26 USC 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

(a) General rule 
The amount of any deduction or credit allowed by this subtitle shall be taken for the taxable year which is the proper taxable year under the method of accounting used in computing taxable income.
(b) Special rule in case of death 
In the case of the death of a taxpayer whose taxable income is computed under an accrual method of accounting, any amount accrued as a deduction or credit only by reason of the death of the taxpayer shall not be allowed in computing taxable income for the period in which falls the date of the taxpayers death.
(c) Accrual of real property taxes 

(1) In general 
If the taxable income is computed under an accrual method of accounting, then, at the election of the taxpayer, any real property tax which is related to a definite period of time shall be accrued ratably over that period.

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(2) When election may be made 

(A) Without consent 
A taxpayer may, without the consent of the Secretary, make an election under this subsection for his first taxable year in which he incurs real property taxes. Such an election shall be made not later than the time prescribed by law for filing the return for such year (including extensions thereof).
(B) With consent 
A taxpayer may, with the consent of the Secretary, make an election under this subsection at any time.
(d) Limitation on acceleration of accrual of taxes 

(1) General rule 
In the case of a taxpayer whose taxable income is computed under an accrual method of accounting, to the extent that the time for accruing taxes is earlier than it would be but for any action of any taxing jurisdiction taken after December 31, 1960, then, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, such taxes shall be treated as accruing at the time they would have accrued but for such action by such taxing jurisdiction.
(2) Limitation 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, paragraph (1) shall be inapplicable to any item of tax to the extent that its application would (but for this paragraph) prevent all persons (including successors in interest) from ever taking such item into account.
(e) Dividends or interest paid on certain deposits or withdrawable accounts 
Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, amounts paid to, or credited to the accounts of, depositors or holders of accounts as dividends or interest on their deposits or withdrawable accounts (if such amounts paid or credited are withdrawable on demand subject only to customary notice to withdraw) by a mutual savings bank not having capital stock represented by shares, a domestic building and loan association, or a cooperative bank shall not be allowed as a deduction for the taxable year to the extent such amounts are paid or credited for periods representing more than 12 months. Any such amount not allowed as a deduction as the result of the application of the preceding sentence shall be allowed as a deduction for such other taxable year as the Secretary determines to be consistent with the preceding sentence.
(f) Contested liabilities 
If
(1) the taxpayer contests an asserted liability,
(2) the taxpayer transfers money or other property to provide for the satisfaction of the asserted liability,

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(3) the contest with respect to the asserted liability exists after the time of the transfer, and
(4) but for the fact that the asserted liability is contested, a deduction would be allowed for the taxable year of the transfer (or for an earlier taxable year) determined after application of subsection (h),

then the deduction shall be allowed for the taxable year of the transfer. This subsection shall not apply in respect of the deduction for income, war profits, and excess profits taxes imposed by the authority of any foreign country or possession of the United States.

(g) Prepaid interest 

(1) In general 
If the taxable income of the taxpayer is computed under the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting, interest paid by the taxpayer which, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, is properly allocable to any period
(A) with respect to which the interest represents a charge for the use or forbearance of money, and
(B) which is after the close of the taxable year in which paid,

shall be charged to capital account and shall be treated as paid in the period to which so allocable.

(2) Exception 
This subsection shall not apply to points paid in respect of any indebtedness incurred in connection with the purchase or improvement of, and secured by, the principal residence of the taxpayer to the extent that, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, such payment of points is an established business practice in the area in which such indebtedness is incurred, and the amount of such payment does not exceed the amount generally charged in such area.
(h) Certain liabilities not incurred before economic performance 

(1) In general 
For purposes of this title, in determining whether an amount has been incurred with respect to any item during any taxable year, the all events test shall not be treated as met any earlier than when economic performance with respect to such item occurs.
(2) Time when economic performance occurs 
Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the time when economic performance occurs shall be determined under the following principles:
(A) Services and property provided to the tax­payer 
If the liability of the taxpayer arises out of
(i) the providing of services to the taxpayer by another person, economic performance occurs as such person provides such services,
(ii) the providing of property to the taxpayer by another person, economic performance occurs as the person provides such property, or
(iii) the use of property by the taxpayer, economic performance occurs as the taxpayer uses such property.
(B) Services and property provided by the taxpayer 
If the liability of the taxpayer requires the taxpayer to provide property or services, economic performance occurs as the taxpayer provides such property or services.
(C) Workers compensation and tort liabilities of the taxpayer 
If the liability of the taxpayer requires a payment to another person and
(i) arises under any workers compensation act, or
(ii) arises out of any tort,

economic performance occurs as the payments to such person are made. Subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not apply to any liability described in the preceding sentence.

(D) Other items 
In the case of any other liability of the taxpayer, economic performance occurs at the time determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(3) Exception for certain recurring items 

(A) In general 
Notwithstanding paragraph (1) an item shall be treated as incurred during any taxable year if
(i) the all events test with respect to such item is met during such taxable year (determined without regard to paragraph (1)),
(ii) economic performance with respect to such item occurs within the shorter of
(I) a reasonable period after the close of such taxable year, or
(II) 81/2 months after the close of such taxable year,
(iii) such item is recurring in nature and the taxpayer consistently treats items of such kind as incurred in the taxable year in which the requirements of clause (i) are met, and
(iv) either
(I) such item is not a material item, or
(II) the accrual of such item in the taxable year in which the requirements of clause (i) are met results in a more proper match against income than accruing such item in the taxable year in which economic performance occurs.
(B) Financial statements considered under subparagraph (A)(iv) 
In making a determination under subparagraph (A)(iv), the treatment of such item on financial statements shall be taken into account.
(C) Paragraph not to apply to workers compensation and tort liabilities 
This paragraph shall not apply to any item described in subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2).
(4) All events test 
For purposes of this subsection, the all events test is met with respect to any item if all events have occurred which determine the fact of liability and the amount of such liability can be determined with reasonable accuracy.
(5) Subsection not to apply to certain items 
This subsection shall not apply to any item for which a deduction is allowable under a provision of this title which specifically provides for a deduction for a reserve for estimated expenses.
(i) Special rules for tax shelters 

(1) Recurring item exception not to apply 
In the case of a tax shelter, economic performance shall be determined without regard to paragraph (3) of subsection (h).
(2) Special rule for spudding of oil or gas wells 

(A) In general 
In the case of a tax shelter, economic performance with respect to amounts paid during the taxable year for drilling an oil or gas well shall be treated as having occurred within a taxable year if drilling of the well commences before the close of the 90th day after the close of the taxable year.
(B) Deduction limited to cash basis 

(i) Tax shelter partnerships In the case of a tax shelter which is a partnership, in applying section 704 (d) to a deduction or loss for any taxable year attributable to an item which is deductible by reason of subparagraph (A), the term cash basis shall be substituted for the term adjusted basis.
(ii) Other tax shelters Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in the case of a tax shelter other than a partnership, the aggregate amount of the deductions allowable by reason of subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall be limited in a manner similar to the limitation under clause (i).
(C) Cash basis defined 
For purposes of subparagraph (B), a partners cash basis in a partnership shall be equal to the adjusted basis of such partners interest in the partnership, determined without regard to
(i) any liability of the partnership, and
(ii) any amount borrowed by the partner with respect to such partnership which
(I) was arranged by the partnership or by any person who participated in the organization, sale, or management of the partnership (or any person related to such person within the meaning of section 465 (b)(3)(C)), or
(II) was secured by any asset of the partnership.
(3) Tax shelter defined 
For purposes of this subsection, the term tax shelter means
(A) any enterprise (other than a C corporation) if at any time interests in such enterprise have been offered for sale in any offering required to be registered with any Federal or State agency having the authority to regulate the offering of securities for sale,
(B) any syndicate (within the meaning of section 1256 (e)(3)(B)), and
(C) any tax shelter (as defined in section 6662 (d)(2)(C)(ii)).
(4) Special rules for farming 
In the case of the trade or business of farming (as defined in section 464 (e)), in determining whether an entity is a tax shelter, the definition of farming syndicate in section 464 (c) shall be substituted for subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (3).
(5) Economic performance 
For purposes of this subsection, the term economic performance has the meaning given such term by subsection (h).