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33 USC 1228 - Conditions for entry to ports in the United States

(a) In general 
No vessel, subject to the provisions of chapter 37 of title 46, shall operate in the navigable waters of the United States or transfer cargo or residue in any port or place under the jurisdiction of the United States, if such vessel
(1) has a history of accidents, pollution incidents, or serious repair problems which, as determined by the Secretary, creates reason to believe that such vessel may be unsafe or may create a threat to the marine environment; or
(2) fails to comply with any applicable regulation issued under this chapter, chapter 37 of title 46, or under any other applicable law or treaty; or
(3) discharges oil or hazardous material in violation of any law of the United States or in a manner or quantities inconsistent with the provisions of any treaty to which the United States is a party; or
(4) does not comply with any applicable vessel traffic service requirements; or
(5) is manned by one or more officers who are licensed by a certificating state which the Secretary has determined, pursuant to section 9101 of title 46, does not have standards for licensing and certification of seafarers which are comparable to or more stringent than United States standards or international standards which are accepted by the United States; or
(6) is not manned in compliance with manning levels as determined by the Secretary to be necessary to insure the safe navigation of the vessel; or
(7) while underway, does not have at least one licensed deck officer on the navigation bridge who is capable of clearly understanding English.
(b) Exceptions 
The Secretary may allow provisional entry of a vessel not in compliance with subsection (a) of this section, if the owner or operator of such vessel proves, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that such vessel is not unsafe or a threat to the marine environment, and if such entry is necessary for the safety of the vessel or persons aboard. In addition, paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) of subsection (a) of this section shall not apply if the owner or operator of such vessel proves, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that such vessel is no longer unsafe or a threat to the marine environment, and is no longer in violation of any applicable law, treaty, regulation or condition, as appropriate. Clauses (5) and (6) of subsection (a) of this section shall become applicable eighteen months after October 17, 1978.