43 USC 852 - Selections to supply deficiencies of school lands

(a) Restrictions 
The lands appropriated by section 851 of this title shall be selected from any unappropriated, surveyed or unsurveyed public lands within the State where such losses or deficiencies occur subject to the following restrictions:
(1) No lands mineral in character may be selected by a State except to the extent that the selection is being made as indemnity for mineral lands lost to the State because of appropriation before title could pass to the State;
(2) No lands on a known geologic structure of a producing oil or gas field may be selected except to the extent that the selection is being made as indemnity for lands on such a structure lost to the State because of appropriation before title could pass to the State; and
(3) Land subject to a mineral lease or permit may be selected if none of the land subject to that lease or permit is in a producing or producible status, subject, however, to the restrictions and conditions of the preceding and following paragraphs of this subsection.

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(4) If a selection is consummated as to a portion but not all of the lands subject to any mineral lease or permit, then, as to such portion and for so long only as such lease or permit or any lease issued pursuant to such permit shall remain in effect, there shall be automatically reserved to the United States the mineral or minerals for which the lease or permit was issued, together with such further rights as may be necessary for the full and complete enjoyment of all rights, privileges and benefits under or with respect to the lease or permit: Provided, however, That after approval of the selection the Secretary of the Interior shall determine what portion of any rents and royalties accruing thereafter which may be paid under the lease or permit is properly applicable to that portion of the land subject to the lease or permit selected by the State, the portion applicable being determined by applying to the sum of the rents and royalties the same ratio as that existing between the acreage selected by the State and the total acreage subject to the lease or permit; of the portion applicable to the selected land 90 per centum shall be paid to the State by the United States annually and 10 per centum shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States as miscellaneous receipts.
(5) If a selection is consummated as to all of the lands subject to any mineral lease or permit or if, where the selecting State has previously acquired title to a portion of the lands subject to a mineral lease or permit, a selection is consummated as to all of the remaining lands subject to that lease or permit, then and upon condition that the United States shall retain all rents and royalties theretofore paid and that the lessee or permittee shall have and may enjoy under and with respect to that lease or permit all the rights, privileges, and benefits which he would have had or might have enjoyed had the selection not been made and approved, the State shall succeed to all the rights of the United States under the lease or permit as to the mineral or minerals covered thereby, subject, however, to all obligations of the United States under and with respect to that lease or permit.
(b) Adjustments 
Where the selections are to compensate for deficiencies of school lands in fractional townships, such selections shall be made in accordance with the following principles of adjustment, to wit: For each township, or fractional township, containing a greater quantity of land than three-quarters of an entire township, one section; for a fractional township, containing a greater quantity of land than one-half, and not more than three-quarters of a township, three-quarters of a section; for a fractional township, containing a greater quantity of land than one-quarter, and not more than one-half of a township, one-half section; and for a fractional township containing a greater quantity of land than one entire section, and not more than one-quarter of a township, one-quarter section of land: Provided, That the States which are, or shall be entitled to both the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections in place, shall have the right to select double the amounts named, to compensate for deficiencies of school land in fractional townships.
(c) Preference rights for State 
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 2821 of this title on the revocation not later than 10 years after the date of approval of this Act, of any order of withdrawal, in whole or in part, the order or notice taking such action shall provide for a period of not less than six months before the date on which it otherwise becomes effective in which the State in which the lands are situated shall have a preferred right of application for selection under this section, subject to the requirements of existing law, except as against the prior existing valid settlement rights and preference rights conferred by existing law other than section 2821 of this title, or as against equitable claims subject to allowance and confirmation, and except where a revocation of an order of withdrawal is made in order to assist in a Federal land program.
(d) “Unappropriated public lands” defined; determination of mineral character of land 

(1) The term unappropriated public lands as used in this section shall include, without otherwise affecting the meaning thereof, lands withdrawn for coal, phosphate, nitrate, potash, oil, gas, asphaltic minerals, oil shale, sodium, and sulphur, but otherwise subject to appropriation, location, selection, entry, or purchase under the nonmineral laws of the United States; lands withdrawn by Executive Order Numbered 5327, of April 15, 1930, if otherwise available for selection; and the retained or reserved interest of the United States in lands which have been disposed of with a reservation to the United States of all minerals or any specified mineral or minerals.
(2) The determination, for the purposes of this section of the mineral character of lands lost to a State shall be made as of the date of application for selection and upon the basis of the best evidence available at that time.
[1] See References in Text note below.