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7 USC 7721 - Plant pest and disease management and disaster prevention

(a) Definitions 
In this section:
(1) Early plant pest detection and surveillance 
The term early plant pest detection and surveillance means the full range of activities undertaken to find newly introduced plant pests, whether the plant pests are new to the United States or new to certain areas of the United States, before
(A) the plant pests become established; or
(B) the plant pest infestations become too large and costly to eradicate or control.
(2) Specialty crop 
The term specialty crop has the meaning given the term in section 3 of the Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004 (7 U.S.C. 1621 note ; Public Law 108465).
(3) State department of agriculture 
The term State department of agriculture means an agency of a State that has a legal responsibility to perform early plant pest detection and surveillance activities.
(b) Early plant pest detection and surveillance improvement program 

(1) Cooperative agreements 
The Secretary shall enter into a cooperative agreement with each State department of agriculture that agrees to conduct early plant pest detection and surveillance activities.
(2) Consultation 
In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall consult with
(A) the National Plant Board; and
(B) other interested parties.
(3) Federal Advisory Committee Act 
The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to consultations under this subsection.
(4) Application 

(A) In general 
A State department of agriculture seeking to enter into a cooperative agreement under this subsection shall submit to the Secretary an application containing such information as the Secretary may require.
(B) Notification 
The Secretary shall notify applicants of
(i) the requirements to be imposed on a State department of agriculture for auditing of, and reporting on, the use of any funds provided by the Secretary under the cooperative agreement;
(ii) the criteria to be used to ensure that early pest detection and surveillance activities supported under the cooperative agreement are based on sound scientific data or thorough risk assessments; and
(iii) the means of identifying pathways of pest introductions.
(5) Use of funds 

(A) Plant pest detection and surveillance activities 
A State department of agriculture that receives funds under this subsection shall use the funds to carry out early plant pest detection and surveillance activities approved by the Secretary to prevent the introduction or spread of a plant pest.
(B) Subagreements 
Nothing in this subsection prevents a State department of agriculture from using funds received under paragraph (4) to enter into subagreements with political subdivisions of the State that have legal responsibilities relating to agricultural plant pest and disease surveillance.
(C) Non-Federal share 
The non-Federal share of the cost of carrying out a cooperative agreement under this section may be provided in-kind, including through provision of such indirect costs of the cooperative agreement as the Secretary considers to be appropriate.
(D) Ability to provide funds 
The Secretary shall not take the ability to provide non-Federal costs to carry out a cooperative agreement entered into under subparagraph (A) into consideration when deciding whether to enter into a cooperative agreement with a State department of agriculture.
(6) Special funding considerations 
The Secretary shall provide funds to a State department of agriculture if the Secretary determines that
(A) the State department of agriculture is in a State that has a high risk of being affected by 1 or more plant pests or diseases, taking into consideration
(i) the number of international ports of entry in the State;
(ii) the volume of international passenger and cargo entry into the State;
(iii) the geographic location of the State and if the location or types of agricultural commodities produced in the State are conducive to agricultural pest and disease establishment due to the climate, crop diversity, or natural resources (including unique plant species) of the State; and
(iv) whether the Secretary has determined that an agricultural pest or disease in the State is a Federal concern; and
(B) the early plant pest detection and surveillance activities supported with the funds will likely
(i) prevent the introduction and establishment of plant pests; and
(ii) provide a comprehensive approach to compliment Federal detection efforts.
(7) Reporting requirement 
Not later than 90 days after the date of completion of an early plant pest detection and surveillance activity conducted by a State department of agriculture using funds provided under this section, the State department of agriculture shall submit to the Secretary a report that describes the purposes and results of the activities.
(c) Threat identification and mitigation program 

(1) Establishment 
The Secretary shall establish a threat identification and mitigation program to determine and address threats to the domestic production of crops.
(2) Requirements 
In conducting the program established under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall
(A) develop risk assessments of the potential threat to the agricultural industry of the United States from foreign sources;
(B) collaborate with the National Plant Board; and
(C) implement action plans for high consequence plant pest and diseases to assist in preventing the introduction and widespread dissemination of new plant pest and disease threats in the United States.
(3) Reports 
Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this paragraph, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report on the action plans described in paragraph (2), including an accounting of funds expended on the action plans.
(d) Specialty crop certification and risk management systems 
The Secretary shall provide funds and technical assistance to specialty crop growers, organizations representing specialty crop growers, and State and local agencies working with specialty crop growers and organizations for the development and implementation of
(1) audit-based certification systems, such as best management practices
(A) to address plant pests; and
(B) to mitigate the risk of plant pests in the movement of plants and plant products; and
(2) nursery plant pest risk management systems, in collaboration with the nursery industry, research institutions, and other appropriate entities
(A) to enable growers to identify and prioritize nursery plant pests and diseases of regulatory significance;
(B) to prevent the introduction, establishment, and spread of those plant pests and diseases; and
(C) to reduce the risk of and mitigate those plant pests and diseases.
(e) Funding 
Of the funds of the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Secretary shall make available to carry out this section
(1) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;
(2) $45,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;
(3) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2011; and
(4) $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2012 and each fiscal year thereafter.