to approve the application. If, after such notice and opportunity for hearing, the Secretary finds that clauses (1) through (6) do not apply, he shall issue an order approving the application. As used in this subsection and subsection (e) of this section, the term substantial evidence means evidence consisting of adequate and well-controlled investigations, including clinical investigations, by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the effectiveness of the drug involved, on the basis of which it could fairly and responsibly be concluded by such experts that the drug will have the effect it purports or is represented to have under the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling or proposed labeling thereof. If the Secretary determines, based on relevant science, that data from one adequate and well-controlled clinical investigation and confirmatory evidence (obtained prior to or after such investigation) are sufficient to establish effectiveness, the Secretary may consider such data and evidence to constitute substantial evidence for purposes of the preceding sentence.
(e) Withdrawal of approval; grounds; immediate suspension upon finding imminent hazard to public health 
The Secretary shall, after due notice and opportunity for hearing to the applicant, withdraw approval of an application with respect to any drug under this section if the Secretary finds
(1)  that clinical or other experience, tests, or other scientific data show that such drug is unsafe for use under the conditions of use upon the basis of which the application was approved;
(2)  that new evidence of clinical experience, not contained in such application or not available to the Secretary until after such application was approved, or tests by new methods, or tests by methods not deemed reasonably applicable when such application was approved, evaluated together with the evidence available to the Secretary when the application was approved, shows that such drug is not shown to be safe for use under the conditions of use upon the basis of which the application was approved; or
(3)  on the basis of new information before him with respect to such drug, evaluated together with the evidence available to him when the application was approved, that there is a lack of substantial evidence that the drug will have the effect it purports or is represented to have under the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling thereof; or
(4)  the patent information prescribed by subsection (c) of this section was not filed within thirty days after the receipt of written notice from the Secretary specifying the failure to file such information; or
(5)  that the application contains any untrue statement of a material fact: Provided, That if the Secretary (or in his absence the officer acting as Secretary) finds that there is an imminent hazard to the public health, he may suspend the approval of such application immediately, and give the applicant prompt notice of his action and afford the applicant the opportunity for an expedited hearing under this subsection; but the authority conferred by this proviso to suspend the approval of an application shall not be delegated. The Secretary may also, after due notice and opportunity for hearing to the applicant, withdraw the approval of an application submitted under subsection (b) or (j) of this section with respect to any drug under this section if the Secretary finds
(1)  that the applicant has failed to establish a system for maintaining required records, or has repeatedly or deliberately failed to maintain such records or to make required reports, in accordance with a regulation or order under subsection (k) of this section or to comply with the notice requirements of section 360 (k)(2) of this title, or the applicant has refused to permit access to, or copying or verification of, such records as required by paragraph (2) of such subsection; or
(2)  that on the basis of new information before him, evaluated together with the evidence before him when the application was approved, the methods used in, or the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture, processing, and packing of such drug are inadequate to assure and preserve its identity, strength, quality, and purity and were not made adequate within a reasonable time after receipt of written notice from the Secretary specifying the matter complained of; or
(3)  that on the basis of new information before him, evaluated together with the evidence before him when the application was approved, the labeling of such drug, based on a fair evaluation of all material facts, is false or misleading in any particular and was not corrected within a reasonable time after receipt of written notice from the Secretary specifying the matter complained of. Any order under this subsection shall state the findings upon which it is based. The Secretary may withdraw the approval of an application submitted under this section, or suspend the approval of such an application, as provided under this subsection, without first ordering the applicant to submit an assessment of the approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for the drug under section 355–1 (g)(2)(D) of this title.
(f) Revocation of order refusing, withdrawing or suspending approval of application 
Whenever the Secretary finds that the facts so require, he shall revoke any previous order under subsection (d) or (e) of this section refusing, withdrawing, or suspending approval of an application and shall approve such application or reinstate such approval, as may be appropriate.
(g) Service of orders 
Orders of the Secretary issued under this section shall be served
(1)  in person by any officer or employee of the department designated by the Secretary or
(2)  by mailing the order by registered mail or by certified mail addressed to the applicant or respondent at his last-known address in the records of the Secretary.
(h) Appeal from order 
An appeal may be taken by the applicant from an order of the Secretary refusing or withdrawing approval of an application under this section. Such appeal shall be taken by filing in the United States court of appeals for the circuit wherein such applicant resides or has his principal place of business, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, within sixty days after the entry of such order, a written petition praying that the order of the Secretary be set aside. A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary, or any officer designated by him for that purpose, and thereupon the Secretary shall certify and file in the court the record upon which the order complained of was entered, as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon the filing of such petition such court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to affirm or set aside such order, except that until the filing of the record the Secretary may modify or set aside his order. No objection to the order of the Secretary shall be considered by the court unless such objection shall have been urged before the Secretary or unless there were reasonable grounds for failure so to do. The finding of the Secretary as to the facts, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. If any person shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Secretary, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Secretary and to be adduced upon the hearing in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Secretary may modify his findings as to the facts by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and he shall file with the court such modified findings which, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive, and his recommendation, if any, for the setting aside of the original order. The judgment of the court affirming or setting aside any such order of the Secretary shall be final, subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certiorari or certification as provided in section 1254 of title 28. The commencement of proceedings under this subsection shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court to the contrary, operate as a stay of the Secretarys order.
(i) Exemptions of drugs for research; discretionary and mandatory conditions; direct reports to Secretary 

(1) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations for exempting from the operation of the foregoing subsections of this section drugs intended solely for investigational use by experts qualified by scientific training and experience to investigate the safety and effectiveness of drugs. Such regulations may, within the discretion of the Secretary, among other conditions relating to the protection of the public health, provide for conditioning such exemption upon
(A) the submission to the Secretary, before any clinical testing of a new drug is undertaken, of reports, by the manufacturer or the sponsor of the investigation of such drug, of preclinical tests (including tests on animals) of such drug adequate to justify the proposed clinical testing;
(B) the manufacturer or the sponsor of the investigation of a new drug proposed to be distributed to investigators for clinical testing obtaining a signed agreement from each of such investigators that patients to whom the drug is administered will be under his personal supervision, or under the supervision of investigators responsible to him, and that he will not supply such drug to any other investigator, or to clinics, for administration to human beings;
(C) the establishment and maintenance of such records, and the making of such reports to the Secretary, by the manufacturer or the sponsor of the investigation of such drug, of data (including but not limited to analytical reports by investigators) obtained as the result of such investigational use of such drug, as the Secretary finds will enable him to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of such drug in the event of the filing of an application pursuant to subsection (b) of this section; and
(D) the submission to the Secretary by the manufacturer or the sponsor of the investigation of a new drug of a statement of intent regarding whether the manufacturer or sponsor has plans for assessing pediatric safety and efficacy.
(2) Subject to paragraph (3), a clinical investigation of a new drug may begin 30 days after the Secretary has received from the manufacturer or sponsor of the investigation a submission containing such information about the drug and the clinical investigation, including
(A) information on design of the investigation and adequate reports of basic information, certified by the applicant to be accurate reports, necessary to assess the safety of the drug for use in clinical investigation; and
(B) adequate information on the chemistry and manufacturing of the drug, controls available for the drug, and primary data tabulations from animal or human studies.
(3) 
(A) At any time, the Secretary may prohibit the sponsor of an investigation from conducting the investigation (referred to in this paragraph as a clinical hold) if the Secretary makes a determination described in subparagraph (B). The Secretary shall specify the basis for the clinical hold, including the specific information available to the Secretary which served as the basis for such clinical hold, and confirm such determination in writing.
(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), a determination described in this subparagraph with respect to a clinical hold is that
(i) the drug involved represents an unreasonable risk to the safety of the persons who are the subjects of the clinical investigation, taking into account the qualifications of the clinical investigators, information about the drug, the design of the clinical investigation, the condition for which the drug is to be investigated, and the health status of the subjects involved; or
(ii) the clinical hold should be issued for such other reasons as the Secretary may by regulation establish (including reasons established by regulation before November 21, 1997).
(C) Any written request to the Secretary from the sponsor of an investigation that a clinical hold be removed shall receive a decision, in writing and specifying the reasons therefor, within 30 days after receipt of such request. Any such request shall include sufficient information to support the removal of such clinical hold.
(4) Regulations under paragraph (1) shall provide that such exemption shall be conditioned upon the manufacturer, or the sponsor of the investigation, requiring that experts using such drugs for investigational purposes certify to such manufacturer or sponsor that they will inform any human beings to whom such drugs, or any controls used in connection therewith, are being administered, or their representatives, that such drugs are being used for investigational purposes and will obtain the consent of such human beings or their representatives, except where it is not feasible or it is contrary to the best interests of such human beings. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require any clinical investigator to submit directly to the Secretary reports on the investigational use of drugs. The Secretary shall update such regulations to require inclusion in the informed consent documents and process a statement that clinical trial information for such clinical investigation has been or will be submitted for inclusion in the registry data bank pursuant to subsection (j) of section 282 of title 42.
(j) Abbreviated new drug applications 

(1) Any person may file with the Secretary an abbreviated application for the approval of a new drug.
(2) 
(A) An abbreviated application for a new drug shall contain
(i) information to show that the conditions of use prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling proposed for the new drug have been previously approved for a drug listed under paragraph (7) (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as a listed drug);
(ii) 
(I) if the listed drug referred to in clause (i) has only one active ingredient, information to show that the active ingredient of the new drug is the same as that of the listed drug;
(II) if the listed drug referred to in clause (i) has more than one active ingredient, information to show that the active ingredients of the new drug are the same as those of the listed drug, or
(III) if the listed drug referred to in clause (i) has more than one active ingredient and if one of the active ingredients of the new drug is different and the application is filed pursuant to the approval of a petition filed under subparagraph (C), information to show that the other active ingredients of the new drug are the same as the active ingredients of the listed drug, information to show that the different active ingredient is an active ingredient of a listed drug or of a drug which does not meet the requirements of section 321 (p) of this title, and such other information respecting the different active ingredient with respect to which the petition was filed as the Secretary may require;
(iii) information to show that the route of administration, the dosage form, and the strength of the new drug are the same as those of the listed drug referred to in clause (i) or, if the route of administration, the dosage form, or the strength of the new drug is different and the application is filed pursuant to the approval of a petition filed under subparagraph (C), such information respecting the route of administration, dosage form, or strength with respect to which the petition was filed as the Secretary may require;
(iv) information to show that the new drug is bioequivalent to the listed drug referred to in clause (i), except that if the application is filed pursuant to the approval of a petition filed under subparagraph (C), information to show that the active ingredients of the new drug are of the same pharmacological or therapeutic class as those of the listed drug referred to in clause (i) and the new drug can be expected to have the same therapeutic effect as the listed drug when administered to patients for a condition of use referred to in clause (i);
(v) information to show that the labeling proposed for the new drug is the same as the labeling approved for the listed drug referred to in clause (i) except for changes required because of differences approved under a petition filed under subparagraph (C) or because the new drug and the listed drug are produced or distributed by different manufacturers;
(vi) the items specified in clauses (B) through (F) of subsection (b)(1) of this section;
(vii) a certification, in the opinion of the applicant and to the best of his knowledge, with respect to each patent which claims the listed drug referred to in clause (i) or which claims a use for such listed drug for which the applicant is seeking approval under this subsection and for which information is required to be filed under subsection (b) or (c) of this section
(I) that such patent information has not been filed,
(II) that such patent has expired,
(III) of the date on which such patent will expire, or
(IV) that such patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the manufacture, use, or sale of the new drug for which the application is submitted; and
(viii) if with respect to the listed drug referred to in clause (i) information was filed under subsection (b) or (c) of this section for a method of use patent which does not claim a use for which the applicant is seeking approval under this subsection, a statement that the method of use patent does not claim such a use.

The Secretary may not require that an abbreviated application contain information in addition to that required by clauses (i) through (viii).

(B) Notice of opinion that patent is invalid or will not be infringed.— 

(i) Agreement to give notice.— 
An applicant that makes a certification described in subparagraph (A)(vii)(IV) shall include in the application a statement that the applicant will give notice as required by this subparagraph.
(ii) Timing of notice.— 
An applicant that makes a certification described in subparagraph (A)(vii)(IV) shall give notice as required under this subparagraph
(I) if the certification is in the application, not later than 20 days after the date of the postmark on the notice with which the Secretary informs the applicant that the application has been filed; or
(II) if the certification is in an amendment or supplement to the application, at the time at which the applicant submits the amendment or supplement, regardless of whether the applicant has already given notice with respect to another such certification contained in the application or in an amendment or supplement to the application.
(iii) Recipients of notice.— 
An applicant required under this subparagraph to give notice shall give notice to
(I) each owner of the patent that is the subject of the certification (or a representative of the owner designated to receive such a notice); and
(II) the holder of the approved application under subsection (b) of this section for the drug that is claimed by the patent or a use of which is claimed by the patent (or a representative of the holder designated to receive such a notice).
(iv) Contents of notice.— 
A notice required under this subparagraph shall
(I) state that an application that contains data from bioavailability or bioequivalence studies has been submitted under this subsection for the drug with respect to which the certification is made to obtain approval to engage in the commercial manufacture, use, or sale of the drug before the expiration of the patent referred to in the certification; and
(II) include a detailed statement of the factual and legal basis of the opinion of the applicant that the patent is invalid or will not be infringed.
(C) If a person wants to submit an abbreviated application for a new drug which has a different active ingredient or whose route of administration, dosage form, or strength differ from that of a listed drug, such person shall submit a petition to the Secretary seeking permission to file such an application. The Secretary shall approve or disapprove a petition submitted under this subparagraph within ninety days of the date the petition is submitted. The Secretary shall approve such a petition unless the Secretary finds
(i) that investigations must be conducted to show the safety and effectiveness of the drug or of any of its active ingredients, the route of administration, the dosage form, or strength which differ from the listed drug; or
(ii) that any drug with a different active ingredient may not be adequately evaluated for approval as safe and effective on the basis of the information required to be submitted in an abbreviated application.
(D) 
(i) An applicant may not amend or supplement an application to seek approval of a drug referring to a different listed drug from the listed drug identified in the application as submitted to the Secretary.
(ii) With respect to the drug for which an application is submitted, nothing in this subsection prohibits an applicant from amending or supplementing the application to seek approval of a different strength.
(iii) Within 60 days after December 8, 2003, the Secretary shall issue guidance defining the term listed drug for purposes of this subparagraph.
(3) 
(A) The Secretary shall issue guidance for the individuals who review applications submitted under paragraph (1), which shall relate to promptness in conducting the review, technical excellence, lack of bias and conflict of interest, and knowledge of regulatory and scientific standards, and which shall apply equally to all individuals who review such applications.
(B) The Secretary shall meet with a sponsor of an investigation or an applicant for approval for a drug under this subsection if the sponsor or applicant makes a reasonable written request for a meeting for the purpose of reaching agreement on the design and size of bioavailability and bioequivalence studies needed for approval of such application. The sponsor or applicant shall provide information necessary for discussion and agreement on the design and size of such studies. Minutes of any such meeting shall be prepared by the Secretary and made available to the sponsor or applicant.
(C) Any agreement regarding the parameters of design and size of bioavailability and bioequivalence studies of a drug under this paragraph that is reached between the Secretary and a sponsor or applicant shall be reduced to writing and made part of the administrative record by the Secretary. Such agreement shall not be changed after the testing begins, except
(i) with the written agreement of the sponsor or applicant; or
(ii) pursuant to a decision, made in accordance with subparagraph (D) by the director of the reviewing division, that a substantial scientific issue essential to determining the safety or effectiveness of the drug has been identified after the testing has begun.
(D) A decision under subparagraph (C)(ii) by the director shall be in writing and the Secretary shall provide to the sponsor or applicant an opportunity for a meeting at which the director and the sponsor or applicant will be present and at which the director will document the scientific issue involved.
(E) The written decisions of the reviewing division shall be binding upon, and may not directly or indirectly be changed by, the field or compliance office personnel unless such field or compliance office personnel demonstrate to the reviewing division why such decision should be modified.
(F) No action by the reviewing division may be delayed because of the unavailability of information from or action by field personnel unless the reviewing division determines that a delay is necessary to assure the marketing of a safe and effective drug.
(G) For purposes of this paragraph, the reviewing division is the division responsible for the review of an application for approval of a drug under this subsection (including scientific matters, chemistry, manufacturing, and controls).
(4) Subject to paragraph (5), the Secretary shall approve an application for a drug unless the Secretary finds
(A) the methods used in, or the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture, processing, and packing of the drug are inadequate to assure and preserve its identity, strength, quality, and purity;
(B) information submitted with the application is insufficient to show that each of the proposed conditions of use have been previously approved for the listed drug referred to in the application;
(C) 
(i) if the listed drug has only one active ingredient, information submitted with the application is insufficient to show that the active ingredient is the same as that of the listed drug;
(ii) if the listed drug has more than one active ingredient, information submitted with the application is insufficient to show that the active ingredients are the same as the active ingredients of the listed drug, or
(iii) if the listed drug has more than one active ingredient and if the application is for a drug which has an active ingredient different from the listed drug, information submitted with the application is insufficient to show
(I) that the other active ingredients are the same as the active ingredients of the listed drug, or
(II) that the different active ingredient is an active ingredient of a listed drug or a drug which does not meet the requirements of section 321 (p) of this title,

or no petition to file an application for the drug with the different ingredient was approved under paragraph (2)(C);

(D) 
(i) if the application is for a drug whose route of administration, dosage form, or strength of the drug is the same as the route of administration, dosage form, or strength of the listed drug referred to in the application, information submitted in the application is insufficient to show that the route of administration, dosage form, or strength is the same as that of the listed drug, or
(ii) if the application is for a drug whose route of administration, dosage form, or strength of the drug is different from that of the listed drug referred to in the application, no petition to file an application for the drug with the different route of administration, dosage form, or strength was approved under paragraph (2)(C);
(E) if the application was filed pursuant to the approval of a petition under paragraph (2)(C), the application did not contain the information required by the Secretary respecting the active ingredient, route of administration, dosage form, or strength which is not the same;
(F) information submitted in the application is insufficient to show that the drug is bioequivalent to the listed drug referred to in the application or, if the application was filed pursuant to a petition approved under paragraph (2)(C), information submitted in the application is insufficient to show that the active ingredients of the new drug are of the same pharmacological or therapeutic class as those of the listed drug referred to in paragraph (2)(A)(i) and that the new drug can be expected to have the same therapeutic effect as the listed drug when administered to patients for a condition of use referred to in such paragraph;
(G) information submitted in the application is insufficient to show that the labeling proposed for the drug is the same as the labeling approved for the listed drug referred to in the application except for changes required because of differences approved under a petition filed under paragraph (2)(C) or because the drug and the listed drug are produced or distributed by different manufacturers;
(H) information submitted in the application or any other information available to the Secretary shows that
(i)  the inactive ingredients of the drug are unsafe for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling proposed for the drug, or
(ii)  the composition of the drug is unsafe under such conditions because of the type or quantity of inactive ingredients included or the manner in which the inactive ingredients are included;
(I) the approval under subsection (c) of this section of the listed drug referred to in the application under this subsection has been withdrawn or suspended for grounds described in the first sentence of subsection (e) of this section, the Secretary has published a notice of opportunity for hearing to withdraw approval of the listed drug under subsection (c) of this section for grounds described in the first sentence of subsection (e) of this section, the approval under this subsection of the listed drug referred to in the application under this subsection has been withdrawn or suspended under paragraph (6), or the Secretary has determined that the listed drug has been withdrawn from sale for safety or effectiveness reasons;
(J) the application does not meet any other requirement of paragraph (2)(A); or
(K) the application contains an untrue statement of material fact.
(5) 
(A) Within one hundred and eighty days of the initial receipt of an application under paragraph (2) or within such additional period as may be agreed upon by the Secretary and the applicant, the Secretary shall approve or disapprove the application.
(B) The approval of an application submitted under paragraph (2) shall be made effective on the last applicable date determined by applying the following to each certification made under paragraph (2)(A)(vii):
(i) If the applicant only made a certification described in subclause (I) or (II) of paragraph (2)(A)(vii) or in both such subclauses, the approval may be made effective immediately.
(ii) If the applicant made a certification described in subclause (III) of paragraph (2)(A)(vii), the approval may be made effective on the date certified under subclause (III).
(iii) If the applicant made a certification described in subclause (IV) of paragraph (2)(A)(vii), the approval shall be made effective immediately unless, before the expiration of 45 days after the date on which the notice described in paragraph (2)(B) is received, an action is brought for infringement of the patent that is the subject of the certification and for which information was submitted to the Secretary under subsection (b)(1) or (c)(2) of this section before the date on which the application (excluding an amendment or supplement to the application), which the Secretary later determines to be substantially complete, was submitted. If such an action is brought before the expiration of such days, the approval shall be made effective upon the expiration of the thirty-month period beginning on the date of the receipt of the notice provided under paragraph (2)(B)(i) or such shorter or longer period as the court may order because either party to the action failed to reasonably cooperate in expediting the action, except that
(I) if before the expiration of such period the district court decides that the patent is invalid or not infringed (including any substantive determination that there is no cause of action for patent infringement or invalidity), the approval shall be made effective on
(aa) the date on which the court enters judgment reflecting the decision; or
(bb) the date of a settlement order or consent decree signed and entered by the court stating that the patent that is the subject of the certification is invalid or not infringed;
(II) if before the expiration of such period the district court decides that the patent has been infringed
(aa) if the judgment of the district court is appealed, the approval shall be made effective on
(AA) the date on which the court of appeals decides that the patent is invalid or not infringed (including any substantive determination that there is no cause of action for patent infringement or invalidity); or
(BB) the date of a settlement order or consent decree signed and entered by the court of appeals stating that the patent that is the subject of the certification is invalid or not infringed; or
(bb) if the judgment of the district court is not appealed or is affirmed, the approval shall be made effective on the date specified by the district court in a court order under section 271 (e)(4)(A) of title 35;
(III) if before the expiration of such period the court grants a preliminary injunction prohibiting the applicant from engaging in the commercial manufacture or sale of the drug until the court decides the issues of patent validity and infringement and if the court decides that such patent is invalid or not infringed, the approval shall be made effective as provided in subclause (I); or
(IV) if before the expiration of such period the court grants a preliminary injunction prohibiting the applicant from engaging in the commercial manufacture or sale of the drug until the court decides the issues of patent validity and infringement and if the court decides that such patent has been infringed, the approval shall be made effective as provided in subclause (II). In such an action, each of the parties shall reasonably cooperate in expediting the action.
(iv) 180-day exclusivity period.— 
(I) Effectiveness of application.— 
Subject to subparagraph (D), if the application contains a certification described in paragraph (2)(A)(vii)(IV) and is for a drug for which a first applicant has submitted an application containing such a certification, the application shall be made effective on the date that is 180 days after the date of the first commercial marketing of the drug (including the commercial marketing of the listed drug) by any first applicant.
(II) Definitions.— 
In this paragraph:
(aa) 180-day exclusivity period.— 
The term 180-day exclusivity period means the 180-day period ending on the day before the date on which an application submitted by an applicant other than a first applicant could become effective under this clause.
(bb) First applicant.— 
As used in this subsection, the term first applicant means an applicant that, on the first day on which a substantially complete application containing a certification described in paragraph (2)(A)(vii)(IV) is submitted for approval of a drug, submits a substantially complete application that contains and lawfully maintains a certification described in paragraph (2)(A)(vii)(IV) for the drug.
(cc) Substantially complete application.— 
As used in this subsection, the term substantially complete application means an application under this subsection that on its face is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review and contains all the information required by paragraph (2)(A).
(dd) Tentative approval.— 
(AA) In general.— 
The term tentative approval means notification to an applicant by the Secretary that an application under this subsection meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(A), but cannot receive effective approval because the application does not meet the requirements of this subparagraph, there is a period of exclusivity for the listed drug under subparagraph (F) or section 355a of this title, or there is a 7-year period of exclusivity for the listed drug under section 360cc of this title.
(BB) Limitation.— 
A drug that is granted tentative approval by the Secretary is not an approved drug and shall not have an effective approval until the Secretary issues an approval after any necessary additional review of the application.
(C) Civil action to obtain patent certainty.— 

(i) Declaratory judgment absent infringement action.— 

(I) In general.— 
No action may be brought under section 2201 of title 28 by an applicant under paragraph (2) for a declaratory judgment with respect to a patent which is the subject of the certification referred to in subparagraph (B)(iii) unless
(aa) the 45-day period referred to in such subparagraph has expired;
(bb) neither the owner of such patent nor the holder of the approved application under subsection (b) of this section for the drug that is claimed by the patent or a use of which is claimed by the patent brought a civil action against the applicant for infringement of the patent before the expiration of such period; and
(cc) in any case in which the notice provided under paragraph (2)(B) relates to noninfringement, the notice was accompanied by a document described in subclause (III).
(II) Filing of civil action.— 
If the conditions described in items (aa), (bb), and as applicable, (cc) of subclause (I) have been met, the applicant referred to in such subclause may, in accordance with section 2201 of title 28, bring a civil action under such section against the owner or holder referred to in such subclause (but not against any owner or holder that has brought such a civil action against the applicant, unless that civil action was dismissed without prejudice) for a declaratory judgment that the patent is invalid or will not be infringed by the drug for which the applicant seeks approval, except that such civil action may be brought for a declaratory judgment that the patent will not be infringed only in a case in which the condition described in subclause (I)(cc) is applicable. A civil action referred to in this subclause shall be brought in the judicial district where the defendant has its principal place of business or a regular and established place of business.
(III) Offer of confidential access to application.— 
For purposes of subclause (I)(cc), the document described in this subclause is a document providing an offer of confidential access to the application that is in the custody of the applicant under paragraph (2) for the purpose of determining whether an action referred to in subparagraph (B)(iii) should be brought. The document providing the offer of confidential access shall contain such restrictions as to persons entitled to access, and on the use and disposition of any information accessed, as would apply had a protective order been entered for the purpose of protecting trade secrets and other confidential business information. A request for access to an application under an offer of confidential access shall be considered acceptance of the offer of confidential access with the restrictions as to persons entitled to access, and on the use and disposition of any information accessed, contained in the offer of confidential access, and those restrictions and other terms of the offer of confidential access shall be considered terms of an enforceable contract. Any person provided an offer of confidential access shall review the application for the sole and limited purpose of evaluating possible infringement of the patent that is the subject of the certification under paragraph (2)(A)(vii)(IV) and for no other purpose, and may not disclose information of no relevance to any issue of patent infringement to any person other than a person provided an offer of confidential access. Further, the application may be redacted by the applicant to remove any information of no relevance to any issue of patent infringement.
(ii) Counterclaim to infringement action.— 

(I) In general.— 
If an owner of the patent or the holder of the approved application under subsection (b) of this section for the drug that is claimed by the patent or a use of which is claimed by the patent brings a patent infringement action against the applicant, the applicant may assert a counterclaim seeking an order requiring the holder to correct or delete the patent information submitted by the holder under subsection (b) or (c) of this section on the ground that the patent does not claim either
(aa) the drug for which the application was approved; or
(bb) an approved method of using the drug.
(II) No independent cause of action.— 
Subclause (I) does not authorize the assertion of a claim described in subclause (I) in any civil action or proceeding other than a counterclaim described in subclause (I).
(iii) No damages.— 
An applicant shall not be entitled to damages in a civil action under clause (i) or a counterclaim under clause (ii).
(D) Forfeiture of 180-day exclusivity period.— 

(i) Definition of forfeiture event.— 
In this subparagraph, the term forfeiture event, with respect to an application under this subsection, means the occurrence of any of the following:
(I) Failure to market.— 
The first applicant fails to market the drug by the later of
(aa) the earlier of the date that is
(AA) 75 days after the date on which the approval of the application of the first applicant is made effective under subparagraph (B)(iii); or
(BB) 30 months after the date of submission of the application of the first applicant; or
(bb) with respect to the first applicant or any other applicant (which other applicant has received tentative approval), the date that is 75 days after the date as of which, as to each of the patents with respect to which the first applicant submitted and lawfully maintained a certification qualifying the first applicant for the 180-day exclusivity period under subparagraph (B)(iv), at least 1 of the following has occurred:
(AA) In an infringement action brought against that applicant with respect to the patent or in a declaratory judgment action brought by that applicant with respect to the patent, a court enters a final decision from which no appeal (other than a petition to the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari) has been or can be taken that the patent is invalid or not infringed.
(BB) In an infringement action or a declaratory judgment action described in subitem (AA), a court signs a settlement order or consent decree that enters a final judgment that includes a finding that the patent is invalid or not infringed.
(CC) The patent information submitted under subsection (b) or (c) of this section is withdrawn by the holder of the application approved under subsection (b) of this section.
(II) Withdrawal of application.— 
The first applicant withdraws the application or the Secretary considers the application to have been withdrawn as a result of a determination by the Secretary that the application does not meet the requirements for approval under paragraph (4).
(III) Amendment of certification.— 
The first applicant amends or withdraws the certification for all of the patents with respect to which that applicant submitted a certification qualifying the applicant for the 180-day exclusivity period.
(IV) Failure to obtain tentative approval.— 
The first applicant fails to obtain tentative approval of the application within 30 months after the date on which the application is filed, unless the failure is caused by a change in or a review of the requirements for approval of the application imposed after the date on which the application is filed.
(V) Agreement with another applicant, the listed drug application holder, or a patent owner.— 
The first applicant enters into an agreement with another applicant under this subsection for the drug, the holder of the application for the listed drug, or an owner of the patent that is the subject of the certification under paragraph (2)(A)(vii)(IV), the Federal Trade Commission or the Attorney General files a complaint, and there is a final decision of the Federal Trade Commission or the court with regard to the complaint from which no appeal (other than a petition to the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari) has been or can be taken that the agreement has violated the antitrust laws (as defined in section 12 of title 15, except that the term includes section 45 of title 15 to the extent that that section applies to unfair methods of competition).
(VI) Expiration of all patents.— 
All of the patents as to which the applicant submitted a certification qualifying it for the 180-day exclusivity period have expired.
(ii) Forfeiture.— 
The 180-day exclusivity period described in subparagraph (B)(iv) shall be forfeited by a first applicant if a forfeiture event occurs with respect to that first applicant.
(iii) Subsequent applicant.— 
If all first applicants forfeit the 180-day exclusivity period under clause (ii)
(I) approval of any application containing a certification described in paragraph (2)(A)(vii)(IV) shall be made effective in accordance with subparagraph (B)(iii); and
(II) no applicant shall be eligible for a 180-day exclusivity period.
(E) If the Secretary decides to disapprove an application, the Secretary shall give the applicant notice of an opportunity for a hearing before the Secretary on the question of whether such application is approvable. If the applicant elects to accept the opportunity for hearing by written request within thirty days after such notice, such hearing shall commence not more than ninety days after the expiration of such thirty days unless the Secretary and the applicant otherwise agree. Any such hearing shall thereafter be conducted on an expedited basis and the Secretarys order thereon shall be issued within ninety days after the date fixed by the Secretary for filing final briefs.
(F) 
(i) If an application (other than an abbreviated new drug application) submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, no active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) of which has been approved in any other application under subsection (b) of this section, was approved during the period beginning January 1, 1982, and ending on September 24, 1984, the Secretary may not make the approval of an application submitted under this subsection which refers to the drug for which the subsection (b) application was submitted effective before the expiration of ten years from the date of the approval of the application under subsection (b) of this section.
(ii) If an application submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, no active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) of which has been approved in any other application under subsection (b) of this section, is approved after September 24, 1984, no application may be submitted under this subsection which refers to the drug for which the subsection (b) application was submitted before the expiration of five years from the date of the approval of the application under subsection (b) of this section, except that such an application may be submitted under this subsection after the expiration of four years from the date of the approval of the subsection (b) application if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or noninfringement described in subclause (IV) of paragraph (2)(A)(vii). The approval of such an application shall be made effective in accordance with subparagraph (B) except that, if an action for patent infringement is commenced during the one-year period beginning forty-eight months after the date of the approval of the subsection (b) application, the thirty-month period referred to in subparagraph (B)(iii) shall be extended by such amount of time (if any) which is required for seven and one-half years to have elapsed from the date of approval of the subsection (b) application.
(iii) If an application submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, which includes an active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) that has been approved in another application approved under subsection (b) of this section, is approved after September 24, 1984, and if such application contains reports of new clinical investigations (other than bioavailability studies) essential to the approval of the application and conducted or sponsored by the applicant, the Secretary may not make the approval of an application submitted under this subsection for the conditions of approval of such drug in the subsection (b) application effective before the expiration of three years from the date of the approval of the application under subsection (b) of this section for such drug.
(iv) If a supplement to an application approved under subsection (b) of this section is approved after September 24, 1984, and the supplement contains reports of new clinical investigations (other than bioavailability studies) essential to the approval of the supplement and conducted or sponsored by the person submitting the supplement, the Secretary may not make the approval of an application submitted under this subsection for a change approved in the supplement effective before the expiration of three years from the date of the approval of the supplement under subsection (b) of this section.
(v) If an application (or supplement to an application) submitted under subsection (b) of this section for a drug, which includes an active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) that has been approved in another application under subsection (b) of this section, was approved during the period beginning January 1, 1982, and ending on September 24, 1984, the Secretary may not make the approval of an application submitted under this subsection which refers to the drug for which the subsection (b) application was submitted or which refers to a change approved in a supplement to the subsection (b) application effective before the expiration of two years from September 24, 1984.
(6) If a drug approved under this subsection refers in its approved application to a drug the approval of which was withdrawn or suspended for grounds described in the first sentence of subsection (e) of this section or was withdrawn or suspended under this paragraph or which, as determined by the Secretary, has been withdrawn from sale for safety or effectiveness reasons, the approval of the drug under this subsection shall be withdrawn or suspended
(A) for the same period as the withdrawal or suspension under subsection (e) of this section or this paragraph, or
(B) if the listed drug has been withdrawn from sale, for the period of withdrawal from sale or, if earlier, the period ending on the date the Secretary determines that the withdrawal from sale is not for safety or effectiveness reasons.
(7) 
(A) 
(i) Within sixty days of September 24, 1984, the Secretary shall publish and make available to the public
(I) a list in alphabetical order of the official and proprietary name of each drug which has been approved for safety and effectiveness under subsection (c) of this section before September 24, 1984;
(II) the date of approval if the drug is approved after 1981 and the number of the application which was approved; and
(III) whether in vitro or in vivo bioequivalence studies, or both such studies, are required for applications filed under this subsection which will refer to the drug published.
(ii) Every thirty days after the publication of the first list under clause (i) the Secretary shall revise the list to include each drug which has been approved for safety and effectiveness under subsection (c) of this section or approved under this subsection during the thirty-day period.
(iii) When patent information submitted under subsection (b) or (c) of this section respecting a drug included on the list is to be published by the Secretary, the Secretary shall, in revisions made under clause (ii), include such information for such drug.
(B) A drug approved for safety and effectiveness under subsection (c) of this section or approved under this subsection shall, for purposes of this subsection, be considered to have been published under subparagraph (A) on the date of its approval or September 24, 1984, whichever is later.
(C) If the approval of a drug was withdrawn or suspended for grounds described in the first sentence of subsection (e) of this section or was withdrawn or suspended under paragraph (6) or if the Secretary determines that a drug has been withdrawn from sale for safety or effectiveness reasons, it may not be published in the list under subparagraph (A) or, if the withdrawal or suspension occurred after its publication in such list, it shall be immediately removed from such list
(i) for the same period as the withdrawal or suspension under subsection (e) of this section or paragraph (6), or
(ii) if the listed drug has been withdrawn from sale, for the period of withdrawal from sale or, if earlier, the period ending on the date the Secretary determines that the withdrawal from sale is not for safety or effectiveness reasons.

A notice of the removal shall be published in the Federal Register.

(8) For purposes of this subsection:
(A) 
(i) The term bioavailability means the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or therapeutic ingredient is absorbed from a drug and becomes available at the site of drug action.
(ii) For a drug that is not intended to be absorbed into the bloodstream, the Secretary may assess bioavailability by scientifically valid measurements intended to reflect the rate and extent to which the active ingredient or therapeutic ingredient becomes available at the site of drug action.
(B) A drug shall be considered to be bioequivalent to a listed drug if
(i) the rate and extent of absorption of the drug do not show a significant difference from the rate and extent of absorption of the listed drug when administered at the same molar dose of the therapeutic ingredient under similar experimental conditions in either a single dose or multiple doses; or
(ii) the extent of absorption of the drug does not show a significant difference from the extent of absorption of the listed drug when administered at the same molar dose of the therapeutic ingredient under similar experimental conditions in either a single dose or multiple doses and the difference from the listed drug in the rate of absorption of the drug is intentional, is reflected in its proposed labeling, is not essential to the attainment of effective body drug concentrations on chronic use, and is considered medically insignificant for the drug.
(C) For a drug that is not intended to be absorbed into the bloodstream, the Secretary may establish alternative, scientifically valid methods to show bioequivalence if the alternative methods are expected to detect a significant difference between the drug and the listed drug in safety and therapeutic effect.
(9) The Secretary shall, with respect to each application submitted under this subsection, maintain a record of
(A) the name of the applicant,
(B) the name of the drug covered by the application,
(C) the name of each person to whom the review of the chemistry of the application was assigned and the date of such assignment, and
(D) the name of each person to whom the bioequivalence review for such application was assigned and the date of such assignment.

The information the Secretary is required to maintain under this paragraph with respect to an application submitted under this subsection shall be made available to the public after the approval of such application.

(k) Records and reports; required information; regulations and orders; access to records 

(1) In the case of any drug for which an approval of an application filed under subsection (b) or (j) of this section is in effect, the applicant shall establish and maintain such records, and make such reports to the Secretary, of data relating to clinical experience and other data or information, received or otherwise obtained by such applicant with respect to such drug, as the Secretary may by general regulation, or by order with respect to such application, prescribe on the basis of a finding that such records and reports are necessary in order to enable the Secretary to determine, or facilitate a determination, whether there is or may be ground for invoking subsection (e) of this section. Regulations and orders issued under this subsection and under subsection (i) of this section shall have due regard for the professional ethics of the medical profession and the interests of patients and shall provide, where the Secretary deems it to be appropriate, for the examination, upon request, by the persons to whom such regulations or orders are applicable, of similar information received or otherwise obtained by the Secretary.
(2) Every person required under this section to maintain records, and every person in charge or custody thereof, shall, upon request of an officer or employee designated by the Secretary, permit such officer or employee at all reasonable times to have access to and copy and verify such records.
(3) Active postmarket risk identification.— 

(A) Definition.— 
In this paragraph, the term data refers to information with respect to a drug approved under this section or under section 262 of title 42, including claims data, patient survey data, standardized analytic files that allow for the pooling and analysis of data from disparate data environments, and any other data deemed appropriate by the Secretary.
(B) Development of postmarket risk identification and analysis methods.— 
The Secretary shall, not later than 2 years after September 27, 2007, in collaboration with public, academic, and private entities
(i) develop methods to obtain access to disparate data sources including the data sources specified in subparagraph (C);
(ii) develop validated methods for the establishment of a postmarket risk identification and analysis system to link and analyze safety data from multiple sources, with the goals of including, in aggregate
(I) at least 25,000,000 patients by July 1, 2010; and
(II) at least 100,000,000 patients by July 1, 2012; and
(iii) convene a committee of experts, including individuals who are recognized in the field of protecting data privacy and security, to make recommendations to the Secretary on the development of tools and methods for the ethical and scientific uses for, and communication of, postmarketing data specified under subparagraph (C), including recommendations on the development of effective research methods for the study of drug safety questions.
(C) Establishment of the postmarket risk identification and analysis system.— 

(i) In general.— 
The Secretary shall, not later than 1 year after the development of the risk identification and analysis methods under subparagraph (B), establish and maintain procedures
(I) for risk identification and analysis based on electronic health data, in compliance with the regulations promulgated under section 264(c) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, and in a manner that does not disclose individually identifiable health information in violation of paragraph (4)(B);
(II) for the reporting (in a standardized form) of data on all serious adverse drug experiences (as defined in section 355–1 (b) of this title) submitted to the Secretary under paragraph (1), and those adverse events submitted by patients, providers, and drug sponsors, when appropriate;
(III) to provide for active adverse event surveillance using the following data sources, as available:
(aa) Federal health-related electronic data (such as data from the Medicare program and the health systems of the Department of Veterans Affairs);
(bb) private sector health-related electronic data (such as pharmaceutical purchase data and health insurance claims data); and
(cc) other data as the Secretary deems necessary to create a robust system to identify adverse events and potential drug safety signals;
(IV) to identify certain trends and patterns with respect to data accessed by the system;
(V) to provide regular reports to the Secretary concerning adverse event trends, adverse event patterns, incidence and prevalence of adverse events, and other information the Secretary determines appropriate, which may include data on comparative national adverse event trends; and
(VI) to enable the program to export data in a form appropriate for further aggregation, statistical analysis, and reporting.
(ii) Timeliness of reporting.— 
The procedures established under clause (i) shall ensure that such data are accessed, analyzed, and reported in a timely, routine, and systematic manner, taking into consideration the need for data completeness, coding, cleansing, and standardized analysis and transmission.
(iii) Private sector resources.— 
To ensure the establishment of the active postmarket risk identification and analysis system under this subsection not later than 1 year after the development of the risk identification and analysis methods under subparagraph (B), as required under clause (i), the Secretary may, on a temporary or permanent basis, implement systems or products developed by private entities.
(iv) Complementary approaches.— 
To the extent the active postmarket risk identification and analysis system under this subsection is not sufficient to gather data and information relevant to a priority drug safety question, the Secretary shall develop, support, and participate in complementary approaches to gather and analyze such data and information, including
(I) approaches that are complementary with respect to assessing the safety of use of a drug in domestic populations not included, or underrepresented, in the trials used to approve the drug (such as older people, people with comorbidities, pregnant women, or children); and
(II) existing approaches such as the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and the Vaccine Safety Datalink or successor databases.
(v) Authority for contracts.— 
The Secretary may enter into contracts with public and private entities to fulfill the requirements of this subparagraph.
(4) Advanced analysis of drug safety data.— 

(A) Purpose.— 
The Secretary shall establish collaborations with public, academic, and private entities, which may include the Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics under section 299b–1 of title 42, to provide for advanced analysis of drug safety data described in paragraph (3)(C) and other information that is publicly available or is provided by the Secretary, in order to
(i) improve the quality and efficiency of postmarket drug safety risk-benefit analysis;
(ii) provide the Secretary with routine access to outside expertise to study advanced drug safety questions; and
(iii) enhance the ability of the Secretary to make timely assessments based on drug safety data.
(B) Privacy.— 
Such analysis shall not disclose individually identifiable health information when presenting such drug safety signals and trends or when responding to inquiries regarding such drug safety signals and trends.
(C) Public process for priority questions.— 
At least biannually, the Secretary shall seek recommendations from the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee (or any successor committee) and from other advisory committees, as appropriate, to the Food and Drug Administration on
(i) priority drug safety questions; and
(ii) mechanisms for answering such questions, including through
(I) active risk identification under paragraph (3); and
(II) when such risk identification is not sufficient, postapproval studies and clinical trials under subsection (o)(3).
(D) Procedures for the development of drug safety collaborations
(i) In general.— 
Not later than 180 days after the date of the establishment of the active postmarket risk identification and analysis system under this subsection, the Secretary shall establish and implement procedures under which the Secretary may routinely contract with one or more qualified entities to
(I) classify, analyze, or aggregate data described in paragraph (3)(C) and information that is publicly available or is provided by the Secretary;
(II) allow for prompt investigation of priority drug safety questions, including
(aa) unresolved safety questions for drugs or classes of drugs; and
(bb) for a newly-approved drugs,[2] safety signals from clinical trials used to approve the drug and other preapproval trials; rare, serious drug side effects; and the safety of use in domestic populations not included, or underrepresented, in the trials used to approve the drug (such as older people, people with comorbidities, pregnant women, or children);
(III) perform advanced research and analysis on identified drug safety risks;
(IV) focus postapproval studies and clinical trials under subsection (o)(3) more effectively on cases for which reports under paragraph (1) and other safety signal detection is not sufficient to resolve whether there is an elevated risk of a serious adverse event associated with the use of a drug; and
(V) carry out other activities as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this paragraph.
(ii) Request for specific methodology.— 
The procedures described in clause (i) shall permit the Secretary to request that a specific methodology be used by the qualified entity. The qualified entity shall work with the Secretary to finalize the methodology to be used.
(E) Use of analyses.— 
The Secretary shall provide the analyses described in this paragraph, including the methods and results of such analyses, about a drug to the sponsor or sponsors of such drug.
(F) Qualified entities.— 

(i) In general.— 
The Secretary shall enter into contracts with a sufficient number of qualified entities to develop and provide information to the Secretary in a timely manner.
(ii) Qualification.— 
The Secretary shall enter into a contract with an entity under clause (i) only if the Secretary determines that the entity has a significant presence in the United States and has one or more of the following qualifications:
(I) The research, statistical, epidemiologic, or clinical capability and expertise to conduct and complete the activities under this paragraph, including the capability and expertise to provide the Secretary de-identified data consistent with the requirements of this subsection.
(II) An information technology infrastructure in place to support electronic data and operational standards to provide security for such data.
(III) Experience with, and expertise on, the development of drug safety and effectiveness research using electronic population data.
(IV) An understanding of drug development or risk/benefit balancing in a clinical setting.
(V) Other expertise which the Secretary deems necessary to fulfill the activities under this paragraph.
(G) Contract requirements.— 
Each contract with a qualified entity under subparagraph (F)(i) shall contain the following requirements:
(i) Ensuring privacy.— 
The qualified entity shall ensure that the entity will not use data under this subsection in a manner that
(I) violates the regulations promulgated under section 264(c) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996;
(II) violates sections 552 or 552a of title 5 with regard to the privacy of individually-identifiable beneficiary health information; or
(III) discloses individually identifiable health information when presenting drug safety signals and trends or when responding to inquiries regarding drug safety signals and trends.

Nothing in this clause prohibits lawful disclosure for other purposes.

(ii) Component of another organization.— 
If a qualified entity is a component of another organization
(I) the qualified entity shall establish appropriate security measures to maintain the confidentiality and privacy of such data; and
(II) the entity shall not make an unauthorized disclosure of such data to the other components of the organization in breach of such confidentiality and privacy requirement.
(iii) Termination or nonrenewal.— 
If a contract with a qualified entity under this subparagraph is terminated or not renewed, the following requirements shall apply:
(I) Confidentiality and privacy protections.— 
The entity shall continue to comply with the confidentiality and privacy requirements under this paragraph with respect to all data disclosed to the entity.
(II) Disposition of data.— 
The entity shall return any data disclosed to such entity under this subsection to which it would not otherwise have access or, if returning the data is not practicable, destroy the data.
(H) Competitive procedures.— 
The Secretary shall use competitive procedures (as defined in section 403 (5)3 of title 41) to enter into contracts under subparagraph (G).
(I) Review of contract in the event of a merger or acquisition.— 
The Secretary shall review the contract with a qualified entity under this paragraph in the event of a merger or acquisition of the entity in order to ensure that the requirements under this paragraph will continue to be met.
(J) Coordination.— 
In carrying out this paragraph, the Secretary shall provide for appropriate communications to the public, scientific, public health, and medical communities, and other key stakeholders, and to the extent practicable shall coordinate with the activities of private entities, professional associations, or other entities that may have sources of drug safety data.
(5) The Secretary shall
(A) conduct regular, bi-weekly screening of the Adverse Event Reporting System database and post a quarterly report on the Adverse Event Reporting System Web site of any new safety information or potential signal of a serious risk identified by Adverse[4] Event Reporting System within the last quarter;
(B) report to Congress not later than 2 year[5] after September 27, 2007, on procedures and processes of the Food and Drug Administration for addressing ongoing post market safety issues identified by the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology and how recommendations of the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology are handled within the agency; and
(C) on an annual basis, review the entire backlog of postmarket safety commitments to determine which commitments require revision or should be eliminated, report to the Congress on these determinations, and assign start dates and estimated completion dates for such commitments.
(l) Public disclosure of safety and effectiveness data and action package 

(1) Safety and effectiveness data and information which has been submitted in an application under subsection (b) of this section for a drug and which has not previously been disclosed to the public shall be made available to the public, upon request, unless extraordinary circumstances are shown
(A) if no work is being or will be undertaken to have the application approved,
(B) if the Secretary has determined that the application is not approvable and all legal appeals have been exhausted,
(C) if approval of the application under subsection (c) of this section is withdrawn and all legal appeals have been exhausted,
(D) if the Secretary has determined that such drug is not a new drug, or
(E) upon the effective date of the approval of the first application under subsection (j) of this section which refers to such drug or upon the date upon which the approval of an application under subsection (j) of this section which refers to such drug could be made effective if such an application had been submitted.
(2) Action Package for Approval.— 

(A) Action package.— 
The Secretary shall publish the action package for approval of an application under subsection (b) or section 262 of title 42 on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration
(i) not later than 30 days after the date of approval of such application for a drug no active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) of which has been approved in any other application under this section or section 262 of title 42; and
(ii) not later than 30 days after the third request for such action package for approval received under section 552 of title 5 for any other drug.
(B) Immediate publication of summary review.— 
Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall publish, on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration, the materials described in subparagraph (C)(iv) not later than 48 hours after the date of approval of the drug, except where such materials require redaction by the Secretary.
(C) Contents.— 
An action package for approval of an application under subparagraph (A) shall be dated and shall include the following:
(i) Documents generated by the Food and Drug Administration related to review of the application.
(ii) Documents pertaining to the format and content of the application generated during drug development.
(iii) Labeling submitted by the applicant.
(iv) A summary review that documents conclusions from all reviewing disciplines about the drug, noting any critical issues and disagreements with the applicant and within the review team and how they were resolved, recommendations for action, and an explanation of any nonconcurrence with review conclusions.
(v) The Division Director and Office Directors decision document which includes
(I) a brief statement of concurrence with the summary review;
(II) a separate review or addendum to the review if disagreeing with the summary review; and
(III) a separate review or addendum to the review to add further analysis.
(vi) Identification by name of each officer or employee of the Food and Drug Administration who
(I) participated in the decision to approve the application; and
(II) consents to have his or her name included in the package.
(D) Review.— 
A scientific review of an application is considered the work of the reviewer and shall not be altered by management or the reviewer once final.
(E) Confidential information.— 
This paragraph does not authorize the disclosure of any trade secret, confidential commercial or financial information, or other matter listed in section 552 (b) of title 5.
(m) “Patent” defined 
For purposes of this section, the term patent means a patent issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
(n) Scientific advisory panels 

(1) For the purpose of providing expert scientific advice and recommendations to the Secretary regarding a clinical investigation of a drug or the approval for marketing of a drug under this section or section 262 of title 42, the Secretary shall establish panels of experts or use panels of experts established before November 21, 1997, or both.
(2) The Secretary may delegate the appointment and oversight authority granted under section 394 of this title to a director of a center or successor entity within the Food and Drug Administration.
(3) The Secretary shall make appointments to each panel established under paragraph (1) so that each panel shall consist of
(A) members who are qualified by training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the drugs to be referred to the panel and who, to the extent feasible, possess skill and experience in the development, manufacture, or utilization of such drugs;
(B) members with diverse expertise in such fields as clinical and administrative medicine, pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmacoeconomics, biological and physical sciences, and other related professions;
(C) a representative of consumer interests, and a representative of interests of the drug manufacturing industry not directly affected by the matter to be brought before the panel; and
(D) two or more members who are specialists or have other expertise in the particular disease or condition for which the drug under review is proposed to be indicated.

Scientific, trade, and consumer organizations shall be afforded an opportunity to nominate individuals for appointment to the panels. No individual who is in the regular full-time employ of the United States and engaged in the administration of this chapter may be a voting member of any panel. The Secretary shall designate one of the members of each panel to serve as chairman thereof.

(4) The Secretary shall, as appropriate, provide education and training to each new panel member before such member participates in a panels activities, including education regarding requirements under this chapter and related regulations of the Secretary, and the administrative processes and procedures related to panel meetings.
(5) Panel members (other than officers or employees of the United States), while attending meetings or conferences of a panel or otherwise engaged in its business, shall be entitled to receive compensation for each day so engaged, including traveltime, at rates to be fixed by the Secretary, but not to exceed the daily equivalent of the rate in effect for positions classified above grade GS15 of the General Schedule. While serving away from their homes or regular places of business, panel members may be allowed travel expenses (including per diem in lieu of subsistence) as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, for persons in the Government service employed intermittently.
(6) The Secretary shall ensure that scientific advisory panels meet regularly and at appropriate intervals so that any matter to be reviewed by such a panel can be presented to the panel not more than 60 days after the matter is ready for such review. Meetings of the panel may be held using electronic communication to convene the meetings.
(7) Within 90 days after a scientific advisory panel makes recommendations on any matter under its review, the Food and Drug Administration official responsible for the matter shall review the conclusions and recommendations of the panel, and notify the affected persons of the final decision on the matter, or of the reasons that no such decision has been reached. Each such final decision shall be documented including the rationale for the decision.
(o) Postmarket studies and clinical trials; labeling 

(1) In general 
A responsible person may not introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce the new drug involved if the person is in violation of a requirement established under paragraph (3) or (4) with respect to the drug.
(2) Definitions 
For purposes of this subsection:
(A) Responsible person 
The term responsible person means a person who
(i) has submitted to the Secretary a covered application that is pending; or
(ii) is the holder of an approved covered application.
(B) Covered application 
The term covered application means
(i) an application under subsection (b) for a drug that is subject to section 353 (b) of this title; and
(ii) an application under section 262 of title 42.
(C) New safety information; serious risk 
The terms new safety information, serious risk, and signal of a serious risk have the meanings given such terms in section 355–1 (b) of this title.
(3) Studies and clinical trials 

(A) In general 
For any or all of the purposes specified in subparagraph (B), the Secretary may, subject to subparagraph (D), require a responsible person for a drug to conduct a postapproval study or studies of the drug, or a postapproval clinical trial or trials of the drug, on the basis of scientific data deemed appropriate by the Secretary, including information regarding chemically-related or pharmacologically-related drugs.
(B) Purposes of study or clinical trial 
The purposes referred to in this subparagraph with respect to a postapproval study or postapproval clinical trial are the following:
(i) To assess a known serious risk related to the use of the drug involved.
(ii) To assess signals of serious risk related to the use of the drug.
(iii) To identify an unexpected serious risk when available data indicates the potential for a serious risk.
(C) Establishment of requirement after approval of covered application 
The Secretary may require a postapproval study or studies or postapproval clinical trial or trials for a drug for which an approved covered application is in effect as of the date on which the Secretary seeks to establish such requirement only if the Secretary becomes aware of new safety information.
(D) Determination by Secretary 

(i) Postapproval studies The Secretary may not require the responsible person to conduct a study under this paragraph, unless the Secretary makes a determination that the reports under subsection (k)(1) and the active postmarket risk identification and analysis system as available under subsection (k)(3) will not be sufficient to meet the purposes set forth in subparagraph (B).
(ii) Postapproval clinical trials The Secretary may not require the responsible person to conduct a clinical trial under this paragraph, unless the Secretary makes a determination that a postapproval study or studies will not be sufficient to meet the purposes set forth in subparagraph (B).
(E) Notification; timetables; periodic reports 

(i) Notification The Secretary shall notify the responsible person regarding a requirement under this paragraph to conduct a postapproval study or clinical trial by the target dates for communication of feedback from the review team to the responsible person regarding proposed labeling and postmarketing study commitments as set forth in the letters described in section 101(c) of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007.
(ii) Timetable; periodic reports For each study or clinical trial required to be conducted under this paragraph, the Secretary shall require that the responsible person submit a timetable for completion of the study or clinical trial. With respect to each study required to be conducted under this paragraph or otherwise undertaken by the responsible person to investigate a safety issue, the Secretary shall require the responsible person to periodically report to the Secretary on the status of such study including whether any difficulties in completing the study have been encountered. With respect to each clinical trial required to be conducted under this paragraph or otherwise undertaken by the responsible person to investigate a safety issue, the Secretary shall require the responsible person to periodically report to the Secretary on the status of such clinical trial including whether enrollment has begun, the number of participants enrolled, the expected completion date, whether any difficulties completing the clinical trial have been encountered, and registration information with respect to the requirements under section 282 (j) of title 42. If the responsible person fails to comply with such timetable or violates any other requirement of this subparagraph, the responsible person shall be considered in violation of this subsection, unless the responsible person demonstrates good cause for such noncompliance or such other violation. The Secretary shall determine what constitutes good cause under the preceding sentence.
(F) Dispute resolution 
The responsible person may appeal a requirement to conduct a study or clinical trial under this paragraph using dispute resolution procedures established by the Secretary in regulation and guidance.
(4) Safety labeling changes requested by Secretary 

(A) New safety information 
If the Secretary becomes aware of new safety information that the Secretary believes should be included in the labeling of the drug, the Secretary shall promptly notify the responsible person or, if the same drug approved under subsection (b) is not currently marketed, the holder of an approved application under subsection (j).
(B) Response to notification 
Following notification pursuant to subparagraph (A), the responsible person or the holder of the approved application under subsection (j) shall within 30 days
(i) submit a supplement proposing changes to the approved labeling to reflect the new safety information, including changes to boxed warnings, contraindications, warnings, precautions, or adverse reactions; or
(ii) notify the Secretary that the responsible person or the holder of the approved application under subsection (j) does not believe a labeling change is warranted and submit a statement detailing the reasons why such a change is not warranted.
(C) Review 
Upon receipt of such supplement, the Secretary shall promptly review and act upon such supplement. If the Secretary disagrees with the proposed changes in the supplement or with the statement setting forth the reasons why no labeling change is necessary, the Secretary shall initiate discussions to reach agreement on whether the labeling for the drug should be modified to reflect the new safety information, and if so, the contents of such labeling changes.
(D) Discussions 
Such discussions shall not extend for more than 30 days after the response to the notification under subparagraph (B), unless the Secretary determines an extension of such discussion period is warranted.
(E) Order 
Within 15 days of the conclusion of the discussions under subparagraph (D), the Secretary may issue an order directing the responsible person or the holder of the approved application under subsection (j) to make such a labeling change as the Secretary deems appropriate to address the new safety information. Within 15 days of such an order, the responsible person or the holder of the approved application under subsection (j) shall submit a supplement containing the labeling change.
(F) Dispute resolution 
Within 5 days of receiving an order under subparagraph (E), the responsible person or the holder of the approved application under subsection (j) may appeal using dispute resolution procedures established by the Secretary in regulation and guidance.
(G) Violation 
If the responsible person or the holder of the approved application under subsection (j) has not submitted a supplement within 15 days of the date of such order under subparagraph (E), and there is no appeal or dispute resolution proceeding pending, the responsible person or holder shall be considered to be in violation of this subsection. If at the conclusion of any dispute resolution procedures the Secretary determines that a supplement must be submitted and such a supplement is not submitted within 15 days of the date of that determination, the responsible person or holder shall be in violation of this subsection.
(H) Public health threat 
Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) through (F), if the Secretary concludes that such a labeling change is necessary to protect the public health, the Secretary may accelerate the timelines in such subparagraphs.
(I) Rule of construction 
This paragraph shall not be construed to affect the responsibility of the responsible person or the holder of the approved application under subsection (j) to maintain its label in accordance with existing requirements, including subpart B of part 201 and sections 314.70 and 601.12 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations).
(5) Non-delegation 
Determinations by the Secretary under this subsection for a drug shall be made by individuals at or above the level of individuals empowered to approve a drug (such as division directors within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research).
(p) Risk evaluation and mitigation strategy 

(1) In general 
A person may not introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce a new drug if
(A) 
(i) the application for such drug is approved under subsection (b) or (j) and is subject to section 353 (b) of this title; or
(ii) the application for such drug is approved under section 262 of title 42; and
(B) a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy is required under section 355–1 of this title with respect to the drug and the person fails to maintain compliance with the requirements of the approved strategy or with other requirements under section 355–1 of this title, including requirements regarding assessments of approved strategies.
(2) Certain postmarket studies 
The failure to conduct a postmarket study under section 356 of this title, subpart H of part 314, or subpart E of part 601 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations), is deemed to be a violation of paragraph (1).
(q) Petitions and civil actions regarding approval of certain applications 

(1) In general 

(A) Determination 
The Secretary shall not delay approval of a pending application submitted under subsection (b)(2) or (j) because of any request to take any form of action relating to the application, either before or during consideration of the request, unless
(i) the request is in writing and is a petition submitted to the Secretary pursuant to section 10.30 or 10.35 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations); and
(ii) the Secretary determines, upon reviewing the petition, that a delay is necessary to protect the public health.
(B) Notification 
If the Secretary determines under subparagraph (A) that a delay is necessary with respect to an application, the Secretary shall provide to the applicant, not later than 30 days after making such determination, the following information:
(i) Notification of the fact that a determination under subparagraph (A) has been made.
(ii) If applicable, any clarification or additional data that the applicant should submit to the docket on the petition to allow the Secretary to review the petition promptly.
(iii) A brief summary of the specific substantive issues raised in the petition which form the basis of the determination.
(C) Format 
The information described in subparagraph (B) shall be conveyed via either, at the discretion of the Secretary
(i) a document; or
(ii) a meeting with the applicant involved.
(D) Public disclosure 
Any information conveyed by the Secretary under subparagraph (C) shall be considered part of the application and shall be subject to the disclosure requirements applicable to information in such application.
(E) Denial based on intent to delay 
If the Secretary determines that a petition or a supplement to the petition was submitted with the primary purpose of delaying the approval of an application and the petition does not on its face raise valid scientific or regulatory issues, the Secretary may deny the petition at any point based on such determination. The Secretary may issue guidance to describe the factors that will be used to determine under this subparagraph whether a petition is submitted with the primary purpose of delaying the approval of an application.
(F) Final agency action 
The Secretary shall take final agency action on a petition not later than 180 days after the date on which the petition is submitted. The Secretary shall not extend such period for any reason, including
(i) any determination made under subparagraph (A);
(ii) the submission of comments relating to the petition or supplemental information supplied by the petitioner; or
(iii) the consent of the petitioner.
(G) Extension of 30-month period 
If the filing of an application resulted in first-applicant status under subsection (j)(5)(D)(i)(IV) and approval of the application was delayed because of a petition, the 30-month period under such subsection is deemed to be extended by a period of time equal to the period beginning on the date on which the Secretary received the petition and ending on the date of final agency action on the petition (inclusive of such beginning and ending dates), without regard to whether the Secretary grants, in whole or in part, or denies, in whole or in part, the petition.
(H) Certification 
The Secretary shall not consider a petition for review unless the party submitting such petition does so in written form and the subject document is signed and contains the following certification: I certify that, to my best knowledge and belief:
(a)  this petition includes all information and views upon which the petition relies;
(b)  this petition includes representative data and/or information known to the petitioner which are unfavorable to the petition; and
(c)  I have taken reasonable steps to ensure that any representative data and/or information which are unfavorable to the petition were disclosed to me. I further certify that the information upon which I have based the action requested herein first became known to the party on whose behalf this petition is submitted on or about the following date: XXXXXXXXXX. If I received or expect to receive payments, including cash and other forms of consideration, to file this information or its contents, I received or expect to receive those payments from the following persons or organizations: XXXXXXXXXXXXX. I verify under penalty of perjury that the foregoing is true and correct as of the date of the submission of this petition., with the date on which such information first became known to such party and the names of such persons or organizations inserted in the first and second blank space, respectively.
(I) Verification 
The Secretary shall not accept for review any supplemental information or comments on a petition unless the party submitting such information or comments does so in written form and the subject document is signed and contains the following verification: I certify that, to my best knowledge and belief:
(a)  I have not intentionally delayed submission of this document or its contents; and
(b)  the information upon which I have based the action requested herein first became known to me on or about XXXXXXXXXX. If I received or expect to receive payments, including cash and other forms of consideration, to file this information or its contents, I received or expect to receive those payments from the following persons or organizations: XXXXX. I verify under penalty of perjury that the foregoing is true and correct as of the date of the submission of this petition., with the date on which such information first became known to the party and the names of such persons or organizations inserted in the first and second blank space, respectively.
(2) Exhaustion of administrative remedies 

(A) Final agency action within 180 days 
The Secretary shall be considered to have taken final agency action on a petition if
(i) during the 180-day period referred to in paragraph (1)(F), the Secretary makes a final decision within the meaning of section 10.45(d) of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulation); or
(ii) such period expires without the Secretary having made such a final decision.
(B) Dismissal of certain civil actions 
If a civil action is filed against the Secretary with respect to any issue raised in the petition before the Secretary has taken final agency action on the petition within the meaning of subparagraph (A), the court shall dismiss without prejudice the action for failure to exhaust administrative remedies.
(C) Administrative record 
For purposes of judicial review related to the approval of an application for which a petition under paragraph (1) was submitted, the administrative record regarding any issue raised by the petition shall include
(i) the petition filed under paragraph (1) and any supplements and comments thereto;
(ii) the Secretarys response to such petition, if issued; and
(iii) other information, as designated by the Secretary, related to the Secretarys determinations regarding the issues raised in such petition, as long as the information was considered by the agency no later than the date of final agency action as defined under subparagraph (2)(A), and regardless of whether the Secretary responded to the petition at or before the approval of the application at issue in the petition.
(3) Annual report on delays in approvals per petitions 
The Secretary shall annually submit to the Congress a report that specifies
(A) the number of applications that were approved during the preceding 12-month period;
(B) the number of such applications whose effective dates were delayed by petitions referred to in paragraph (1) during such period;
(C) the number of days by which such applications were so delayed; and
(D) the number of such petitions that were submitted during such period.
(4) Exceptions 
This subsection does not apply to
(A) a petition that relates solely to the timing of the approval of an application pursuant to subsection (j)(5)(B)(iv); or
(B) a petition that is made by the sponsor of an application and that seeks only to have the Secretary take or refrain from taking any form of action with respect to that application.
(5) Definitions 

(A) Application 
For purposes of this subsection, the term application means an application submitted under subsection (b)(2) or (j).
(B) Petition 
For purposes of this subsection, other than paragraph (1)(A)(i), the term petition means a request described in paragraph (1)(A)(i).
(r) Postmarket drug safety information for patients and providers 

(1) Establishment 
Not later than 1 year after September 27, 2007, the Secretary shall improve the transparency of information about drugs and allow patients and health care providers better access to information about drugs by developing and maintaining an Internet Web site that
(A) provides links to drug safety information listed in paragraph (2) for prescription drugs that are approved under this section or licensed under section 262 of title 42; and
(B) improves communication of drug safety information to patients and providers.
(2) Internet Web site 
The Secretary shall carry out paragraph (1) by
(A) developing and maintaining an accessible, consolidated Internet Web site with easily searchable drug safety information, including the information found on United States Government Internet Web sites, such as the United States National Library of Medicines Daily Med and Medline Plus Web sites, in addition to other such Web sites maintained by the Secretary;
(B) ensuring that the information provided on the Internet Web site is comprehensive and includes, when available and appropriate
(i) patient labeling and patient packaging inserts;
(ii) a link to a list of each drug, whether approved under this section or licensed under such section 262, for which a Medication Guide, as provided for under part 208 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations), is required;
(iii) a link to the registry and results data bank provided for under subsections (i) and (j) of section 282 of title 42;
(iv) the most recent safety information and alerts issued by the Food and Drug Administration for drugs approved by the Secretary under this section, such as product recalls, warning letters, and import alerts;
(v) publicly available information about implemented RiskMAPs and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies under subsection (o);
(vi) guidance documents and regulations related to drug safety; and
(vii) other material determined appropriate by the Secretary;
(C) providing access to summaries of the assessed and aggregated data collected from the active surveillance infrastructure under subsection (k)(3) to provide information of known and serious side-effects for drugs approved under this section or licensed under such section 262;
(D) preparing, by 18 months after approval of a drug or after use of the drug by 10,000 individuals, whichever is later, a summary analysis of the adverse drug reaction reports received for the drug, including identification of any new risks not previously identified, potential new risks, or known risks reported in unusual number;
(E) enabling patients, providers, and drug sponsors to submit adverse event reports through the Internet Web site;
(F) providing educational materials for patients and providers about the appropriate means of disposing of expired, damaged, or unusable medications; and
(G) supporting initiatives that the Secretary determines to be useful to fulfill the purposes of the Internet Web site.
(3) Posting of drug labeling 
The Secretary shall post on the Internet Web site established under paragraph (1) the approved professional labeling and any required patient labeling of a drug approved under this section or licensed under such section 262 not later than 21 days after the date the drug is approved or licensed, including in a supplemental application with respect to a labeling change.
(4) Private sector resources 
To ensure development of the Internet Web site by the date described in paragraph (1), the Secretary may, on a temporary or permanent basis, implement systems or products developed by private entities.
(5) Authority for contracts 
The Secretary may enter into contracts with public and private entities to fulfill the requirements of this subsection.
(6) Review 
The Advisory Committee on Risk Communication under section 360bbb–6 of this title shall, on a regular basis, perform a comprehensive review and evaluation of the types of risk communication information provided on the Internet Web site established under paragraph (1) and, through other means, shall identify, clarify, and define the purposes and types of information available to facilitate the efficient flow of information to patients and providers, and shall recommend ways for the Food and Drug Administration to work with outside entities to help facilitate the dispensing of risk communication information to patients and providers.
(s) Referral to advisory committee 
Prior to the approval of a drug no active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) of which has been approved in any other application under this section or section 262 of title 42, the Secretary shall
(1) refer such drug to a Food and Drug Administration advisory committee for review at a meeting of such advisory committee; or
(2) if the Secretary does not refer such a drug to a Food and Drug Administration advisory committee prior to the approval of the drug, provide in the action letter on the application for the drug a summary of the reasons why the Secretary did not refer the drug to an advisory committee prior to approval.
(t) Database for authorized generic drugs 

(1) In general 

(A) Publication 
The Commissioner shall
(i) not later than 9 months after September 27, 2007, publish a complete list on the Internet Web site of the Food and Drug Administration of all authorized generic drugs (including drug trade name, brand company manufacturer, and the date the authorized generic drug entered the market); and
(ii) update the list quarterly to include each authorized generic drug included in an annual report submitted to the Secretary by the sponsor of a listed drug during the preceding 3-month period.
(B) Notification 
The Commissioner shall notify relevant Federal agencies, including the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Federal Trade Commission, when the Commissioner first publishes the information described in subparagraph (A) that the information has been published and that the information will be updated quarterly.
(2) Inclusion 
The Commissioner shall include in the list described in paragraph (1) each authorized generic drug included in an annual report submitted to the Secretary by the sponsor of a listed drug after January 1, 1999.
(3) Authorized generic drug 
In this section, the term authorized generic drug means a listed drug (as that term is used in subsection (j)) that
(A) has been approved under subsection (c); and
(B) is marketed, sold, or distributed directly or indirectly to retail class of trade under a different labeling, packaging (other than repackaging as the listed drug in blister packs, unit doses, or similar packaging for use in institutions), product code, labeler code, trade name, or trade mark than the listed drug.
(u) Certain drugs containing single enantiomers 

(1) In general 
For purposes of subsections (c)(3)(E)(ii) and (j)(5)(F)(ii), if an application is submitted under subsection (b) for a non-racemic drug containing as an active ingredient (including any ester or salt of the active ingredient) a single enantiomer that is contained in a racemic drug approved in another application under subsection (b), the applicant may, in the application for such non-racemic drug, elect to have the single enantiomer not be considered the same active ingredient as that contained in the approved racemic drug, if
(A) 
(i) the single enantiomer has not been previously approved except in the approved racemic drug; and
(ii) the application submitted under subsection (b) for such non-racemic drug
(I) includes full reports of new clinical investigations (other than bioavailability studies)
(aa) necessary for the approval of the application under subsections (c) and (d); and
(bb) conducted or sponsored by the applicant; and
(II) does not rely on any investigations that are part of an application submitted under subsection (b) for approval of the approved racemic drug; and
(B) the application submitted under subsection (b) for such non-racemic drug is not submitted for approval of a condition of use
(i) in a therapeutic category in which the approved racemic drug has been approved; or
(ii) for which any other enantiomer of the racemic drug has been approved.
(2) Limitation 

(A) No approval in certain therapeutic categories 
Until the date that is 10 years after the date of approval of a non-racemic drug described in paragraph (1) and with respect to which the applicant has made the election provided for by such paragraph, the Secretary shall not approve such non-racemic drug for any condition of use in the therapeutic category in which the racemic drug has been approved.
(B) Labeling 
If applicable, the labeling of a non-racemic drug described in paragraph (1) and with respect to which the applicant has made the election provided for by such paragraph shall include a statement that the non-racemic drug is not approved, and has not been shown to be safe and effective, for any condition of use of the racemic drug.
(3) Definition 

(A) In general 
For purposes of this subsection, the term therapeutic category means a therapeutic category identified in the list developed by the United States Pharmacopeia pursuant to section 1395w–104 (b)(3)(C)(ii) of title 42 and as in effect on September 27, 2007.
(B) Publication by Secretary 
The Secretary shall publish the list described in subparagraph (A) and may amend such list by regulation.
(4) Availability 
The election referred to in paragraph (1) may be made only in an application that is submitted to the Secretary after September 27, 2007, and before October 1, 2012.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “bioavailability”.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “drug,”.
[3] See References in Text note below.
[4] So in original. Probably should be preceded by “the”.
[5] So in original. Probably should be “years”.

21 USC 3551 - Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies

(a) Submission of proposed strategy 

(1) Initial approval 
If the Secretary, in consultation with the office responsible for reviewing the drug and the office responsible for postapproval safety with respect to the drug, determines that a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks of the drug, and informs the person who submits such application of such determination, then such person shall submit to the Secretary as part of such application a proposed risk evaluation and mitigation strategy. In making such a determination, the Secretary shall consider the following factors:
(A) The estimated size of the population likely to use the drug involved.
(B) The seriousness of the disease or condition that is to be treated with the drug.
(C) The expected benefit of the drug with respect to such disease or condition.
(D) The expected or actual duration of treatment with the drug.
(E) The seriousness of any known or potential adverse events that may be related to the drug and the background incidence of such events in the population likely to use the drug.
(F) Whether the drug is a new molecular entity.
(2) Postapproval requirement 

(A) In general 
If the Secretary has approved a covered application (including an application approved before the effective date of this section) and did not when approving the application require a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy under paragraph (1), the Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in paragraph (1), may subsequently require such a strategy for the drug involved (including when acting on a supplemental application seeking approval of a new indication for use of the drug) if the Secretary becomes aware of new safety information and makes a determination that such a strategy is necessary to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks of the drug.
(B) Submission of proposed strategy 
Not later than 120 days after the Secretary notifies the holder of an approved covered application that the Secretary has made a determination under subparagraph (A) with respect to the drug involved, or within such other reasonable time as the Secretary requires to protect the public health, the holder shall submit to the Secretary a proposed risk evaluation and mitigation strategy.
(3) Abbreviated new drug applications 
The applicability of this section to an application under section 355 (j) of this title is subject to subsection (i).
(4) Non-delegation 
Determinations by the Secretary under this subsection for a drug shall be made by individuals at or above the level of individuals empowered to approve a drug (such as division directors within the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research).
(b) Definitions 
For purposes of this section:
(1) Adverse drug experience 
The term adverse drug experience means any adverse event associated with the use of a drug in humans, whether or not considered drug related, including
(A) an adverse event occurring in the course of the use of the drug in professional practice;
(B) an adverse event occurring from an overdose of the drug, whether accidental or intentional;
(C) an adverse event occurring from abuse of the drug;
(D) an adverse event occurring from withdrawal of the drug; and
(E) any failure of expected pharmacological action of the drug.
(2) Covered application 
The term covered application means an application referred to in section 355 (p)(1)(A) of this title.
(3) New safety information 
The term new safety information, with respect to a drug, means information derived from a clinical trial, an adverse event report, a postapproval study (including a study under section 355 (o)(3) of this title), or peer-reviewed biomedical literature; data derived from the postmarket risk identification and analysis system under section 355 (k) of this title; or other scientific data deemed appropriate by the Secretary about
(A) a serious risk or an unexpected serious risk associated with use of the drug that the Secretary has become aware of (that may be based on a new analysis of existing information) since the drug was approved, since the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy was required, or since the last assessment of the approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for the drug; or
(B) the effectiveness of the approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for the drug obtained since the last assessment of such strategy.
(4) Serious adverse drug experience 
The term serious adverse drug experience is an adverse drug experience that
(A) results in
(i) death;
(ii) an adverse drug experience that places the patient at immediate risk of death from the adverse drug experience as it occurred (not including an adverse drug experience that might have caused death had it occurred in a more severe form);
(iii) inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization;
(iv) a persistent or significant incapacity or substantial disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions; or
(v) a congenital anomaly or birth defect; or
(B) based on appropriate medical judgment, may jeopardize the patient and may require a medical or surgical intervention to prevent an outcome described under subparagraph (A).
(5) Serious risk 
The term serious risk means a risk of a serious adverse drug experience.
(6) Signal of a serious risk 
The term signal of a serious risk means information related to a serious adverse drug experience associated with use of a drug and derived from
(A) a clinical trial;
(B) adverse event reports;
(C) a postapproval study, including a study under section 355 (o)(3) of this title;
(D) peer-reviewed biomedical literature;
(E) data derived from the postmarket risk identification and analysis system under section 355 (k)(4) of this title; or
(F) other scientific data deemed appropriate by the Secretary.
(7) Responsible person 
The term responsible person means the person submitting a covered application or the holder of the approved such application.
(8) Unexpected serious risk 
The term unexpected serious risk means a serious adverse drug experience that is not listed in the labeling of a drug, or that may be symptomatically and pathophysiologically related to an adverse drug experience identified in the labeling, but differs from such adverse drug experience because of greater severity, specificity, or prevalence.
(c) Contents 
A proposed risk evaluation and mitigation strategy under subsection (a) shall
(1) include the timetable required under subsection (d); and
(2) to the extent required by the Secretary, in consultation with the office responsible for reviewing the drug and the office responsible for postapproval safety with respect to the drug, include additional elements described in subsections (e) and (f).
(d) Minimal strategy 
For purposes of subsection (c)(1), the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug shall require a timetable for submission of assessments of the strategy that
(1) includes an assessment, by the date that is 18 months after the strategy is initially approved;
(2) includes an assessment by the date that is 3 years after the strategy is initially approved;
(3) includes an assessment in the seventh year after the strategy is so approved; and
(4) subject to paragraphs (1), (2), and (3)
(A) is at a frequency specified in the strategy;
(B) is increased or reduced in frequency as necessary as provided for in subsection (g)(4)(A); and
(C) is eliminated after the 3-year period described in paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that serious risks of the drug have been adequately identified and assessed and are being adequately managed.
(e) Additional potential elements of strategy 

(1) In general 
The Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), may under such subsection require that the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug include 1 or more of the additional elements described in this subsection if the Secretary makes the determination required with respect to each element involved.
(2) Medication guide; patient package insert 
The risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug may require that, as applicable, the responsible person develop for distribution to each patient when the drug is dispensed
(A) a Medication Guide, as provided for under part 208 of title 21, Code of Federal Regulations (or any successor regulations); and
(B) a patient package insert, if the Secretary determines that such insert may help mitigate a serious risk of the drug.
(3) Communication plan 
The risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug may require that the responsible person conduct a communication plan to health care providers, if, with respect to such drug, the Secretary determines that such plan may support implementation of an element of the strategy (including under this paragraph). Such plan may include
(A) sending letters to health care providers;
(B) disseminating information about the elements of the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy to encourage implementation by health care providers of components that apply to such health care providers, or to explain certain safety protocols (such as medical monitoring by periodic laboratory tests); or
(C) disseminating information to health care providers through professional societies about any serious risks of the drug and any protocol to assure safe use.
(f) Providing safe access for patients to drugs with known serious risks that would otherwise be unavailable 

(1) Allowing safe access to drugs with known serious risks 
The Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), may require that the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug include such elements as are necessary to assure safe use of the drug, because of its inherent toxicity or potential harmfulness, if the Secretary determines that
(A) the drug, which has been shown to be effective, but is associated with a serious adverse drug experience, can be approved only if, or would be withdrawn unless, such elements are required as part of such strategy to mitigate a specific serious risk listed in the labeling of the drug; and
(B) for a drug initially approved without elements to assure safe use, other elements under subsections (c), (d), and (e) are not sufficient to mitigate such serious risk.
(2) Assuring access and minimizing burden 
Such elements to assure safe use under paragraph (1) shall
(A) be commensurate with the specific serious risk listed in the labeling of the drug;
(B) within 30 days of the date on which any element under paragraph (1) is imposed, be posted publicly by the Secretary with an explanation of how such elements will mitigate the observed safety risk;
(C) considering such risk, not be unduly burdensome on patient access to the drug, considering in particular
(i) patients with serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions; and
(ii) patients who have difficulty accessing health care (such as patients in rural or medically underserved areas); and
(D) to the extent practicable, so as to minimize the burden on the health care delivery system
(i) conform with elements to assure safe use for other drugs with similar, serious risks; and
(ii) be designed to be compatible with established distribution, procurement, and dispensing systems for drugs.
(3) Elements to assure safe use 
The elements to assure safe use under paragraph (1) shall include 1 or more goals to mitigate a specific serious risk listed in the labeling of the drug and, to mitigate such risk, may require that
(A) health care providers who prescribe the drug have particular training or experience, or are specially certified (the opportunity to obtain such training or certification with respect to the drug shall be available to any willing provider from a frontier area in a widely available training or certification method (including an on-line course or via mail) as approved by the Secretary at reasonable cost to the provider);
(B) pharmacies, practitioners, or health care settings that dispense the drug are specially certified (the opportunity to obtain such certification shall be available to any willing provider from a frontier area);
(C) the drug be dispensed to patients only in certain health care settings, such as hospitals;
(D) the drug be dispensed to patients with evidence or other documentation of safe-use conditions, such as laboratory test results;
(E) each patient using the drug be subject to certain monitoring; or
(F) each patient using the drug be enrolled in a registry.
(4) Implementation system 
The elements to assure safe use under paragraph (1) that are described in subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (3) may include a system through which the applicant is able to take reasonable steps to
(A) monitor and evaluate implementation of such elements by health care providers, pharmacists, and other parties in the health care system who are responsible for implementing such elements; and
(B) work to improve implementation of such elements by such persons.
(5) Evaluation of elements to assure safe use 
The Secretary, through the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee (or successor committee) of the Food and Drug Administration, shall
(A) seek input from patients, physicians, pharmacists, and other health care providers about how elements to assure safe use under this subsection for 1 or more drugs may be standardized so as not to be
(i) unduly burdensome on patient access to the drug; and
(ii) to the extent practicable, minimize the burden on the health care delivery system;
(B) at least annually, evaluate, for 1 or more drugs, the elements to assure safe use of such drug to assess whether the elements
(i) assure safe use of the drug;
(ii) are not unduly burdensome on patient access to the drug; and
(iii) to the extent practicable, minimize the burden on the health care delivery system; and
(C) considering such input and evaluations
(i) issue or modify agency guidance about how to implement the requirements of this subsection; and
(ii) modify elements under this subsection for 1 or more drugs as appropriate.
(6) Additional mechanisms to assure access 
The mechanisms under section 360bbb of this title to provide for expanded access for patients with serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions may be used to provide access for patients with a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, the treatment of which is not an approved use for the drug, to a drug that is subject to elements to assure safe use under this subsection. The Secretary shall promulgate regulations for how a physician may provide the drug under the mechanisms of section 360bbb of this title.
(7) Waiver in public health emergencies 
The Secretary may waive any requirement of this subsection during the period described in section 247d (a) of title 42 with respect to a qualified countermeasure described under section 247d6a(a)(2) of such title, to which a requirement under this subsection has been applied, if the Secretary has
(A) declared a public health emergency under such section 247d; and
(B) determined that such waiver is required to mitigate the effects of, or reduce the severity of, such public health emergency.
(8) Limitation 
No holder of an approved covered application shall use any element to assure safe use required by the Secretary under this subsection to block or delay approval of an application under section 355 (b)(2) or (j) of this title or to prevent application of such element under subsection (i)(1)(B) to a drug that is the subject of an abbreviated new drug application.
(g) Assessment and modification of approved strategy 

(1) Voluntary assessments 
After the approval of a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy under subsection (a), the responsible person involved may, subject to paragraph (2), submit to the Secretary an assessment of, and propose a modification to, the approved strategy for the drug involved at any time.
(2) Required assessments 
A responsible person shall, subject to paragraph (5), submit an assessment of, and may propose a modification to, the approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug
(A) when submitting a supplemental application for a new indication for use under section 355 (b) of this title or under section 262 of title 42, unless the drug is not subject to section 353 (b) of this title and the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for the drug includes only the timetable under subsection (d);
(B) when required by the strategy, as provided for in such timetable under subsection (d);
(C) within a time period to be determined by the Secretary, if the Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), determines that new safety or effectiveness information indicates that
(i) an element under subsection (d) or (e) should be modified or included in the strategy; or
(ii) an element under subsection (f) should be modified or included in the strategy; or
(D) within 15 days when ordered by the Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), if the Secretary determines that there may be a cause for action by the Secretary under section 355 (e) of this title.
(3) Requirements for assessments 
An assessment under paragraph (1) or (2) of an approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug shall include
(A) with respect to any goal under subsection (f), an assessment of the extent to which the elements to assure safe use are meeting the goal or whether the goal or such elements should be modified;
(B) with respect to any postapproval study required under section 355 (o) of this title or otherwise undertaken by the responsible person to investigate a safety issue, the status of such study, including whether any difficulties completing the study have been encountered; and
(C) with respect to any postapproval clinical trial required under section 355 (o) of this title or otherwise undertaken by the responsible party to investigate a safety issue, the status of such clinical trial, including whether enrollment has begun, the number of participants enrolled, the expected completion date, whether any difficulties completing the clinical trial have been encountered, and registration information with respect to requirements under subsections (i) and (j) of section 282 of title 42.
(4) Modification 
A modification (whether an enhancement or a reduction) to the approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug may include the addition or modification of any element under subsection (d) or the addition, modification, or removal of any element under subsection (e) or (f), such as
(A) modifying the timetable for assessments of the strategy as provided in subsection (d)(3), including to eliminate assessments; or
(B) adding, modifying, or removing an element to assure safe use under subsection (f).
(h) Review of proposed strategies; review of assessments of approved strategies 

(1) In general 
The Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), shall promptly review each proposed risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug submitted under subsection (a) and each assessment of an approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug submitted under subsection (g).
(2) Discussion 
The Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), shall initiate discussions with the responsible person for purposes of this subsection to determine a strategy not later than 60 days after any such assessment is submitted or, in the case of an assessment submitted under subsection (g)(2)(D), not later than 30 days after such assessment is submitted.
(3) Action 

(A) In general 
Unless the dispute resolution process described under paragraph (4) or (5) applies, the Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), shall describe any required risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for a drug, or any modification to any required strategy
(i) as part of the action letter on the application, when a proposed strategy is submitted under subsection (a) or a modification to the strategy is proposed as part of an assessment of the strategy submitted under subsection (g)(1); or
(ii) in an order issued not later than 90 days after the date discussions of such modification begin under paragraph (2), when a modification to the strategy is proposed as part of an assessment of the strategy submitted under subsection (g)(1) or under any of subparagraphs (B) through (D) of subsection (g)(2).
(B) Inaction 
An approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy shall remain in effect until the Secretary acts, if the Secretary fails to act as provided under subparagraph (A).
(C) Public availability 
Any action letter described in subparagraph (A)(i) or order described in subparagraph (A)(ii) shall be made publicly available.
(4) Dispute resolution at initial approval 
If a proposed risk evaluation and mitigation strategy is submitted under subsection (a)(1) in an application for initial approval of a drug and there is a dispute about the strategy, the responsible person shall use the major dispute resolution procedures as set forth in the letters described in section 101(c) of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007.
(5) Dispute resolution in all other cases 

(A) Request for review 

(i) In general Not earlier than 15 days, and not later than 35 days, after discussions under paragraph (2) have begun, the responsible person may request in writing that a dispute about the strategy be reviewed by the Drug Safety Oversight Board under subsection (j), except that the determination of the Secretary to require a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy is not subject to review under this paragraph. The preceding sentence does not prohibit review under this paragraph of the particular elements of such a strategy.
(ii) Scheduling Upon receipt of a request under clause (i), the Secretary shall schedule the dispute involved for review under subparagraph (B) and, not later than 5 business days of scheduling the dispute for review, shall publish by posting on the Internet or otherwise a notice that the dispute will be reviewed by the Drug Safety Oversight Board.
(B) Scheduling review 
If a responsible person requests review under subparagraph (A), the Secretary
(i) shall schedule the dispute for review at 1 of the next 2 regular meetings of the Drug Safety Oversight Board, whichever meeting date is more practicable; or
(ii) may convene a special meeting of the Drug Safety Oversight Board to review the matter more promptly, including to meet an action deadline on an application (including a supplemental application).
(C) Agreement after discussion or administrative appeals 

(i) Further discussion or administrative appeals A request for review under subparagraph (A) shall not preclude further discussions to reach agreement on the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, and such a request shall not preclude the use of administrative appeals within the Food and Drug Administration to reach agreement on the strategy, including appeals as described in the letters described in section 101(c) of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 for procedural or scientific matters involving the review of human drug applications and supplemental applications that cannot be resolved at the divisional level. At the time a review has been scheduled under subparagraph (B) and notice of such review has been posted, the responsible person shall either withdraw the request under subparagraph (A) or terminate the use of such administrative appeals.
(ii) Agreement terminates dispute resolution At any time before a decision and order is issued under subparagraph (G), the Secretary (in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2)) and the responsible person may reach an agreement on the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy through further discussion or administrative appeals, terminating the dispute resolution process, and the Secretary shall issue an action letter or order, as appropriate, that describes the strategy.
(D) Meeting of the Board 
At a meeting of the Drug Safety Oversight Board described in subparagraph (B), the Board shall
(i) hear from both parties via written or oral presentation; and
(ii) review the dispute.
(E) Record of proceedings 
The Secretary shall ensure that the proceedings of any such meeting are recorded, transcribed, and made public within 90 days of the meeting. The Secretary shall redact the transcript to protect any trade secrets and other information that is exempted from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 or section 552a of title 5.
(F) Recommendation of the Board 
Not later than 5 days after any such meeting, the Drug Safety Oversight Board shall provide a written recommendation on resolving the dispute to the Secretary. Not later than 5 days after the Board provides such written recommendation to the Secretary, the Secretary shall make the recommendation available to the public.
(G) Action by the Secretary 

(i) Action letter With respect to a proposal or assessment referred to in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall issue an action letter that resolves the dispute not later than the later of
(I) the action deadline for the action letter on the application; or
(II) 7 days after receiving the recommendation of the Drug Safety Oversight Board.
(ii) Order With respect to an assessment of an approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy under subsection (g)(1) or under any of subparagraphs (B) through (D) of subsection (g)(2), the Secretary shall issue an order, which shall be made public, that resolves the dispute not later than 7 days after receiving the recommendation of the Drug Safety Oversight Board.
(H) Inaction 
An approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategy shall remain in effect until the Secretary acts, if the Secretary fails to act as provided for under subparagraph (G).
(I) Effect on action deadline 
With respect to a proposal or assessment referred to in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall be considered to have met the action deadline for the action letter on the application if the responsible person requests the dispute resolution process described in this paragraph and if the Secretary
(i) has initiated the discussions described under paragraph (2) not less than 60 days before such action deadline; and
(ii) has complied with the timing requirements of scheduling review by the Drug Safety Oversight Board, providing a written recommendation, and issuing an action letter under subparagraphs (B), (F), and (G), respectively.
(J) Disqualification 
No individual who is an employee of the Food and Drug Administration and who reviews a drug or who participated in an administrative appeal under subparagraph (C)(i) with respect to such drug may serve on the Drug Safety Oversight Board at a meeting under subparagraph (D) to review a dispute about the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for such drug.
(K) Additional expertise 
The Drug Safety Oversight Board may add members with relevant expertise from the Food and Drug Administration, including the Office of Pediatrics, the Office of Womens Health, or the Office of Rare Diseases, or from other Federal public health or health care agencies, for a meeting under subparagraph (D) of the Drug Safety Oversight Board.
(6) Use of advisory committees 
The Secretary may convene a meeting of 1 or more advisory committees of the Food and Drug Administration to
(A) review a concern about the safety of a drug or class of drugs, including before an assessment of the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy or strategies of such drug or drugs is required to be submitted under any of subparagraphs (B) through (D) of subsection (g)(2);
(B) review the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy or strategies of a drug or group of drugs; or
(C) review a dispute under paragraph (4) or (5).
(7) Process for addressing drug class effects 

(A) In general 
When a concern about a serious risk of a drug may be related to the pharmacological class of the drug, the Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), may defer assessments of the approved risk evaluation and mitigation strategies for such drugs until the Secretary has convened 1 or more public meetings to consider possible responses to such concern.
(B) Notice 
If the Secretary defers an assessment under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall
(i) give notice of the deferral to the holder of the approved covered application not later than 5 days after the deferral;
(ii) publish the deferral in the Federal Register; and
(iii) give notice to the public of any public meetings to be convened under subparagraph (A), including a description of the deferral.
(C) Public meetings 
Such public meetings may include
(i) 1 or more meetings of the responsible person for such drugs;
(ii) 1 or more meetings of 1 or more advisory committees of the Food and Drug Administration, as provided for under paragraph (6); or
(iii) 1 or more workshops of scientific experts and other stakeholders.
(D) Action 
After considering the discussions from any meetings under subparagraph (A), the Secretary may
(i) announce in the Federal Register a planned regulatory action, including a modification to each risk evaluation and mitigation strategy, for drugs in the pharmacological class;
(ii) seek public comment about such action; and
(iii) after seeking such comment, issue an order addressing such regulatory action.
(8) International coordination 
The Secretary, in consultation with the offices described in subsection (c)(2), may coordinate the timetable for submission of assessments under subsection (d), or a study or clinical trial under section 355 (o)(3) of this title, with efforts to identify and assess the serious risks of such drug by the marketing authorities of other countries whose drug approval and risk management processes the Secretary deems comparable to the drug approval and risk management processes of the United States. If the Secretary takes action to coordinate such timetable, the Secretary shall give notice to the responsible person.
(9) Effect 
Use of the processes described in paragraphs (7) and (8) shall not be the sole source of delay of action on an application or a supplement to an application for a drug.
(i) Abbreviated new drug applications 

(1) In general 
A drug that is the subject of an abbreviated new drug application under section 355 (j) of this title is subject to only the following elements of the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy required under subsection (a) for the applicable listed drug:
(A) A Medication Guide or patient package insert, if required under subsection (e) for the applicable listed drug.
(B) Elements to assure safe use, if required under subsection (f) for the listed drug. A drug that is the subject of an abbreviated new drug application and the listed drug shall use a single, shared system under subsection (f). The Secretary may waive the requirement under the preceding sentence for a drug that is the subject of an abbreviated new drug application, and permit the applicant to use a different, comparable aspect of the elements to assure safe use, if the Secretary determines that
(i) the burden of creating a single, shared system outweighs the benefit of a single, system,[1] taking into consideration the impact on health care providers, patients, the applicant for the abbreviated new drug application, and the holder of the reference drug product; or
(ii) an aspect of the elements to assure safe use for the applicable listed drug is claimed by a patent that has not expired or is a method or process that, as a trade secret, is entitled to protection, and the applicant for the abbreviated new drug application certifies that it has sought a license for use of an aspect of the elements to assure safe use for the applicable listed drug and that it was unable to obtain a license.

A certification under clause (ii) shall include a description of the efforts made by the applicant for the abbreviated new drug application to obtain a license. In a case described in clause (ii), the Secretary may seek to negotiate a voluntary agreement with the owner of the patent, method, or process for a license under which the applicant for such abbreviated new drug application may use an aspect of the elements to assure safe use, if required under subsection (f) for the applicable listed drug, that is claimed by a patent that has not expired or is a method or process that as a trade secret is entitled to protection.

(2) Action by Secretary 
For an applicable listed drug for which a drug is approved under section 355 (j) of this title, the Secretary
(A) shall undertake any communication plan to health care providers required under subsection (e)(3) for the applicable listed drug; and
(B) shall inform the responsible person for the drug that is so approved if the risk evaluation and mitigation strategy for the applicable listed drug is modified.
(j) Drug Safety Oversight Board 

(1) In general 
There is established a Drug Safety Oversight Board.
(2) Composition; meetings 
The Drug Safety Oversight Board shall
(A) be composed of scientists and health care practitioners appointed by the Secretary, each of whom is an employee of the Federal Government;
(B) include representatives from offices throughout the Food and Drug Administration, including the offices responsible for postapproval safety of drugs;
(C) include at least 1 representative each from the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Health and Human Services (other than the Food and Drug Administration);
(D) include such representatives as the Secretary shall designate from other appropriate agencies that wish to provide representatives; and
(E) meet at least monthly to provide oversight and advice to the Secretary on the management of important drug safety issues.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “single, shared system,”.

21 USC 355a - Pediatric studies of drugs

(a) Definitions 
As used in this section, the term pediatric studies or studies means at least one clinical investigation (that, at the Secretarys discretion, may include pharmacokinetic studies) in pediatric age groups (including neonates in appropriate cases) in which a drug is anticipated to be used, and, at the discretion of the Secretary, may include preclinical studies.
(b) Market exclusivity for new drugs 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), if, prior to approval of an application that is submitted under section 355 (b)(1) of this title, the Secretary determines that information relating to the use of a new drug in the pediatric population may produce health benefits in that population, the Secretary makes a written request for pediatric studies (which shall include a timeframe for completing such studies), the applicant agrees to the request, such studies are completed using appropriate formulations for each age group for which the study is requested within any such timeframe, and the reports thereof are submitted and accepted in accordance with subsection (d)(3)
(A) 
(i) 
(I) the period referred to in subsection (c)(3)(E)(ii) of section 355 of this title, and in subsection (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section, is deemed to be five years and six months rather than five years, and the references in subsections (c)(3)(E)(ii) and (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section to four years, to forty-eight months, and to seven and one-half years are deemed to be four and one-half years, fifty-four months, and eight years, respectively; or
(II) the period referred to in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (c)(3)(E) of such section, and in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (j)(5)(F) of such section, is deemed to be three years and six months rather than three years; and
(ii) if the drug is designated under section 360bb of this title for a rare disease or condition, the period referred to in section 360cc (a) of this title is deemed to be seven years and six months rather than seven years; and
(B) 
(i) if the drug is the subject of
(I) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(ii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(II) of section 355 of this title and for which pediatric studies were submitted prior to the expiration of the patent (including any patent extensions); or
(II) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsections (b)(2)(A)(iii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(III) of section 355 of this title,

the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355 (c)(3) of this title or section 355 (j)(5)(B) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions); or

(ii) if the drug is the subject of a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(iv) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(IV) of section 355 of this title, and in the patent infringement litigation resulting from the certification the court determines that the patent is valid and would be infringed, the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355 (c)(3) of this title or section 355 (j)(5)(B) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions).
(2) Exception 
The Secretary shall not extend the period referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) if the determination made under subsection (d)(3) is made later than 9 months prior to the expiration of such period.
(c) Market exclusivity for already-marketed drugs 

(1) In general 
Except as provided in paragraph (2), if the Secretary determines that information relating to the use of an approved drug in the pediatric population may produce health benefits in that population and makes a written request to the holder of an approved application under section 355 (b)(1) of this title for pediatric studies (which shall include a timeframe for completing such studies), the holder agrees to the request, such studies are completed using appropriate formulations for each age group for which the study is requested within any such timeframe, and the reports thereof are submitted and accepted in accordance with subsection (d)(3)
(A) 
(i) 
(I) the period referred to in subsection (c)(3)(E)(ii) of section 355 of this title, and in subsection (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section, is deemed to be five years and six months rather than five years, and the references in subsections (c)(3)(E)(ii) and (j)(5)(F)(ii) of such section to four years, to forty-eight months, and to seven and one-half years are deemed to be four and one-half years, fifty-four months, and eight years, respectively; or
(II) the period referred to in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (c)(3)(D) of such section, and in clauses (iii) and (iv) of subsection (j)(5)(F) of such section, is deemed to be three years and six months rather than three years; and
(ii) if the drug is designated under section 360bb of this title for a rare disease or condition, the period referred to in section 360cc (a) of this title is deemed to be seven years and six months rather than seven years; and
(B) 
(i) if the drug is the subject of
(I) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(ii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(II) of section 355 of this title and for which pediatric studies were submitted prior to the expiration of the patent (including any patent extensions); or
(II) a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(iii) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(III) of section 355 of this title,

the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355 (c)(3) of this title or section 355 (j)(5)(B)(ii) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions); or

(ii) if the drug is the subject of a listed patent for which a certification has been submitted under subsection (b)(2)(A)(iv) or (j)(2)(A)(vii)(IV) of section 355 of this title, and in the patent infringement litigation resulting from the certification the court determines that the patent is valid and would be infringed, the period during which an application may not be approved under section 355 (c)(3) of this title or section 355 (j)(5)(B) of this title shall be extended by a period of six months after the date the patent expires (including any patent extensions).
(2) Exception 
The Secretary shall not extend the period referred to in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) if the determination made under subsection (d)(3) is made later than 9 months prior to the expiration of such period.
(d) Conduct of pediatric studies 

(1) Request for studies 

(A) In general 
The Secretary may, after consultation with the sponsor of an application for an investigational new drug under section 355 (i) of this title, the sponsor of an application for a new drug under section 355 (b)(1) of this title, or the holder of an approved application for a drug under section 355 (b)(1) of this title, issue to the sponsor or holder a written request for the conduct of pediatric studies for such drug. In issuing such request, the Secretary shall take into account adequate representation of children of ethnic and racial minorities. Such request to conduct pediatric studies shall be in writing and shall include a timeframe for such studies and a request to the sponsor or holder to propose pediatric labeling resulting from such studies.
(B) Single written request 
A single written request
(i) may relate to more than one use of a drug; and
(ii) may include uses that are both approved and unapproved.
(2) Written request for pediatric studies 

(A) Request and response 

(i) In general If the Secretary makes a written request for pediatric studies (including neonates, as appropriate) under subsection (b) or (c), the applicant or holder, not later than 180 days after receiving the written request, shall respond to the Secretary as to the intention of the applicant or holder to act on the request by
(I) indicating when the pediatric studies will be initiated, if the applicant or holder agrees to the request; or
(II) indicating that the applicant or holder does not agree to the request and stating the reasons for declining the request.
(ii) Disagree with request If, on or after September 27, 2007, the applicant or holder does not agree to the request on the grounds that it is not possible to develop the appropriate pediatric formulation, the applicant or holder shall submit to the Secretary the reasons such pediatric formulation cannot be developed.
(B) Adverse event reports 
An applicant or holder that, on or after September 27, 2007, agrees to the request for such studies shall provide the Secretary, at the same time as the submission of the reports of such studies, with all postmarket adverse event reports regarding the drug that is the subject of such studies and are available prior to submission of such reports.
(3) Meeting the studies requirement 
Not later than 180 days after the submission of the reports of the studies, the Secretary shall accept or reject such reports and so notify the sponsor or holder. The Secretarys only responsibility in accepting or rejecting the reports shall be to determine, within the 180-day period, whether the studies fairly respond to the written request, have been conducted in accordance with commonly accepted scientific principles and protocols, and have been reported in accordance with the requirements of the Secretary for filing.
(4) Effect of subsection 
Nothing in this subsection alters or amends section 331 (j) of this title or section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18.
(e) Notice of determinations on studies requirement 

(1) In general 
The Secretary shall publish a notice of any determination, made on or after September 27, 2007, that the requirements of subsection (d) have been met and that submissions and approvals under subsection (b)(2) or (j) of section 355 of this title for a drug will be subject to the provisions of this section. Such notice shall be published not later than 30 days after the date of the Secretarys determination regarding market exclusivity and shall include a copy of the written request made under subsection (b) or (c).
(2) Identification of certain drugs 
The Secretary shall publish a notice identifying any drug for which, on or after September 27, 2007, a pediatric formulation was developed, studied, and found to be safe and effective in the pediatric population (or specified subpopulation) if the pediatric formulation for such drug is not introduced onto the market within one year after the date that the Secretary publishes the notice described in paragraph (1). Such notice identifying such drug shall be published not later than 30 days after the date of the expiration of such one year period.
(f) Internal review of written requests and pediatric studies 

(1) Internal review 
The Secretary shall utilize the internal review committee established under section 355d of this title to review all written requests issued on or after September 27, 2007, in accordance with paragraph (2).
(2) Review of written requests 
The committee referred to in paragraph (1) shall review all written requests issued pursuant to this section prior to being issued.
(3) Review of pediatric studies 
The committee referred to in paragraph (1) may review studies conducted pursuant to this section to make a recommendation to the Secretary whether to accept or reject such reports under subsection (d)(3).
(4) Activity by committee 
The committee referred to in paragraph (1) may operate using appropriate members of such committee and need not convene all members of the committee.
(5) Documentation of committee action 
For each drug, the committee referred to in paragraph (1) shall document, for each activity described in paragraph (2) or (3), which members of the committee participated in such activity.
(6) Tracking pediatric studies and labeling changes 
The Secretary, in consultation with the committee referred to in paragraph (1), shall track and make available to the public, in an easily accessible manner, including through posting on the Web site of the Food and Drug Administration
(A) the number of studies conducted under this section and under section 284m of title 42;
(B) the specific drugs and drug uses, including labeled and off-labeled indications, studied under such sections;
(C) the types of studies conducted under such sections, including trial design, the number of pediatric patients studied, and the number of centers and countries involved;
(D) the number of pediatric formulations developed and the number of pediatric formulations not developed and the reasons such formulations were not developed;
(E) the labeling changes made as a result of studies conducted under such sections;
(F) an annual summary of labeling changes made as a result of studies conducted under such sections for distribution pursuant to subsection (k)(2); and
(G) information regarding reports submitted on or after September 27, 2007.
(g) Limitations 
Notwithstanding subsection (c)(2), a drug to which the six-month period under subsection (b) or (c) has already been applied
(1) may receive an additional six-month period under subsection (c)(1)(A)(i)(II) for a supplemental application if all other requirements under this section are satisfied, except that such drug may not receive any additional such period under subsection (c)(1)(B); and
(2) may not receive any additional such period under subsection (c)(1)(A)(ii).
(h) Relationship to pediatric research requirements 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if any pediatric study is required by a provision of law (including a regulation) other than this section and such study meets the completeness, timeliness, and other requirements of this section, such study shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement for market exclusivity pursuant to this section.
(i) Labeling changes 

(1) Priority status for pediatric applications and supplements 
Any application or supplement to an application under section 355 of this title proposing a labeling change as a result of any pediatric study conducted pursuant to this section
(A) shall be considered to be a priority application or supplement; and
(B) shall be subject to the performance goals established by the Commissioner for priority drugs.
(2) Dispute resolution 

(A) Request for labeling change and failure to agree 
If, on or after September 27, 2007, the Commissioner determines that the sponsor and the Commissioner have been unable to reach agreement on appropriate changes to the labeling for the drug that is the subject of the application, not later than 180 days after the date of submission of the application
(i) the Commissioner shall request that the sponsor of the application make any labeling change that the Commissioner determines to be appropriate; and
(ii) if the sponsor of the application does not agree within 30 days after the Commissioners request to make a labeling change requested by the Commissioner, the Commissioner shall refer the matter to the Pediatric Advisory Committee.
(B) Action by the Pediatric Advisory Committee 
Not later than 90 days after receiving a referral under subparagraph (A)(ii), the Pediatric Advisory Committee shall
(i) review the pediatric study reports; and
(ii) make a recommendation to the Commissioner concerning appropriate labeling changes, if any.
(C) Consideration of recommendations 
The Commissioner shall consider the recommendations of the Pediatric Advisory Committee and, if appropriate, not later than 30 days after receiving the recommendation, make a request to the sponsor of the application to make any labeling change that the Commissioner determines to be appropriate.
(D) Misbranding 
If the sponsor of the application, within 30 days after receiving a request under subparagraph (C), does not agree to make a labeling change requested by the Commissioner, the Commissioner may deem the drug that is the subject of the application to be misbranded.
(E) No effect on authority 
Nothing in this subsection limits the authority of the United States to bring an enforcement action under this chapter when a drug lacks appropriate pediatric labeling. Neither course of action (the Pediatric Advisory Committee process or an enforcement action referred to in the preceding sentence) shall preclude, delay, or serve as the basis to stay the other course of action.
(j) Other labeling changes 
If, on or after September 27, 2007, the Secretary determines that a pediatric study conducted under this section does or does not demonstrate that the drug that is the subject of the study is safe and effective, including whether such study results are inconclusive, in pediatric populations or subpopulations, the Secretary shall order the labeling of such product to include information about the results of the study and a statement of the Secretarys determination.
(k) Dissemination of pediatric information 

(1) In general 
Not later than 210 days after the date of submission of a report on a pediatric study under this section, the Secretary shall make available to the public the medical, statistical, and clinical pharmacology reviews of pediatric studies conducted under subsection (b) or (c).
(2) Dissemination of information regarding labeling changes 
Beginning on September 27, 2007, the Secretary shall include as a requirement of a written request that the sponsors of the studies that result in labeling changes that are reflected in the annual summary developed pursuant to subsection (f)(3)(F) distribute, at least annually (or more frequently if the Secretary determines that it would be beneficial to the public health), such information to physicians and other health care providers.
(3) Effect of subsection 
Nothing in this subsection alters or amends section 331 (j) of this title or section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18.
(l) Adverse event reporting 

(1) Reporting in year one 
Beginning on September 27, 2007, during the one-year period beginning on the date a labeling change is approved pursuant to subsection (i), the Secretary shall ensure that all adverse event reports that have been received for such drug (regardless of when such report was received) are referred to the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics established under section 393a of this title. In considering the reports, the Director of such Office shall provide for the review of the reports by the Pediatric Advisory Committee, including obtaining any recommendations of such Committee regarding whether the Secretary should take action under this chapter in response to such reports.
(2) Reporting in subsequent years 
Following the one-year period described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall, as appropriate, refer to the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics all pediatric adverse event reports for a drug for which a pediatric study was conducted under this section. In considering such reports, the Director of such Office may provide for the review of such reports by the Pediatric Advisory Committee, including obtaining any recommendation of such Committee regarding whether the Secretary should take action in response to such reports.
(3) Effect 
The requirements of this subsection shall supplement, not supplant, other review of such adverse event reports by the Secretary.
(m) Clarification of interaction of market exclusivity under this section and market exclusivity awarded to an applicant for approval of a drug under section 355 (j) of this title 
If a 180-day period under section 355 (j)(5)(B)(iv) of this title overlaps with a 6-month exclusivity period under this section, so that the applicant for approval of a drug under section 355 (j) of this title entitled to the 180-day period under that section loses a portion of the 180-day period to which the applicant is entitled for the drug, the 180-day period shall be extended from
(1) the date on which the 180-day period would have expired by the number of days of the overlap, if the 180-day period would, but for the application of this subsection, expire after the 6-month exclusivity period; or
(2) the date on which the 6-month exclusivity period expires, by the number of days of the overlap if the 180-day period would, but for the application of this subsection, expire during the six-month exclusivity period.
(n) Referral if pediatric studies not completed 

(1) In general 
Beginning on September 27, 2007, if pediatric studies of a drug have not been completed under subsection (d) and if the Secretary, through the committee established under section 355d of this title, determines that there is a continuing need for information relating to the use of the drug in the pediatric population (including neonates, as appropriate), the Secretary shall carry out the following:
(A) For a drug for which a listed patent has not expired, make a determination regarding whether an assessment shall be required to be submitted under section 355c (b) of this title. Prior to making such a determination, the Secretary may not take more than 30 days to certify whether the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health has sufficient funding at the time of such certification to initiate and fund all of the studies in the written request in their entirety within the timeframes specified within the written request. Only if the Secretary makes such certification in the affirmative, the Secretary shall refer all pediatric studies in the written request to the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health for the conduct of such studies, and such Foundation shall fund such studies. If no certification has been made at the end of the 30-day period, or if the Secretary certifies that funds are not sufficient to initiate and fund all the studies in their entirety, the Secretary shall consider whether assessments shall be required under section 355c (b) of this title for such drug.
(B) For a drug that has no listed patents or has 1 or more listed patents that have expired, the Secretary shall refer the drug for inclusion on the list established under section 284m of title 42 for the conduct of studies.
(2) Public notice 
The Secretary shall give the public notice of a decision under paragraph (1)(A) not to require an assessment under section 355c of this title and the basis for such decision.
(3) Effect of subsection 
Nothing in this subsection alters or amends section 331 (j) of this title or section 552 of title 5 or section 1905 of title 18.
(o) Prompt approval of drugs under section 355 (j) when pediatric information is added to labeling 

(1) General rule 
A drug for which an application has been submitted or approved under section 355 (j) of this title shall not be considered ineligible for approval under that section or misbranded under section 352 of this title on the basis that the labeling of the drug omits a pediatric indication or any other aspect of labeling pertaining to pediatric use when the omitted indication or other aspect is protected by patent or by exclusivity under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 355 (j)(5)(F) of this title.
(2) Labeling 
Notwithstanding clauses (iii) and (iv) of section 355 (j)(5)(F) of this title, the Secretary may require that the labeling of a drug approved under section 355 (j) of this title that omits a pediatric indication or other aspect of labeling as described in paragraph (1) include
(A) a statement that, because of marketing exclusivity for a manufacturer
(i) the drug is not labeled for pediatric use; or
(ii) in the case of a drug for which there is an additional pediatric use not referred to in paragraph (1), the drug is not labeled for the pediatric use under paragraph (1); and
(B) a statement of any appropriate pediatric contraindications, warnings, or precautions that the Secretary considers necessary.
(3) Preservation of pediatric exclusivity and other provisions 
This subsection does not affect
(A) the availability or scope of exclusivity under this section;
(B) the availability or scope of exclusivity under section 355 of this title for pediatric formulations;
(C) the question of the eligibility for approval of any application under section 355 (j) of this title that omits any other conditions of approval entitled to exclusivity under clause (iii) or (iv) of section 355 (j)(5)(F) of this title; or
(D) except as expressly provided in paragraphs (1) and (2), the operation of section 355 of this title.
(p) Institute of Medicine study 
Not later than 3 years after September 27, 2007, the Secretary shall enter into a contract with the Institute of Medicine to conduct a study and report to Congress regarding the written requests made and the studies conducted pursuant to this section. The Institute of Medicine may devise an appropriate mechanism to review a representative sample of requests made and studies conducted pursuant to this section in order to conduct such study. Such study shall
(1) review such representative written requests issued by the Secretary since 1997 under subsections (b) and (c);
(2) review and assess such representative pediatric studies conducted under subsections (b) and (c) since 1997 and labeling changes made as a result of such studies;
(3) review the use of extrapolation for pediatric subpopulations, the use of alternative endpoints for pediatric populations, neonatal assessment tools, and ethical issues in pediatric clinical trials;
(4) review and assess the pediatric studies of biological products as required under subsections (a) and (b) of section 355c of this title; and
(5) make recommendations regarding appropriate incentives for encouraging pediatric studies of biologics.
(q) Sunset 
A drug may not receive any 6-month period under subsection (b) or (c) unless
(1) on or before October 1, 2012, the Secretary makes a written request for pediatric studies of the drug;
(2) on or before October 1, 2012, an application for the drug is accepted for filing under section 355 (b) of this title; and
(3) all requirements of this section are met.

21 USC 355b - Adverse-event reporting

(a) Toll-free number in labeling 
Not later than one year after January 4, 2002, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall promulgate a final rule requiring that the labeling of each drug for which an application is approved under section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355] (regardless of the date on which approved) include the toll-free number maintained by the Secretary for the purpose of receiving reports of adverse events regarding drugs and a statement that such number is to be used for reporting purposes only, not to receive medical advice. With respect to the final rule:
(1) The rule shall provide for the implementation of such labeling requirement in a manner that the Secretary considers to be most likely to reach the broadest consumer audience.
(2) In promulgating the rule, the Secretary shall seek to minimize the cost of the rule on the pharmacy profession.
(3) The rule shall take effect not later than 60 days after the date on which the rule is promulgated.
(b) Drugs with pediatric market exclusivity 

(1) In general 
During the one year beginning on the date on which a drug receives a period of market exclusivity under 505A[1] of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 355a], any report of an adverse event regarding the drug that the Secretary of Health and Human Services receives shall be referred to the Office of Pediatric Therapeutics established under section 393a of this title. In considering the report, the Director of such Office shall provide for the review of the report by the Pediatric Advisory Committee, including obtaining any recommendations of such subcommittee[2] regarding whether the Secretary should take action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] in response to the report.
(2) Rule of construction 
Paragraph (1) may not be construed as restricting the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to continue carrying out the activities described in such paragraph regarding a drug after the one-year period described in such paragraph regarding the drug has expired.
[1] So in original. Probably should be preceded by “section”.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “Committee”.

21 USC 355c - Research into pediatric uses for drugs and biological products

(a) New drugs and biological products 

(1) In general 
A person that submits, on or after September 27, 2007, an application (or supplement to an application)
(A) under section 355 of this title for a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen, or new route of administration, or
(B) under section 262 of title 42 for a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen, or new route of administration,

shall submit with the application the assessments described in paragraph (2).

(2) Assessments 

(A) In general 
The assessments referred to in paragraph (1) shall contain data, gathered using appropriate formulations for each age group for which the assessment is required, that are adequate
(i) to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug or the biological product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations; and
(ii) to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the drug or the biological product is safe and effective.
(B) Similar course of disease or similar effect of drug or biological product 

(i) In general If the course of the disease and the effects of the drug are sufficiently similar in adults and pediatric patients, the Secretary may conclude that pediatric effectiveness can be extrapolated from adequate and well-controlled studies in adults, usually supplemented with other information obtained in pediatric patients, such as pharmacokinetic studies.
(ii) Extrapolation between age groups A study may not be needed in each pediatric age group if data from one age group can be extrapolated to another age group.
(iii) Information on extrapolation A brief documentation of the scientific data supporting the conclusion under clauses (i) and (ii) shall be included in any pertinent reviews for the application under section 355 of this title or section 262 of title 42.
(3) Deferral 

(A) In general 
On the initiative of the Secretary or at the request of the applicant, the Secretary may defer submission of some or all assessments required under paragraph (1) until a specified date after approval of the drug or issuance of the license for a biological product if