Villanueva is a small unincorporated community along the Pecos River in San Miguel County, New Mexico, United States. It is located along New Mexico State Highway 3. Just southeast is Villanueva State Park, in a colorful canyon cut by the Pecos River. Villanueva, an old Spanish colonial village, was originally called La Cuesta (Spanish, hill or slope) because the village sits on top of a steeply sloping hill or cuesta in the Pecos Valley. It was renamed in 1890, for a prominent local family. Villanueva has the ZIP code 87583. The 87583 ZIP Code Tabulation Area had a population of 267 at the 2000 census.