Olyphant is a borough in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, approximately five miles (8 km) northeast of Scranton on the Lackawanna River in the heart of the anthracite region of the State. Once engaged in the shipping of coal as its main source of employment, Olyphant experienced a severe downturn in the twentieth century. Other industries of the past were the manufacturing of blasting powder, iron and steel goods, cigars, silks, etc. In 1900, the population stood at 6,180 people; in 1910, 8,305; in 1920, 10,326; and in 1940, 9,252. The population was 4,978 at the 2000 census.