42 USC 1766 - Child and adult care food program

(a) Grant authority and institution eligibility 

(1) Grant authority 
The Secretary may carry out a program to assist States through grants-in-aid and other means to initiate and maintain nonprofit food service programs for children in institutions providing child care.
(2) Definition of institution 
In this section, the term institution means
(A) any public or private nonprofit organization providing nonresidential child care or day care outside school hours for school children, including any child care center, settlement house, recreational center, Head Start center, and institution providing child care facilities for children with disabilities;

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(B) any other private organization providing nonresidential child care or day care outside school hours for school children, if
(i) at least 25 percent of the children served by the organization meet the income eligibility criteria established under section 1758 (b) of this title for free or reduced price meals; or
(ii) the organization receives compensation from amounts granted to the States under title XX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1397 et seq.) (but only if the organization receives compensation under that title for at least 25 percent of its enrolled children or 25 percent of its licensed capacity, whichever is less);
(C) any public or private nonprofit organization acting as a sponsoring organization for one or more of the organizations described in subparagraph (A) or (B) or for an adult day care center (as defined in subsection (o)(2) of this section);
(D) any other private organization acting as a sponsoring organization for, and that is part of the same legal entity as, one or more organizations that are
(i) described in subparagraph (B); or
(ii) proprietary title XIX or title XX centers (as defined in subsection (o)(2) of this section);
(E) any public or private nonprofit organization acting as a sponsoring organization for one or more family or group day care homes; and
(F) any emergency shelter (as defined in subsection (t) of this section).
(3) Age limit 
Except as provided in subsection (r) of this section, reimbursement may be provided under this section only for meals or supplements served to children not over 12 years of age (except that such age limitation shall not be applicable for children of migrant workers if 15 years of age or less or for children with disabilities).

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(4) Additional guidelines 
The Secretary may establish separate guidelines for institutions that provide care to school children outside of school hours.
(5) Licensing 
In order to be eligible, an institution (except a school or family or group day care home sponsoring organization) or family or group day care home shall
(A) 
(i) be licensed, or otherwise have approval, by the appropriate Federal, State, or local licensing authority; or
(ii) be in compliance with appropriate procedures for renewing participation in the program, as prescribed by the Secretary, and not be the subject of information possessed by the State indicating that the license of the institution or home will not be renewed;
(B) if Federal, State, or local licensing or approval is not available
(i) meet any alternate approval standards established by the appropriate State or local governmental agency; or
(ii) meet any alternate approval standards established by the Secretary after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services; or
(C) if the institution provides care to school children outside of school hours and Federal, State, or local licensing or approval is not required for the institution, meet State or local health and safety standards.
(6) Eligibility criteria 
No institution shall be eligible to participate in the program unless it satisfies the following criteria:
(A) accepts final administrative and financial responsibility for management of an effective food service;
(B) has not been seriously deficient in its operation of the child and adult care food program, or any other program under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.], or has not been determined to be ineligible to participate in any other publicly funded program by reason of violation of the requirements of the program, for a period of time specified by the Secretary;
(C) 
(i) will provide adequate supervisory and operational personnel for overall monitoring and management of the child care food program; and
(ii) in the case of a sponsoring organization, the organization shall employ an appropriate number of monitoring personnel based on the number and characteristics of child care centers and family or group day care homes sponsored by the organization, as approved by the State (in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary), to ensure effective oversight of the operations of the child care centers and family or group day care homes;
(D) in the case of a family or group day care home sponsoring organization that employs more than one employee, the organization does not base payments to an employee of the organization on the number of family or group day care homes recruited;
(E) in the case of a sponsoring organization, the organization has in effect a policy that restricts other employment by employees that interferes with the responsibilities and duties of the employees of the organization with respect to the program; and
(F) in the case of a sponsoring organization that applies for initial participation in the program on or after June 20, 2000, and that operates in a State that requires such institutions to be bonded under State law, regulation, or policy, the institution is bonded in accordance with such law, regulation, or policy.
(b) Limitations on cash assistance 
For the fiscal year ending September 30, 1979, and for each subsequent fiscal year, the Secretary shall provide cash assistance to States for meals as provided in subsection (f) of this section, except that, in any fiscal year, the aggregate amount of assistance provided to a State by the Secretary under this section shall not exceed the sum of
(1)  the Federal funds provided by the State to participating institutions within the State for that fiscal year and
(2)  any funds used by the State under section 10 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1779].
(c) Formula for computation of payments; national average payment rate 

(1) For purposes of this section, except as provided in subsection (f)(3) of this section, the national average payment rate for free lunches and suppers, the national average payment rate for reduced price lunches and suppers, and the national average payment rate for paid lunches and suppers shall be the same as the national average payment rates for free lunches, reduced price lunches, and paid lunches, respectively, under sections 1753 and 1759a of this title as appropriate (as adjusted pursuant to section 1759a (a) of this title).
(2) For purposes of this section, except as provided in subsection (f)(3) of this section, the national average payment rate for free breakfasts, the national average payment rate for reduced price breakfasts, and the national average payment rate for paid breakfasts shall be the same as the national average payment rates for free breakfasts, reduced price breakfasts, and paid breakfasts, respectively, under section 4(b) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 [42 U.S.C. 1773 (b)] (as adjusted pursuant to section 1759a (a) of this title).
(3) For purposes of this section, except as provided in subsection (f)(3) of this section, the national average payment rate for free supplements shall be 30 cents, the national average payment rate for reduced price supplements shall be one-half the rate for free supplements, and the national average payment rate for paid supplements shall be 2.75 cents (as adjusted pursuant to section 1759a (a) of this title).
(4) Determinations with regard to eligibility for free and reduced price meals and supplements shall be made in accordance with the income eligibility guidelines for free lunches and reduced price lunches, respectively, under section 1758 of this title.
(5) A child shall be considered automatically eligible for benefits under this section without further application or eligibility determination, if the child is enrolled as a participant in a Head Start program authorized under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.), on the basis of a determination that the child meets the eligibility criteria prescribed under section 645(a)(1)(B) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9840 (a)(1)(B)).
(6) A child who has not yet entered kindergarten shall be considered automatically eligible for benefits under this section without further application or eligibility determination if the child is enrolled as a participant in the Even Start program under part B of chapter 1 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.).[1]
(d) Institution approval and applications 

(1) Institution approval.— 

(A) Administrative capability.— 
Subject to subparagraph (B) and except as provided in subparagraph (C), the State agency shall approve an institution that meets the requirements of this section for participation in the child and adult care food program if the State agency determines that the institution
(i) is financially viable;
(ii) is administratively capable of operating the program (including whether the sponsoring organization has business experience and management plans appropriate to operate the program) described in the application of the institution; and
(iii) has internal controls in effect to ensure program accountability.
(B) Approval of private institutions.— 

(i) In general.— 
In addition to the requirements established by subparagraph (A) and subject to clause (ii), the State agency shall approve a private institution that meets the requirements of this section for participation in the child and adult care food program only if
(I) the State agency conducts a satisfactory visit to the institution before approving the participation of the institution in the program; and
(II) the institution
(aa) has tax exempt status under title 26;
(bb) is operating a Federal program requiring nonprofit status to participate in the program; or
(cc) is described in subsection (a)(2)(B) of this section.
(ii) Exception for family or group day care homes.— 
Clause (i) shall not apply to a family or group day care home.
(C) Exception for certain sponsoring organizations.— 

(i) In general.— 
The State agency may approve an eligible institution acting as a sponsoring organization for one or more family or group day care homes or centers that, at the time of application, is not participating in the child and adult care food program only if the State agency determines that
(I) the institution meets the requirements established by subparagraphs (A) and (B); and
(II) the participation of the institution will help to ensure the delivery of benefits to otherwise unserved family or group day care homes or centers or to unserved children in an area.
(ii) Criteria for selection.— 
The State agency shall establish criteria for approving an eligible institution acting as a sponsoring organization for one or more family or group day care homes or centers that, at the time of application, is not participating in the child and adult care food program for the purpose of determining if the participation of the institution will help ensure the delivery of benefits to otherwise unserved family or group day care homes or centers or to unserved children in an area.
(D) Notification to applicants.— 
Not later than 30 days after the date on which an applicant institution files a completed application with the State agency, the State agency shall notify the applicant institution whether the institution has been approved or disapproved to participate in the child and adult care food program.
(2) 
(A) The Secretary shall develop a policy that
(i) allows institutions providing child care that participate in the program under this section, at the option of the State agency, to reapply for assistance under this section at 3-year intervals;
(ii) 
(I) requires periodic unannounced site visits at not less than 3-year intervals to sponsored child care centers and family or group day care homes to identify and prevent management deficiencies and fraud and abuse under the program;
(II) requires at least one scheduled site visit each year to sponsored child care centers and family or group day care homes to identify and prevent management deficiencies and fraud and abuse under the program and to improve program operations; and
(III) requires at least one scheduled site visit at not less than 3-year intervals to sponsoring organizations and nonsponsored child care centers to identify and prevent management deficiencies and fraud and abuse under the program and to improve program operations; and
(iii) requires periodic site visits to private institutions that the State agency determines have a high probability of program abuse.
(B) Each State agency that exercises the option authorized by subparagraph (A) shall confirm on an annual basis that each such institution is in compliance with the licensing or approval provisions of subsection (a)(5) of this section.
(3) Program information.— 

(A) In general.— 
On enrollment of a child in a sponsored child care center or family or group day care home participating in the program, the center or home (or its sponsoring organization) shall provide to the childs parents or guardians
(i) information that describes the program and its benefits; and
(ii) the name and telephone number of the sponsoring organization of the center or home and the State agency involved in the operation of the program.
(B) Form.— 
The information described in subparagraph (A) shall be in a form and, to the maximum extent practicable, language easily understandable by the childs parents or guardians.
(4) Allowable administrative expenses for sponsoring organizations.— 
In consultation with State agencies and sponsoring organizations, the Secretary shall develop, and provide for the dissemination to State agencies and sponsoring organizations of, a list of allowable reimbursable administrative expenses for sponsoring organizations under the program.
(5) Termination or suspension of participating organizations.— 

(A) In general.— 
The Secretary shall establish procedures for the termination of participation by institutions and family or group day care homes under the program.
(B) Standards.— 
Procedures established pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall include standards for terminating the participation of an institution or family or group day care home that
(i) engages in unlawful practices, falsifies information provided to the State agency, or conceals a criminal background; or
(ii) substantially fails to fulfill the terms of its agreement with the State agency.
(C) Corrective action.— 
Procedures established pursuant to subparagraph (A)
(i) shall require an entity described in subparagraph (B) to undertake corrective action; and
(ii) may require the immediate suspension of operation of the program by an entity described in subparagraph (B), without the opportunity for corrective action, if the State agency determines that there is imminent threat to the health or safety of a participant at the entity or the entity engages in any activity that poses a threat to public health or safety.
(D) Hearing.— 

(i) In general.— 
Except as provided in clause (ii), an institution or family or group day care home shall be provided a fair hearing in accordance with subsection (e)(1) of this section prior to any determination to terminate participation by the institution or family or group day care home under the program.
(ii) Exception for false or fraudulent claims.— 

(I) In general.— 
If a State agency determines that an institution has knowingly submitted a false or fraudulent claim for reimbursement, the State agency may suspend the participation of the institution in the program in accordance with this clause.
(II) Requirement for review.— 
Prior to any determination to suspend participation of an institution under subclause (I), the State agency shall provide for an independent review of the proposed suspension in accordance with subclause (III).
(III) Review procedure.— 
The review shall
(aa) be conducted by an independent and impartial official other than, and not accountable to, any person involved in the determination to suspend the institution;
(bb) provide the State agency and the institution the right to submit written documentation relating to the suspension, including State agency documentation of the alleged false or fraudulent claim for reimbursement and the response of the institution to the documentation;
(cc) require the reviewing official to determine, based on the review, whether the State agency has established, based on a preponderance of the evidence, that the institution has knowingly submitted a false or fraudulent claim for reimbursement;
(dd) require the suspension to be in effect for not more than 120 calendar days after the institution has received notification of a determination of suspension in accordance with this clause; and
(ee) require the State agency during the suspension to ensure that payments continue to be made to sponsored centers and family and group day care homes meeting the requirements of the program.
(IV) Hearing.— 
A State agency shall provide an institution that has been suspended from participation in the program under this clause an opportunity for a fair hearing on the suspension conducted in accordance with subsection (e)(1) of this section.
(E) List of disqualified institutions and individuals.— 

(i) In general.— 
The Secretary shall maintain a list of institutions, sponsored family or group day care homes, and individuals that have been terminated or otherwise disqualified from participation in the program.
(ii) Availability.— 
The Secretary shall make the list available to State agencies for use in approving or renewing applications by institutions, sponsored family or group day care homes, and individuals for participation in the program.
(e) Hearing 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the State shall provide, in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, a fair hearing and a prompt determination to any institution aggrieved by the action of the State as it affects the participation of such institution in the program authorized by this section, or its claim for reimbursement under this section.
(2) A State is not required to provide a hearing to an institution concerning a State action taken on the basis of a Federal audit determination.
(3) If a State does not provide a hearing to an institution concerning a State action taken on the basis of a Federal audit determination, the Secretary, on request, shall afford a hearing to the institution concerning the action.
(f) State disbursements to institutions 

(1) In general.— 

(A) Requirement.— 
Funds paid to any State under this section shall be disbursed to eligible institutions by the State under agreements approved by the Secretary. Disbursements to any institution shall be made only for the purpose of assisting in providing meals to children attending institutions, or in family or group day care homes. Disbursement to any institution shall not be dependent upon the collection of moneys from participating children. All valid claims from such institutions shall be paid within forty-five days of receipt by the State. The State shall notify the institution within fifteen days of receipt of a claim if the claim as submitted is not valid because it is incomplete or incorrect.
(B) Fraud or abuse.— 

(i) In general.— 
The State may recover funds disbursed under subparagraph (A) to an institution if the State determines that the institution has engaged in fraud or abuse with respect to the program or has submitted an invalid claim for reimbursement.
(ii) Payment.— 
Amounts recovered under clause (i)
(I) may be paid by the institution to the State over a period of one or more years; and
(II) shall not be paid from funds used to provide meals and supplements.
(iii) Hearing.— 
An institution shall be provided a fair hearing in accordance with subsection (e)(1) of this section prior to any determination to recover funds under this subparagraph.
(2) 
(A) Subject to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, the disbursement for any fiscal year to any State for disbursement to institutions, other than family or group day care home sponsoring organizations, for meals provided under this section shall be equal to the sum of the products obtained by multiplying the total number of each type of meal (breakfast, lunch or supper, or supplement) served in such institution in that fiscal year by the applicable national average payment rate for each such type of meal, as determined under subsection (c) of this section.
(B) No reimbursement may be made to any institution under this paragraph, or to family or group day care home sponsoring organizations under paragraph (3) of this subsection, for more than two meals and one supplement per day per child, or in the case of an institution (but not in the case of a family or group day care home sponsoring organization), 2 meals and 1 supplement per day per child, for children that are maintained in a child care setting for eight or more hours per day.
(C) Limitation on administrative expenses for certain sponsoring organizations.— 

(i) In general.— 
Except as provided in clause (ii), a sponsoring organization of a day care center may reserve not more than 15 percent of the funds provided under paragraph (1) for the administrative expenses of the organization.
(ii) Waiver.— 
A State may waive the requirement in clause (i) with respect to a sponsoring organization if the organization provides justification to the State that the organization requires funds in excess of 15 percent of the funds provided under paragraph (1) to pay the administrative expenses of the organization.
(3) Reimbursement of family or group day care home sponsoring organizations.— 

(A) Reimbursement factor.— 

(i) In general.— 
An institution that participates in the program under this section as a family or group day care home sponsoring organization shall be provided, for payment to a home sponsored by the organization, reimbursement factors in accordance with this subparagraph for the cost of obtaining and preparing food and prescribed labor costs involved in providing meals under this section.
(ii) Tier i family or group day care homes.— 

(I) Definition of tier i family or group day care home.— 
In this paragraph, the term tier I family or group day care home means
(aa) a family or group day care home that is located in a geographic area, as defined by the Secretary based on census data, in which at least 50 percent of the children residing in the area are members of households whose incomes meet the income eligibility guidelines for free or reduced price meals under section 1758 of this title;
(bb) a family or group day care home that is located in an area served by a school enrolling elementary students in which at least 50 percent of the total number of children enrolled are certified eligible to receive free or reduced price school meals under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.); or
(cc) a family or group day care home that is operated by a provider whose household meets the income eligibility guidelines for free or reduced price meals under section 1758 of this title and whose income is verified by the sponsoring organization of the home under regulations established by the Secretary.
(II) Reimbursement.— 
Except as provided in subclause (III), a tier I family or group day care home shall be provided reimbursement factors under this clause without a requirement for documentation of the costs described in clause (i), except that reimbursement shall not be provided under this subclause for meals or supplements served to the children of a person acting as a family or group day care home provider unless the children meet the income eligibility guidelines for free or reduced price meals under section 1758 of this title.
(III) Factors.— 
Except as provided in subclause (IV), the reimbursement factors applied to a home referred to in subclause (II) shall be the factors in effect on July 1, 1996.
(IV) Adjustments.— 
The reimbursement factors under this subparagraph shall be adjusted on July 1, 1997, and each July 1 thereafter, to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for food at home for the most recent 12-month period for which the data are available. The reimbursement factors under this subparagraph shall be rounded to the nearest lower cent increment and based on the unrounded adjustment in effect on June 30 of the preceding school year.
(iii) Tier ii family or group day care homes.— 

(I) In general.— 

(aa) Factors.— 
Except as provided in subclause (II), with respect to meals or supplements served under this clause by a family or group day care home that does not meet the criteria set forth in clause (ii)(I), the reimbursement factors shall be 95 cents for lunches and suppers, 27 cents for breakfasts, and 13 cents for supplements.
(bb) Adjustments.— 
The factors shall be adjusted on July 1, 1997, and each July 1 thereafter, to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for food at home for the most recent 12-month period for which the data are available. The reimbursement factors under this item shall be rounded down to the nearest lower cent increment and based on the unrounded adjustment for the preceding 12-month period.
(cc) Reimbursement.— 
A family or group day care home shall be provided reimbursement factors under this subclause without a requirement for documentation of the costs described in clause (i), except that reimbursement shall not be provided under this subclause for meals or supplements served to the children of a person acting as a family or group day care home provider unless the children meet the income eligibility guidelines for free or reduced price meals under section 1758 of this title.
(II) Other factors.— 
A family or group day care home that does not meet the criteria set forth in clause (ii)(I) may elect to be provided reimbursement factors determined in accordance with the following requirements:
(aa) Children eligible for free or reduced price meals.— 
In the case of meals or supplements served under this subsection to children who are members of households whose incomes meet the income eligibility guidelines for free or reduced price meals under section 1758 of this title, the family or group day care home shall be provided reimbursement factors set by the Secretary in accordance with clause (ii)(III).
(bb) Ineligible children.— 
In the case of meals or supplements served under this subsection to children who are members of households whose incomes do not meet the income eligibility guidelines, the family or group day care home shall be provided reimbursement factors in accordance with subclause (I).
(III) Information and determinations.— 

(aa) In general.— 
If a family or group day care home elects to claim the factors described in subclause (II), the family or group day care home sponsoring organization serving the home shall collect the necessary income information, as determined by the Secretary, from any parent or other caretaker to make the determinations specified in subclause (II) and shall make the determinations in accordance with rules prescribed by the Secretary.
(bb) Categorical eligibility.— 
In making a determination under item (aa), a family or group day care home sponsoring organization may consider a child participating in or subsidized under, or a child with a parent participating in or subsidized under, a federally or State supported child care or other benefit program with an income eligibility limit that does not exceed the eligibility standard for free or reduced price meals under section 1758 of this title to be a child who is a member of a household whose income meets the income eligibility guidelines under section 1758 of this title.
(cc) Factors for children only.— 
A family or group day care home may elect to receive the reimbursement factors prescribed under clause (ii)(III) solely for the children participating in a program referred to in item (bb) if the home elects not to have income statements collected from parents or other caretakers.
(IV) Simplified meal counting and reporting procedures.— 
The Secretary shall prescribe simplified meal counting and reporting procedures for use by a family or group day care home that elects to claim the factors under subclause (II) and by a family or group day care home sponsoring organization that sponsors the home. The procedures the Secretary prescribes may include 1 or more of the following:
(aa) Setting an annual percentage for each home of the number of meals served that are to be reimbursed in accordance with the reimbursement factors prescribed under clause (ii)(III) and an annual percentage of the number of meals served that are to be reimbursed in accordance with the reimbursement factors prescribed under subclause (I), based on the family income of children enrolled in the home in a specified month or other period.
(bb) Placing a home into 1 of 2 or more reimbursement categories annually based on the percentage of children in the home whose households have incomes that meet the income eligibility guidelines under section 1758 of this title, with each such reimbursement category carrying a set of reimbursement factors such as the factors prescribed under clause (ii)(III) or subclause (I) or factors established within the range of factors prescribed under clause (ii)(III) and subclause (I).
(cc) Such other simplified procedures as the Secretary may prescribe.
(V) Minimum verification requirements.— 
The Secretary may establish any minimum verification requirements that are necessary to carry out this clause.
(B) Family or group day care home sponsoring organizations shall also receive reimbursement for their administrative expenses in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable levels prescribed by the Secretary. Such levels shall be adjusted July 1 of each year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index for all items for the most recent 12-month period for which such data are available.
(C) 
(i) Reimbursement for administrative expenses shall also include start-up funds to finance the administrative expenses for such institutions to initiate successful operation under the program and expansion funds to finance the administrative expenses for such institutions to expand into low-income or rural areas. Institutions that have received start-up funds may also apply at a later date for expansion funds. Such start-up funds and expansion funds shall be in addition to other reimbursement to such institutions for administrative expenses. Start-up funds and expansion funds shall be payable to enable institutions satisfying the criteria of subsection (d) of this section, and any other standards prescribed by the Secretary, to develop an application for participation in the program as a family or group day care home sponsoring organization or to implement the program upon approval of the application. Such start-up funds and expansion funds shall be payable in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the Secretary. The amount of start-up funds and expansion funds payable to an institution shall be not less than the institutions anticipated reimbursement for administrative expenses under the program for one month and not more than the institutions anticipated reimbursement for administrative expenses under the program for two months.
(ii) Funds for administrative expenses may be used by family or group day care home sponsoring organizations to assist unlicensed family or group day care homes in becoming licensed.
(D) Limitations on ability of family or group day care homes to transfer sponsoring organizations.— 

(i) In general.— 
Subject to clause (ii), a State agency shall limit the ability of a family or group day care home to transfer from a sponsoring organization to another sponsoring organization more frequently than once a year.
(ii) Good cause.— 
The State agency may permit or require a family or group day care home to transfer from a sponsoring organization to another sponsoring organization more frequently than once a year for good cause (as determined by the State agency), including circumstances in which the sponsoring organization of the family or group day care home ceases to participate in the child and adult care food program.
(E) Provision of data to family or group day care home sponsoring organizations.— 

(i) Census data.— 
The Secretary shall provide to each State agency administering a child and adult care food program under this section data from the most recent decennial census survey or other appropriate census survey for which the data are available showing which areas in the State meet the requirements of subparagraph (A)(ii)(I)(aa). The State agency shall provide the data to family or group day care home sponsoring organizations located in the State.
(ii) School data.— 

(I) In general.— 
A State agency administering the school lunch program under this chapter or the school breakfast program under the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) shall provide to approved family or group day care home sponsoring organizations a list of schools serving elementary school children in the State in which not less than 1/2 of the children enrolled are certified to receive free or reduced price meals. The State agency shall collect the data necessary to create the list annually and provide the list on a timely basis to any approved family or group day care home sponsoring organization that requests the list.
(II) Use of data from preceding school year.— 
In determining for a fiscal year or other annual period whether a home qualifies as a tier I family or group day care home under subparagraph (A)(ii)(I), the State agency administering the program under this section, and a family or group day care home sponsoring organization, shall use the most current available data at the time of the determination.
(iii) Duration of determination.— 
For purposes of this section, a determination that a family or group day care home is located in an area that qualifies the home as a tier I family or group day care home (as the term is defined in subparagraph (A)(ii)(I)), shall be in effect for 5 years (unless the determination is made on the basis of census data, in which case the determination shall remain in effect until more recent census data are available) unless the State agency determines that the area in which the home is located no longer qualifies the home as a tier I family or group day care home.
(4) By the first day of each month of operation, the State may provide advance payments for the month to each approved institution in an amount that reflects the full level of valid claims customarily received from such institution for one months operation. In the case of a newly participating institution, the amount of the advance shall reflect the States best estimate of the level of valid claims such institutions will submit. If the State has reason to believe that an institution will not be able to submit a valid claim covering the period for which such an advance has been made, the subsequent months advance payment shall be withheld until the State receives a valid claim. Payments advanced to institutions that are not subsequently deducted from a valid claim for reimbursement shall be repaid upon demand by the State. Any prior payment that is under dispute may be subtracted from an advance payment.
(g) Meals served by participating institutions; compliance assistance 

(1) 
(A) Meals served by institutions participating in the program under this section shall consist of a combination of foods that meet minimum nutritional requirements prescribed by the Secretary on the basis of tested nutritional research.
(B) The Secretary shall provide technical assistance to those institutions participating in the program under this section to assist the institutions and family or group day care home sponsoring organizations in complying with the nutritional requirements prescribed by the Secretary pursuant to subparagraph (A).
(2) No physical segregation or other discrimination against any child shall be made because of his or her inability to pay, nor shall there be any overt identification of any such child by special tokens or tickets, different meals or meal service, announced or published lists of names, or other means.
(3) Each institution shall, insofar as practicable, use in its food service foods designated from time to time by the Secretary as being in abundance, either nationally or in the food service area, or foods donated by the Secretary.
(h) Donation of agricultural commodities by Secretary; measurement of value; annual readjustment of assistance; cash in lieu of commodities; Department of Defense child care feeding program 

(1) 
(A) The Secretary shall donate agricultural commodities produced in the United States for use in institutions participating in the child care food program under this section.
(B) The value of the commodities donated under subparagraph (A) (or cash in lieu of commodities) to each State for each school year shall be, at a minimum, the amount obtained by multiplying the number of lunches and suppers served in participating institutions in that State during the preceding school year by the rate for commodities or cash in lieu of commodities established under section 1755 (c) of this title for the school year concerned.
(C) After the end of each school year, the Secretary shall
(i) reconcile the number of lunches and suppers served in participating institutions in each State during such school year with the number of lunches and suppers served by participating institutions in each State during the preceding school year; and
(ii) based on such reconciliation, increase or reduce subsequent commodity assistance or cash in lieu of commodities provided to each State.
(D) Any State receiving assistance under this section for institutions participating in the child care food program may, upon application to the Secretary, receive cash in lieu of some or all of the commodities to which it would otherwise be entitled under this subsection. In determining whether to request cash in lieu of commodities, the State shall base its decision on the preferences of individual participating institutions within the State, unless this proves impracticable due to the small number of institutions preferring donated commodities.
(2) The Secretary is authorized to provide agricultural commodities obtained by the Secretary under the provisions of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.) and donated under the provisions of section 416 of such Act [7 U.S.C. 1431], to the Department of Defense for use by its institutions providing child care services, when such commodities are in excess of the quantities needed to meet the needs of all other child nutrition programs, domestic and foreign food assistance and export enhancement programs. The Secretary shall require reimbursement from the Department of Defense for the costs, or some portion thereof, of delivering such commodities to overseas locations, unless the Secretary determines that it is in the best interest of the program that the Department of Agriculture shall assume such costs.
(i) Audits 

(1) Disregards 

(A) In general 
Subject to subparagraph (B), in conducting management evaluations, reviews, or audits under this section, the Secretary or a State agency may disregard any overpayment to an institution for a fiscal year if the total overpayment to the institution for the fiscal year does not exceed an amount that is consistent with the disregards allowed in other programs under this chapter and recognizes the cost of collecting small claims, as determined by the Secretary.
(B) Criminal or fraud violations 
In carrying out this paragraph, the Secretary and a State agency shall not disregard any overpayment for which there is evidence of a violation of a criminal law or civil fraud law.
(2) Funding 
The Secretary shall make available for each fiscal year to States administering the child care food program, for the purpose of conducting audits of participating institutions, an amount up to 1.5 percent (except, in the case of each of fiscal years 2005 through 2007, 1 percent) of the funds used by each State in the program under this section, during the second preceding fiscal year.
(j) Agreements 

(1) In general 
The Secretary may issue regulations directing States to develop and provide for the use of a standard form of agreement between each family or group day care sponsoring organization and the family or group day care homes participating in the program under such organization, for the purpose of specifying the rights and responsibilities of each party.
(2) Duration 
An agreement under paragraph (1) shall remain in effect until terminated by either party to the agreement.
(k) Training and technical assistance 
A State participating in the program established under this section shall provide sufficient training, technical assistance, and monitoring to facilitate effective operation of the program. The Secretary shall assist the State in developing plans to fulfill the requirements of this subsection.
(l) Non-diminishment of State and local funds 
Expenditures of funds from State and local sources for the maintenance of food programs for children shall not be diminished as a result of funds received under this section.
(m) Accounts and records 
States and institutions participating in the program under this section shall keep such accounts and records as may be necessary to enable the Secretary to determine whether there has been compliance with the requirements of this section. Such accounts and records shall be available at any reasonable time for inspection and audit by representatives of the Secretary, the Comptroller General of the United States, and appropriate State representatives and shall be preserved for such period of time, not in excess of five years, as the Secretary determines necessary.
(n) Authorization of appropriations 
There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year such funds as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.
(o) Participation of older persons and chronically impaired disabled persons 

(1) For purposes of this section, adult day care centers shall be considered eligible institutions for reimbursement for meals or supplements served to persons 60 years of age or older or to chronically impaired disabled persons, including victims of Alzheimers disease and related disorders with neurological and organic brain dysfunction. Reimbursement provided to such institutions for such purposes shall improve the quality of meals or level of services provided or increase participation in the program. Lunches served by each such institution for which reimbursement is claimed under this section shall provide, on the average, approximately 1/3 of the daily recommended dietary allowance established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. Such institutions shall make reasonable efforts to serve meals that meet the special dietary requirements of participants, including efforts to serve foods in forms palatable to participants.
(2) For purposes of this subsection
(A) the term adult day care center means any public agency or private nonprofit organization, or any proprietary title XIX or title XX center, which
(i) is licensed or approved by Federal, State, or local authorities to provide adult day care services to chronically impaired disabled adults or persons 60 years of age or older in a group setting outside their homes, or a group living arrangement, on a less than 24-hour basis; and
(ii) provides for such care and services directly or under arrangements made by the agency or organization whereby the agency or organization maintains professional management responsibility for all such services; and
(B) the term proprietary title XIX or title XX center means any private, for-profit center providing adult day care services for which it receives compensation from amounts granted to the States under title XIX or XX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq., 1397 et seq.] and which title XIX or title XX beneficiaries were not less than 25 percent of enrolled eligible participants in a calendar month preceding initial application or annual reapplication for program participation.
(3) 
(A) The Secretary, in consulation[2] with the Assistant Secretary for Aging, shall establish, within 6 months of October 1, 1988, separate guidelines for reimbursement of institutions described in this subsection. Such reimbursement shall take into account the nutritional requirements of eligible persons, as determined by the Secretary on the basis of tested nutritional research, except that such reimbursement shall not be less than would otherwise be required under this section.
(B) The guidelines shall contain provisions designed to assure that reimbursement under this subsection shall not duplicate reimbursement under part C of title III of the Older Americans Act of 1965 [42 U.S.C. 3030e et seq.], for the same meal served.
(4) For the purpose of establishing eligibility for free or reduced price meals or supplements under this subsection, income shall include only the income of an eligible person and, if any, the spouse and dependents with whom the eligible person resides.
(5) A person described in paragraph (1) shall be considered automatically eligible for free meals or supplements under this subsection, without further application or eligibility determination, if the person is
(A) a member of a household receiving assistance under the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.); or
(B) a recipient of assistance under title XVI or XIX of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq., 1396 et seq.].
(6) The Governor of any State may designate to administer the program under this subsection a State agency other than the agency that administers the child care food program under this section.
(p) Rural area eligibility determination for day care homes 

(1) Definition of selected tier I family or group day care home 
In this subsection, the term selected tier I family or group day care home means a family or group day home that meets the definition of tier I family or group day care home under subclause (I) of subsection (f)(3)(A)(ii) of this section except that items (aa) and (bb) of that subclause shall be applied by substituting 40 percent for 50 percent.
(2) Eligibility 
For each of fiscal years 2006 and 2007, in rural areas of the State of Nebraska (as determined by the Secretary), the Secretary shall provide reimbursement to selected tier I family or group day care homes (as defined in paragraph (1)) under subsection (f)(3) of this section in the same manner as tier I family or group day care homes (as defined in subsection (f)(3)(A)(ii)(I) of this section).
(3) Evaluation 

(A) In general 
The Secretary, acting through the Administrator of the Food and Nutrition Service, shall evaluate the impact of the eligibility criteria described in paragraph (2) as compared to the eligibility criteria described in subsection (f)(3)(A)(ii)(I) of this section.
(B) Impact 
The evaluation shall assess the impact of the change in eligibility requirements on
(i) the number of family or group day care homes offering meals under this section;
(ii) the number of family or group day care homes offering meals under this section that are defined as tier I family or group day care homes as a result of paragraph (1) that otherwise would be defined as tier II family or group day care homes under subsection (f)(3)(A)(iii) of this section;
(iii) the geographic location of the family or group day care homes;
(iv) services provided to eligible children; and
(v) other factors determined by the Secretary.
(C) Report 
Not later than March 31, 2008, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report describing the results of the evaluation under this subsection.
(D) Funding 

(i) In general On October 1, 2005, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer to the Secretary of Agriculture to carry out this paragraph $400,000, to remain available until expended.
(ii) Receipt and acceptance The Secretary shall be entitled to receive, shall accept, and shall use to carry out this paragraph the funds transferred under clause (i), without further appropriation.
(q) Management support 

(1) Technical and training assistance 
In addition to the training and technical assistance that is provided to State agencies under other provisions of this chapter and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.), the Secretary shall provide training and technical assistance in order to assist the State agencies in improving their program management and oversight under this section.
(2) Technical and training assistance for identification and prevention of fraud and abuse 
As part of training and technical assistance provided under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide training on a continuous basis to State agencies, and shall ensure that such training is provided to sponsoring organizations, for the identification and prevention of fraud and abuse under the program and to improve management of the program.
(3) Funding 
For each of fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the Secretary shall reserve to carry out paragraph (1) $1,000,000 of the amounts made available to carry out this section.
(r) Program for at-risk school children 

(1) Definition of at-risk school child 
In this subsection, the term at-risk school child means a school child who
(A) is not more than 18 years of age, except that the age limitation provided by this subparagraph shall not apply to a child described in section 1760 (d)(1)(A) of this title; and
(B) participates in a program authorized under this section operated at a site located in a geographical area served by a school in which at least 50 percent of the children enrolled are certified as eligible to receive free or reduced price school meals under this chapter or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.).
(2) Participation in child and adult care food program 
An institution may participate in the program authorized under this section only if the institution provides meals or supplements under a program
(A) organized primarily to provide care to at-risk school children during after-school hours, weekends, or holidays during the regular school year; and
(B) with an educational or enrichment purpose.
(3) Administration 
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the other provisions of this section apply to an institution described in paragraph (2).
(4) Meal and supplement reimbursement 

(A) Limitations 
An institution may claim reimbursement under this subsection only for one meal per child per day and one supplement per child per day served under a program organized primarily to provide care to at-risk school children during after-school hours, weekends, or holidays during the regular school year.
(B) Rates 

(i) Meals A meal shall be reimbursed under this subsection at the rate established for free meals under subsection (c) of this section.
(ii) Supplements A supplement shall be reimbursed under this subsection at the rate established for a free supplement under subsection (c)(3) of this section.
(C) No charge 
A meal or supplement claimed for reimbursement under this subsection shall be served without charge.
(5) Limitation 
The Secretary shall limit reimbursement under this subsection for meals served under a program to institutions located in eight States, of which six States shall be West Virginia, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Missouri, Delaware, and Michigan and two States shall be approved by the Secretary through a competitive application process.
(s) Information concerning the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children 

(1) In general 
The Secretary shall provide each State agency administering a child and adult care food program under this section with information concerning the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children authorized under section 17 of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1786).
(2) Requirements for State agencies 
Each State agency shall ensure that each participating family and group day care home and child care center (other than an institution providing care to school children outside school hours)
(A) receives materials that include
(i) a basic explanation of the importance and benefits of the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children;
(ii) the maximum State income eligibility standards, according to family size, for the program; and
(iii) information concerning how benefits under the program may be obtained;
(B) receives periodic updates of the information described in subparagraph (A); and
(C) provides the information described in subparagraph (A) to parents of enrolled children at enrollment.
(t) Participation by emergency shelters 

(1) Definition of emergency shelter 
In this subsection, the term emergency shelter means
(A) an emergency shelter (as defined in section 11351 of this title); or
(B) a site operated by the shelter.
(2) Administration 
Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, an emergency shelter shall be eligible to participate in the program authorized under this section in accordance with the terms and conditions applicable to eligible institutions described in subsection (a) of this section.
(3) Licensing requirements 
The licensing requirements contained in subsection (a)(5) of this section shall not apply to an emergency shelter.
(4) Health and safety standards 
To be eligible to participate in the program authorized under this section, an emergency shelter shall comply with applicable State or local health and safety standards.
(5) Meal or supplement reimbursement 

(A) Limitations 
An emergency shelter may claim reimbursement under this subsection
(i) only for a meal or supplement served to children residing at an emergency shelter, if the children are
(I) not more than 18 years of age; or
(II) children with disabilities; and
(ii) for not more than 3 meals, or 2 meals and a supplement, per child per day.
(B) Rate 
A meal or supplement eligible for reimbursement shall be reimbursed at the rate at which free meals and supplements are reimbursed under subsection (c) of this section.
(C) No charge 
A meal or supplement claimed for reimbursement shall be served without charge.
[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “consultation”.