TITLE 7 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - BASIC AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES

7 USC 1441 - Price support levels

The Secretary of Agriculture (hereinafter called the Secretary) is authorized and directed to make available through loans, purchases, or other operations, price support to cooperators for any crop of any basic agricultural commodity, if producers have not disapproved marketing quotas for such crop, at a level not in excess of 90 per centum of the parity price of the commodity nor less than the level provided in subsections (a) to (c) of this section as follows: For rice of the 1959 and 1960 crops, the level of support shall be not less than 75 per centum of the parity price. For rice of the 1961 crop the level of support shall be not less than 70 per centum of the parity price. For the 1962 and subsequent crops of rice the level of support shall be not less than 65 per centum of the parity price.
(c) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section
(1) if producers have not disapproved marketing quotas for such crop, the level of support to cooperators shall be 90 per centum of the parity price for the 1950 crop of any basic agricultural commodity for which marketing quotas or acreage allotments are in effect;
(2) if producers have not disapproved marketing quotas for such crop, the level of support to cooperators shall be not less than 80 per centum of the parity price for the 1951 crop of any basic agricultural commodity for which marketing quotas or acreage allotments are in effect;
(3) the level of price support to cooperators for any crop of a basic agricultural commodity for which marketing quotas have been disapproved by producers shall be 50 per centum of the parity price of such commodity;

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(4) Repealed. Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 104(b)(3), as added Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–835, title II, § 201, 72 Stat. 994.
(5) the price support may be made available to noncooperators at such levels, not in excess of the level of price support to cooperators, as the Secretary determines will facilitate the effective operation of the program;
(6) except as provided in subsection (c) of this section and section 1422 of this title, the level of support to cooperators shall be not more than 90 per centum and not less than 821/2 per centum of the parity price for the 1955 crop of any basic agricultural commodity with respect to which producers have not disapproved marketing quotas; within such limits, the minimum level of support shall be fixed as provided in subsections (a) and (b) of this section;
(7) Where a State is designated under section 1335 (e) of this title, as outside the commercial wheat-producing area for any crop of wheat, the level of price support for wheat to cooperators in such State for such crop of wheat shall be 75 per centum of the level of price support to cooperators in the commercial wheat-producing area.
(d) Rice.— 
The Secretary shall make available to producers of each crop of rice on a farm price support at a level that is not less than 50 percent, or more than 90 percent of the parity price for rice as the Secretary determines will not result in increasing stocks of rice to the Commodity Credit Corporation.

7 USC 14411 - Omitted

7 USC 14411a - Marketing certificates for rice

(a) Authority of Commodity Credit Corporation to issue negotiable marketing certificates 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever, during the period beginning August 1, 1986, and ending July 31, 1991, the world price for a class of rice (adjusted to United States qualities and location), as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture, is below the current loan repayment rate for that class of rice, to make United States rice competitive in world markets and to maintain and expand exports of rice produced in the United States, the Commodity Credit Corporation, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, shall make payments, through the issuance of negotiable marketing certificates, to persons who have entered into an agreement with the Commodity Credit Corporation to participate in the program established under this section. Such payments shall be made in such monetary amounts and subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines will make rice produced in the United States available at competitive prices consistent with the purposes of this section, including such payments as may be necessary to make rice in inventory on August 1, 1986, available on the same basis.
(b) Determination of value of certificates 
The value of each certificate issued under subsection (a) of this section shall be based on the difference between
(1) the loan repayment rate for the class of rice; and
(2) the prevailing world market price for the class of rice, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture under a published formula submitted for public comment before its adoption.
(c) Commodity Credit Corporation assistance in redemption, marketing, or exchange of certificates 
The Commodity Credit Corporation, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, may assist any person receiving marketing certificates under this section in the redemption of certificates for cash, or marketing or exchange of such certificates for
(1)  rice owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation or
(2)  (if the Secretary and the person agree) other agricultural commodities or the products thereof owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation, at such times, in such manner, and at such price levels as the Secretary determines will best effectuate the purposes of the program established under this section. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any price restrictions that may otherwise apply to the disposition of agricultural commodities by the Commodity Credit Corporation shall not apply to the redemption of certificates under this section.
(d) Exchange of certificates for commodities and products 
Insofar as practicable, the Secretary shall permit owners of certificates to designate the commodities and the products thereof, including storage sites thereof, such owners would prefer to receive in exchange for certificates. If any certificate is not presented for redemption, marketing, or exchange within a reasonable number of days after the issuance of such certificate (as determined by the Secretary), reasonable costs of storage and other carrying charges, as determined by the Secretary, shall be deducted from the value of the certificate for the period beginning after such reasonable number of days and ending with the date of the presentation of such certificate to the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(e) Prevention of adverse effects 
The Secretary of Agriculture shall take such measures as may be necessary to prevent the marketing or exchange of agricultural commodities and the products thereof for certificates under this section from adversely affecting the income of producers of such commodities or products.
(f) Transfer of certificates 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture, certificates issued to rice exporters under this section may be transferred to other exporters and persons approved by the Secretary.

7 USC 14412 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104127, title I, 171(b)(2)(A), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 101B, as added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title VI, § 601, 104 Stat. 3443; amended Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §§ 1101(d), 1102 (c), 104 Stat. 13881, 13882; Dec. 13, 1991, Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §§ 102(a), 104, 106 (a), 113 (1), 105 Stat. 1821, 1823, 1824, 1837; Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1104, 107 Stat. 316; May 6, 1994, Pub. L. 103–247, § 1(a), 108 Stat. 618; Oct. 13, 1994, Pub. L. 103–354, title I, § 119(a)(2), 108 Stat. 3207, related to loans, payments, and acreage reduction programs for 1991 through 1995 crops of rice.

7 USC 1441a - Cost of production study and establishment of current national weighted average cost of production

The Secretary of Agriculture, in cooperation with the land grant colleges, commodity organizations, general farm organizations, and individual farmers, shall conduct a cost of production study of the wheat, feed grain, cotton, and dairy commodities under the various production practices and establish a current national weighted average cost of production. This study shall be updated annually and shall include all typical variable costs, including interest costs, a return on fixed costs, and a return for management.

7 USC 1442 - Price support and acreage requirements for corn and other feed grains

(a) Conditions of eligibility 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever base acreages are in effect for corn, the Secretary shall require, as a condition of eligibility for price support on corn, that the producer
(1)  devote an acreage of cropland (tilled in normal rotation), at the option of the producer, to either the acreage reserve program for corn or the conservation reserve program, equal to 15 per centum of such producers farm base acreage for corn, and
(2)  not exceed such farm base acreage for corn: Provided, That price support may be made available to any producer who does not meet the foregoing requirements at such level, not in excess of the level of price support to producers who meet such requirements, as the Secretary determines will facilitate the effective operation of the price support program. Corn acreage allotments shall not be effective for the 1956 crop.
(b) Referendum of producers of corn 
Not later than December 15, 1956, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum of producers of corn in 1956 in the commercial corn-producing area to determine whether such producers favor a price-support program as provided in subsection (c) of this section for the 1957 and subsequent crops in lieu of acreage allotments as provided in the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1281 et seq.], and price support as provided in section 1441 of this title.
(c) Restriction on acreage allotment of corn; price support level 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if two-thirds or more of the producers voting in the referendum conducted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section favor a price-support program as provided in this subsection, no acreage allotment of corn shall be established for the commercial corn-producing area for any county, or for any farm, with respect to the 1957 and subsequent crops, and price support made available for such crops by Commodity Credit Corporation shall be at such level as the Secretary determines will assist producers in marketing corn in the normal channels of trade but not encourage the uneconomic production of corn.
(d) Price support level for 1956 and 1957 crops of grain sorghums, barley, rye, oats, and corn 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law,
(1)  the level of price support for the 1956 crop of grain sorghums, barley, rye, and oats, respectively, shall be 76 per centum of the parity price for the commodity as of May 1, 1956,
(2)  the level of price support for corn produced outside the commercial corn-producing area, for any crop for which base acreages are in effect (except as provided in
(3)  below), shall be 821/2 per centum of the level of price support for corn in the commercial corn-producing area to producers complying with acreage limitations, and
(3)  if price support is made available for the 1957 crop of corn in the commercial corn-producing area to producers not complying with acreage limitations, price support shall be made available for the 1957 crop of grain sorghums, barley, rye, oats, and corn produced outside the commercial corn-producing area, respectively, at a level, not less than 70 per centum of the parity price as of the beginning of the marketing year, determined by the Secretary to be fair and reasonable in relation to the level at which price support is made available for corn in the commercial corn-producing area to producers not complying with acreage limitations, taking into consideration the normal price relationships between such commodity and corn in the commercial area, the feed value of such commodity in relation to corn, the supply of such commodity in relation to the demand therefor, and the ability to dispose of stocks of such commodity acquired through price support programs.

7 USC 1443 - Omitted

7 USC 1444 - Cotton price support levels

(a) Basic support levels for 1961 and subsequent years 
Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1441 of this title, price support to cooperators for each crop of upland cotton, beginning with the 1961 crop, for which producers have not disapproved marketing quotas shall be at such level not more than 90 per centum of the parity price therefor nor less than the minimum level prescribed below as the Secretary determines appropriate after consideration of the factors specified in section 1421 (b) of this title. For the 1961 crop the minimum level shall be 70 per centum of the parity price therefor, and for each subsequent crop the minimum level shall be 65 per centum of the parity price therefor: Provided, That the price support for the 1965 crop shall be a national average support price which reflects 30 cents per pound for Middling one-inch cotton. Price support in the case of noncooperators and in case marketing quotas are disapproved shall be as provided in section 1441 (d)(3) and (5)1 of this title.
(b) Additional support levels for 1964 and 1965 
If producers have not disapproved marketing quotas, the Secretary shall provide additional price support on the 1964 and 1965 crops of upland cotton to cooperators on whose farms the acreage planted to upland cotton for harvest does not exceed the farm domestic allotment established under section 1350 of this title. Such additional support shall be at a level up to 15 per centum in excess of the basic level of support established under subsection (a) of this section and shall be provided on the normal yield of the acreage planted for harvest within the farm domestic allotment. For purposes of this subsection, an acreage on the farm which the Secretary finds was not planted to cotton in 1965 because of flood, drought, or other natural disaster shall be deemed by the Secretary to be an actual acreage of cotton planted on the farm for harvest, provided such acreage is not subsequently devoted to any price supported crop for 1965.
(c) Alternative operations for carrying out additional price support; payment-in-kind certificates: value, marketing assistance, redemption, and deductions after thirty day period 
In order to keep upland cotton to the maximum extent practicable in the normal channels of trade, any additional price support under subsection (b) of this section may be carried out through the simultaneous purchase of cotton at the support price therefor under subsection (b) of this section and the sale of such cotton at the support price therefor under subsection (a) of this section or similar operations, including loans under which the cotton would be redeemable by payment of the amount for which the cotton would be redeemable if the loan thereon had been made at the support price for such cotton under subsection (a) of this section, or payments-in-kind through the issuance of certificates which the Commodity Credit Corporation shall redeem for cotton under regulations issued by the Secretary. If such additional support is provided through the issuance of payment-in-kind certificates, such certificates shall have a value per pound of cotton equal to the difference between the level of support established under subsection (a) of this section and the level of support established under subsection (b) of this section. The corporation may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, assist the producers and persons receiving payment-in-kind certificates under this section and section 1348 of this title, in the marketing of such certificates at such time and in such manner as the Secretary determines will best effectuate the purposes of the program authorized by this section and such section 1348. In the case of any certificate not presented for redemption within thirty days of the date of its issuance, reasonable costs of storage and other carrying charges as determined by the Secretary for the period beginning thirty days after its issuance and ending with the date of its presentation for redemption shall be deducted from the value of the certificate.
(d) Price support and diversion payments for 1966 through 1970 crops 

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, if producers have not disapproved marketing quotas, price support and diversion payments shall be made available for the 1966 through 1970 crops of upland cotton as provided in this subsection.
(2) Price support for each such crop of upland cotton shall be made available to cooperators through loans at such level, not exceeding a level which will reflect for Middling one-inch upland cotton at average location in the United States 90 per centum of the estimated average world market price for Middling one-inch upland cotton for the marketing year for such crop, as the Secretary determines will provide orderly marketing of cotton during the harvest season and will retain an adequate share of the world market for cotton produced in the United States taking into consideration the factors specified in section 1421 (b) of this title: Provided, That the national average loan rate for the 1966 crop shall reflect 21 cents per pound for Middling one-inch upland cotton.
(3) The Secretary also shall provide additional price support for each such crop through payments in cash or in kind to cooperators at a rate not less than 9 cents per pound: Provided, That the rate shall be such that the amount obtained by
(i) multiplying the rate by the farm domestic acreage allotment percentage, and
(ii) dividing the product thus obtained by the cooperator percentage established under section 1428 (b) of this title, and
(iii) adding the result thus obtained to the national average loan rate

shall not be less than 65 per centum or more than 90 per centum of the parity price for cotton as of the month in which the payment rate provided for by this paragraph is announced. Such payments shall be made on the quantity of cotton determined by multiplying the projected farm yield by the acreage planted to cotton within the farm domestic acreage allotment: Provided, That any such farm planting not less than 90 per centum of such domestic acreage allotment shall be deemed to have planted the entire amount of such allotment. An acreage on a farm in any such year which the Secretary finds was not planted to cotton because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster shall be deemed to be planted to cotton for purposes of payments under this subsection if such acreage is not subsequently devoted to any other crop for which there are marketing quotas or voluntary adjustment programs in effect.

(4) The Secretary shall make diversion payments in cash or in kind in addition to the price support payments authorized in paragraph (3) to cooperators who reduce their cotton acreage by diverting a portion of their cotton acreage allotment from the production of cotton to approved conservation practices to the extent prescribed by the Secretary: Provided, That no reduction below the domestic acreage allotments established under section 1350 of this title shall be prescribed: Provided further, That payment under this paragraph shall be made available for diverting to conserving uses that part of the acreage allotment which must be diverted from cotton in order that the producer may qualify as a cooperator. The rate of payment for acreage required to be diverted in order to qualify as a cooperator shall not be less than 25 per centum of the parity price for upland cotton as of the month in which such rate is announced. The rate of payment for additional acreage diverted shall be such rate as the Secretary determines to be fair and reasonable, but shall not exceed 40 per centum of such parity price. Payment at each applicable rate shall be made on the quantity of cotton determined by multiplying the acreage diverted from the production of cotton at such rate by the projected farm yield. In addition to the foregoing payment, if any, payment at the rate applicable for acreage required to be diverted to qualify as a cooperator shall be made to producers on small farms as defined in section 1428 (b) of this title who do not exceed their farm acreage allotments on a quantity of cotton determined by multiplying an acreage equal to 35 per centum of such farm acreage allotment by the projected farm yield.
(5) The Secretary may make not to exceed 50 per centum of the payments under this subsection to producers in advance of determination of performance and the balance of such payments shall be made at such time as the Secretary may prescribe.
(6) Where the farm operator elects to participate in the diversion program authorized in this subsection and no acreage is planted to cotton on the farm, diversion payments shall be made at the rate established under paragraph (4) for acreage required to be diverted to qualify as a cooperator on the quantity of cotton determined by multiplying that part of the farm acreage allotment required to be diverted to qualify as a cooperator by the projected farm yield, and the remainder of such allotment may be released under the provisions of section 1344 (m)(2) of this title. The acreage on which payment is made under this paragraph shall be regarded as planted to cotton for purposes of establishing future State, county, and farm acreage allotments, and farm bases.
(7) Payments in kind under this subsection shall be made through the issuance of certificates which the Commodity Credit Corporation shall redeem for cotton under regulations issued by the Secretary at a value per pound equal to not less than the current loan rate therefor. The Corporation may, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, assist the producers in the marketing of such certificates at such times and in such manner as the Secretary determines will best effectuate the purposes of the program authorized by this subsection.
(8) Payments under this subsection shall be conditioned on the farm having an acreage of approved conservation uses equal to the sum of
(i)  the reduction in cotton acreage required to qualify for such payments (hereinafter called diverted acreage), and
(ii)  the average acreage of cropland on the farm devoted to designated soil-conserving crops or practices, including summer fallow and idle land, during a base period prescribed by the Secretary: Provided, That the Secretary may permit all or any part of such diverted acreage to be devoted to the production of guar, sesame, safflower, sunflower, castor beans, mustard seed, crambe, plantago ovato, and flaxseed, if he determines that such production is necessary to provide an adequate supply of such commodities, is not likely to increase the cost of the price support program, and will not adversely affect farm income, subject to the condition that payment under paragraph (4) or (6) with respect to diverted acreage devoted to any such crop shall be at a rate determined by the Secretary to be fair and reasonable, taking into consideration the use of such acreage for the production of such crops, but in no event shall the payment exceed one-half the rate which otherwise would be applicable if such acreage were devoted to conservation uses.
(9) The acreage regarded as planted to cotton on any farm which qualifies for payment under this subsection except under paragraph (6) shall, for purposes of establishing future State, county, and farm acreage allotments and farm bases, be the farm acreage allotment established under section 1344 of this title, excluding adjustments under subsection (m)(2) thereof.
(10) The Secretary shall provide adequate safeguards to protect the interests of tenants and sharecroppers, including provision for sharing diversion payments on a fair and equitable basis under this subsection. The Secretary shall provide for the sharing of price support payments among producers on the farm on the basis of their respective shares in the cotton crop produced on the farm, or the proceeds therefrom, except that in any case in which the Secretary determines that such basis would not be fair and equitable, the Secretary shall provide for such sharing on such other basis as he may determine to be fair and equitable.
(11) In any case in which the failure of a producer to comply fully with the terms and conditions of the programs formulated under this Act preclude the making of payments under this section, the Secretary may, nevertheless, make such payments in such amounts as he determines to be equitable in relation to the seriousness of the default.
(12) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, if, as a result of limitations hereafter enacted with respect to price support under this subsection, the Secretary is unable to make available to all cooperators the full amount of price support to which they would otherwise be entitled under paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection for any crop of upland cotton,
(A)  price support to cooperators shall be made available for such crop (if marketing quotas have not been disapproved) through loans or purchases at such level not less than 65 per centum nor more than 90 per centum of the parity price therefor as the Secretary determines appropriate;
(B)  in order to keep upland cotton to the maximum extent practicable in the normal channels of trade, such price support may be carried out through the simultaneous purchase of cotton at the support price therefor and resale at a lower price or through loans under which the cotton would be redeemable by payment of a price therefor lower than the amount of the loan thereon; and
(C)  such resale or redemption price shall be such as the Secretary determines will provide orderly marketing of cotton during the harvest season and will retain an adequate share of the world market for cotton produced in the United States.
(13) The provisions of section 590h (g) of title 16 (relating to assignment of payments), shall also apply to payments under this subsection.
(14) The Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to utilize its capital funds and other assets for the purpose of making the payments authorized in this subsection and to pay administrative expenses necessary in carrying out this subsection.
(e) Price support, diversion, and cropland set-aside program for crops beginning with 1971 crop 

(1) The Secretary shall upon presentation of warehouse receipts reflecting accrued storage charges of not more than 60 days make available for the 1971 through 1977 crops of upland cotton to cooperators nonrecourse loans for a term of ten months from the first day of the month in which the loan is made at such level as will reflect the Middling one-inch upland cotton (micronaire 3.5 through 4.9) at average location in the United States 90 per centum of the average price of American cotton in world markets for such cotton for the three-year period ending July 31 in the year in which the loan level is announced, except that if the loan rate so calculated is higher than the then current level of average world prices for American cotton of such quality, the Secretary is authorized to adjust the current calculated loan rate for cotton to 90 per centum of the then current average world price. The average world price for such cotton for such preceding three-year period shall be determined by the Secretary annually pursuant to a published regulation which shall specify the procedures and the factors to be used by the Secretary in making the world price determination. The loan level for any crop of upland cotton shall be determined and announced not later than November 1 of the calendar year preceding the marketing year for which such loan is to be effective. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the carryover of upland cotton as of the beginning of the marketing year for any of the 1972 or 1973 crops exceeds 7.2 million bales, producers on any farm harvesting cotton of such crop from an acreage in excess of the base acreage allotment for such farm shall be entitled to loans and purchases only on an amount of the cotton of such crop produced on such farm determined by multiplying the yield used in computing payments for such farm by the base acreage allotment for such farm.
(2) Payments shall be made for each crop of cotton to the producers on each farm at a rate equal to the amount by which the higher of
(1) the average market price received by farmers for upland cotton during the calendar year which includes the first five months of the marketing year for such crop, as determined by the Secretary, or
(2) the loan level determined under paragraph (1) for such crop is less than the established price of 38 cents per pound in the case of the 1974 and 1975 crops, 38 cents per pound adjusted to reflect any change during the calendar year 1975 in the index of prices paid by farmers for production items, interest, taxes, and wage rates in the case of the 1976 crop, and the established price for the 1976 crop adjusted to reflect any change during the calendar year 1976 in such index in the case of the 1977 crop: Provided, That any increase that would otherwise be made in the established price to reflect a change in the index of prices paid by farmers shall be adjusted to reflect any change in (i) the national average yield per acre of cotton for the three calendar years preceding the year for which the determination is made, over (ii) the national average yield per acre of cotton for the three calendar years preceding the year previous to the one for which the determination is made. If the Secretary determines that the producers on a farm are prevented from planting any portion of the allotment to cotton because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster, or condition beyond the control of the producer, the rate of payment for such portion shall be the larger of (A) the foregoing rate, or (B) one-third of the established price. If the Secretary determines that, because of such a disaster or condition, the total quantity of cotton which the producers are able to harvest on any farm is less than 662/3 percent of the farm base acreage allotment times the average yield established for the farm, the rate of payment for the deficiency in production below 100 percent shall be the larger of (A) the foregoing rate, or (B) one-third of the established price. The payment rate with respect to any producer who (i) is on a small farm (that is, a farm on which the base acreage allotment is ten acres or less, or on which the yield used in making payments times the farm base acreage allotment is five thousand pounds or less, and for which the base acreage allotment has not been reduced under section 1350 (f) of this title, (ii) resides on such farm, and (iii) derives his principal income from cotton produced on such farm, shall be increased by 30 per centum; but, notwithstanding paragraph (3), such increase shall be made only with respect to his share of cotton actually harvested on such farm within the quantity specified in paragraph (3).
(3) Such payments shall be made available for a farm on the quantity of upland cotton determined by multiplying the acreage planted within the farm base acreage allotment for the farm for the crop by the average yield established for the farm: Provided, That payments shall be made on any farm planting not less than 90 per centum of the farm base acreage allotment on the basis of the entire amount of such allotment. For purposes of this paragraph, an acreage on the farm which the Secretary determines was not planted to cotton because of drought, flood, other natural disaster, or a condition beyond the control of the producer shall be considered to be an acreage planted to cotton. The average yield for the farm for any year shall be determined on the basis of the actual yields per harvested acre for the three preceding years, except that the 1970 farm projected yield shall be substituted in lieu of the actual yields for the years 1968 and 1969: Provided, That the actual yields shall be adjusted by the Secretary for abnormal yields in any year caused by drought, flood, or other natural disaster: Provided further, That the average yield established for the farm for any year shall not be less than the yield used in making payments for the preceding year if the total cotton production on the farm in such preceding year is not less than the yield used in making payments for the farm for such preceding year times the farm base acreage allotment for such preceding year (for the 1970 crop, the farm domestic allotment).
(4) 
(A) The Secretary shall provide for a set aside of cropland if he determines that the total supply of agricultural commodities will, in the absence of such a set-aside, likely be excessive taking into account the need for an adequate carryover to maintain reasonable and stable supplies and prices and to meet a national emergency. If a set-aside of cropland is in effect under this paragraph (4), then as a condition of eligibility for loans and payments on upland cotton the producers on a farm must set aside and devote to approved conservation uses an acreage of cropland equal to
(i)  such percentage of the farm base acreage allotment for the farm as may be specified by the Secretary (not to exceed 28 per centum of the farm base acreage allotment), plus, if required by the Secretary,
(ii)  the acreage of cropland on the farm devoted in preceding years to soil conserving uses, as determined by the Secretary. The Secretary is authorized for the 1974 through 1977 crops to limit the acreage planted to upland cotton on the farm in excess of the farm base acreage allotment to a percentage of the farm base acreage allotment. The Secretary shall permit producers to plant and graze on set-aside acreage sweet sorghum, and the Secretary may permit, subject to such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, all or any of the set-aside acreage to be devoted to hay and grazing or the production of guar, sesame, safflower, castor beans, mustard seed, crambe, plantago ovato, flaxseed, triticale, oats, rye, or other commodity, if he determines that such production is needed to provide an adequate supply, is not likely to increase the cost of the price-support program, and will not adversely affect farm income.
(B) To assist in adjusting the acreage of commodities to desirable goals, the Secretary may make land diversion payments, in addition to the payments authorized in subsection (e)(2) of this section, to producers on a farm who, to the extent prescribed by the Secretary, devote to approved conservation uses an acreage of cropland on the farm in addition to that required to be so devoted under subsection (e)(4)(A) of this section. The land diversion payments for a farm shall be at such rate or rates as the Secretary determines to be fair and reasonable taking into consideration to the diversion undertaken by the producers and the productivity of the acreage diverted. The Secretary shall limit the total acreage to be diverted under agreements in any county or local community so as not to adversely affect the economy of the county or local community.
(5) The upland cotton program formulated under this section shall require the producer to take such measures as the Secretary may deem appropriate to protect the set-aside acreage and the additional diverted acreage from erosion, insects, weeds, and rodents. Such acreage may be devoted to wildlife food plots or wildlife habitat in conformity with standards established by the Secretary in consultation with wildlife agencies. The Secretary may in the case of programs for the 1974 through 1977 crops, pay an appropriate share of the cost of practices designed to carry out the purposes of the foregoing sentences. The Secretary may provide for an additional payment on such acreage in an amount determined by the Secretary to be appropriate in relation to the benefit to the general public if the producer agrees to permit, without other compensation, access to all or such portion of the farm as the Secretary may prescribe by the general public, for hunting, trapping, fishing, and hiking, subject to applicable State and Federal regulations.
(6) If the operator of the farm desires to participate in the program formulated under this section, he shall file his agreement to do so no later than such date as the Secretary may prescribe. Loans and purchases on upland cotton and payments under this section shall be made available to the producers on such farm only if producers set aside and devote to approved soil conserving uses an acreage on the farm equal to the number of acres which the operator agrees to set aside and devote to approved soil conserving uses, and the agreement shall so provide. The Secretary may, by mutual agreement with the producer, terminate or modify any such agreement entered into pursuant to this subsection (e)(6) if he determines such action necessary because of an emergency created by drought or other disaster or in order to alleviate a shortage in the supply of agricultural commodities.
(7) The Secretary shall provide adequate safeguards to protect the interests of tenants and sharecroppers, including provision for sharing on a fair and equitable basis, in payments under this section.
(8) In any case in which the failure of a producer to comply fully with the terms and conditions of the program formulated under this section precludes the making of loans, purchases, and payments, the Secretary may, nevertheless, make such loans, purchases, and payments in such amounts as he determines to be equitable in relation to the seriousness of the default.
(9) The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations as he determines necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter.
(10) The Secretary shall carry out the program authorized by this section through the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(11) The provisions of section 590h (g) of title 16 (relating to assignment of payments), shall apply to payments under this subsection.
(f) , (g) Omitted 
(h) Program for extra long staple cotton beginning with 1984 crop 

(1) For purposes of this subsection, extra long staple cotton means cotton which is produced from pure strain varieties of the Barbadense species or any hybrid thereof, or other similar types of extra long staple cotton, designated by the Secretary, having characteristics needed for various end uses for which American upland cotton is not suitable and grown in irrigated cotton-growing regions of the United States designated by the Secretary or other areas designated by the Secretary is suitable for the production of such varieties or types and which is ginned on a roller-type gin or, if authorized by the Secretary, ginned on another type gin for experimental purposes.
(2) The Secretary shall, upon presentation of warehouse receipts reflecting accrued storage charges of not more than sixty days, make available to producers nonrecourse loans for a term of ten months from the first day of the month in which the loan is made at a level which is not less than 85 percent of the simple average price received by producers of extra long staple cotton, as determined by the Secretary, during 3 years of the 5-year period ending July 31 in the year in which the loan level is announced, excluding the year in which the average price was the highest and the year in which the average price was the lowest in such period..[2] If authorized by the Secretary, nonrecourse loans provided for in this subsection may, upon request of the producer during the tenth month of the loan period for the cotton, be made available for an additional term of eight months. The loan level for any crop of extra long staple cotton shall be determined and announced by the Secretary not later than December 1 of the calendar year preceding the marketing year for which such loan is to be effective and such level shall not thereafter be changed.
(3) 
(A) In addition, payments shall be made for each crop of extra long staple cotton to producers on each farm at a rate equal to the amount by which the higher of
(i) the average market price received by farmers for extra long staple cotton during the first eight months of the marketing year for such crop, as determined by the Secretary, or
(ii) the loan level determined under paragraph (2) of this subsection for such crop,

is less than the established price per pound times, in each case, the farm program acreage for extra long staple cotton (determined in accordance with paragraph (5)(A), but in no event on a greater acreage than the acreage actually planted to extra long staple cotton for harvest), multiplied by the farm program payment yield for extra long staple cotton (determined in accordance with paragraph (4)).

(B) The established price for each crop of extra long staple cotton shall be 120 per centum of the loan level determined for such crop under paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(C) If the Secretary establishes an acreage limitation program for a crop of extra long staple cotton in accordance with paragraph (5)(A) and determines that deficiency payments will likely be made for such crop of extra long staple cotton under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the Secretary may make available advance deficiency payments for such crop to producers who agree to participate in the acreage limitation program. Such advance payments shall be made available to producers as soon as practicable after the producer files a notice of intention to participate in such acreage limitation program and in such amount as the Secretary determines appropriate to encourage adequate participation in such program, except that such amount shall not exceed an amount determined by multiplying
(i)  the estimated farm program acreage for the crop, by
(ii)  the farm program payment yield for the crop, by
(iii)  50 per centum of the projected payment rate, as determined by the Secretary. In any case in which the deficiency payment payable to a producer for a crop, as finally determined by the Secretary under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, is less than the amount paid to the producer as an advance deficiency payment under this paragraph, the producer shall refund an amount equal to the difference between the amount advanced and the amount finally determined by the Secretary to be payable to the producer. If the Secretary determines that no deficiency payments are due producers on a crop, the producer who received advanced payments on such crop shall refund such payments. If a producer fails to comply with the requirements under the acreage limitation program after obtaining an advance deficiency payment under this paragraph, the producer shall immediately repay the amount of the advance, plus interest thereon in such amount as the Secretary shall prescribe.
(4) The farm program payment yield for each crop of extra long staple cotton shall be determined on the basis of the actual yields per harvested acre on the farm for the preceding three years, except that the actual yields shall be adjusted by the Secretary for abnormal yields in any year caused by drought, flood, or other natural disaster, or other condition beyond the control of the producers. In case farm yield data for one or more years are unavailable or there was no production, the Secretary shall provide for appraisals to be made on the basis of actual yields and program payment yields for similar farms in the area for which data are available. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this paragraph in the determination of yields, the Secretary shall take into account the actual yields proved by the producer, and neither such yields nor the farm program payment yield established on the basis of such yields shall be reduced under other provisions of this paragraph. If the Secretary determines it necessary, the Secretary may establish national, State, or county program payment yields on the basis of historical yields, as adjusted by the Secretary to correct for abnormal factors affecting such yields in the historical period, or, if such data are not available, on the Secretarys estimate of actual yields for the crop year involved. If national, State, or county program payment yields are established, the farm program payment yields shall balance to the national, State, or county program payment yields.
(5) 
(A) 
(i) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection, the Secretary may establish a limitation on the acreage planted to extra long staple cotton if the Secretary determines that the total supply of extra long staple cotton, in the absence of such limitation, will be excessive taking into account the need for an adequate carryover to maintain reasonable and stable prices and to meet a national emergency. Such limitation shall be achieved by applying a uniform percentage reduction (including a zero percentage reduction) to the acreage base for each extra long staple cotton-producing farm. Producers who knowingly produce extra long staple cotton in excess of the permitted acreage for the farm shall be ineligible for extra long staple cotton loans and payments with respect to that farm. The acreage base for any farm for the purpose of determining any reduction required to be made for any year as a result of a limitation under this subparagraph shall be the average acreage planted on the farm to extra long staple cotton for harvest in the three crop years immediately preceding the year prior to the year for which the determination is made. For the purpose of the preceding sentence, acreage planted to extra long staple cotton for harvest shall include any acreage which the producers were prevented from planting to extra long staple cotton or other nonconserving crops in lieu of extra long staple cotton because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster or other condition beyond the control of the producers. The Secretary may make adjustments to reflect established crop-rotation practices and to reflect such other factors as the Secretary determines should be considered in determining a fair and equitable base. There is hereby established for the 1984, 1985, and 1986 crops an acreage base reserve equal to 5 per centum of the total of the farm acreage bases established for the crop under the foregoing provisions of this subparagraph. Such reserve shall be in addition to the total of the farm acreage bases and shall be used by the county committees, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, for making adjustments of farm acreage bases to correct inequities and prevent hardship, and for establishing bases for farms on which no extra long staple cotton was planted during the preceding four years. A number of acres on the farm determined by dividing (i) the product obtained by multiplying the number of acres required to be withdrawn from the production of extra long staple cotton times the number of acres actually planted to such commodity, by (ii) the number of acres authorized to be planted to such commodity under the limitation established by the Secretary, shall be devoted to conservation uses, in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, which will assure protection of such acreage from weeds and wind and water erosion. The number of acres so determined is hereafter in this subsection referred to as reduced acreage. The Secretary may permit, subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, all or any part of the reduced acreage to be devoted to sweet sorghum, hay and grazing, or the production of guar, sesame, safflower, sunflower, castor beans, mustard seed, crambe, plantago ovato, flaxseed, triticale, rye, or other commodity, if the Secretary determines that such production is needed to provide an adequate supply of such commodities, is not likely to increase the cost of the price support program, and will not affect farm income adversely. The individual farm program acreage shall be the actual acreage planted on the farm to extra long staple cotton for harvest within the permitted extra long staple cotton acreage for the farm as established under this paragraph.
(ii) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Secretary shall ensure, under such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Secretary, that the total of the crop acreage bases established on a farm which is enrolled in a production adjustment program for any commodity shall not be increased as a result of the application of the provisions set forth in paragraph (13)(C), as extended for the 1989 and 1990 crop.
(B) The Secretary may make land diversion payments to producers of extra long staple cotton, whether or not an acreage limitation program for extra long staple cotton is in effect, if the Secretary determines that such land diversion payments are necessary to assist in adjusting the total national acreage of extra long staple cotton to desirable goals. Such land diversion payments shall be made to producers who, to the extent prescribed by the Secretary, devote to approved conservation uses an acreage of cropland on the farm in accordance with land diversion contracts entered into by the Secretary with such producers. The amounts payable to producers under land diversion contracts may be determined through the submission of bids for such contracts by producers in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe or through such other means as the Secretary determines appropriate. In determining the acceptability of contract offers, the Secretary shall take into consideration the extent of the diversion to be undertaken by the producers and the productivity of the acreage diverted. The Secretary shall limit the total acreage to be diverted under agreements in any county or local community so as not to affect adversely the economy of the county or local community.
(C) The reduced acreage and the diverted acreage may be devoted to wildlife food plots or wildlife habitat in conformity with standards established by the Secretary in consultation with wildlife agencies. The Secretary may pay an appropriate share of the cost of practices designed to carry out the purpose of the foregoing sentence. The Secretary may provide for an additional payment on such acreage in an amount determined by the Secretary to be appropriate in relation to the benefit to the general public if the producer agrees to permit, without other compensation, access to all or such portion of the farm, as the Secretary may prescribe, by the general public, for hunting, trapping, fishing, and hiking, subject to applicable State and Federal regulations.
(6) An operator of a farm desiring to participate in the program conducted under paragraph (5) shall execute an agreement with the Secretary providing for such participation not later than such date as the Secretary may prescribe. The Secretary may, by mutual agreement with the producers on the farm, terminate or modify any such agreement if the Secretary determines such action necessary because of an emergency created by drought or other disaster or to prevent or alleviate a shortage in the supply of agricultural commodities.
(7) The Secretary shall provide for the sharing of payments made under this subsection for any farm among the producers on the farm on a fair and equitable basis.
(8) The Secretary shall provide adequate safeguards to protect the interests of tenants and sharecroppers.
(9) If the failure of a producer to comply fully with the terms and conditions of the program formulated under this subsection precludes the making of loans and payments, the Secretary may, nevertheless, make such loans and payments in such amounts as the Secretary determines to be equitable in relation to the seriousness of the failure. The Secretary may authorize the county and State committees established under section 590h (b) of title 16 to waive or modify deadlines and other program requirements in cases in which lateness or failure to meet such other requirements does not affect adversely the operation of the program.
(10) The Secretary may issue such regulations as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection.
(11) The Secretary shall carry out the program authorized by this subsection through the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(12) The provisions of section 590h (g) of title 16 (relating to assignment of payments) shall apply to payments made under this subsection.
(13) 
(A) Compliance on a farm with the terms and conditions of any other commodity program or compliance with crop acreage base requirements for any other commodity may not be required as a condition of eligibility for loans or payments under this section.
(B) The Secretary may not require producers on a farm, as a condition of eligibility for loans or payments under this section for the farm, to comply with the terms and conditions of the extra long staple cotton program with respect to any other farm operated by the producers.
(14) In order to encourage and assist producers in the orderly ginning and marketing of their extra long staple cotton production, the Secretary shall make recourse loans available to such producers on seed cotton in accordance with authority vested in the Secretary under the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act [15 U.S.C. 714 et seq.].
(15) References made in sections 1422, 1423, 1426,3 1427, and 1431 of this title to the terms support price, level of support, and level of price support shall be considered to apply as well to the level of loans for extra long staple cotton under this subsection; and references to the terms price support, price support operations, and price support program in such sections and in section 1421 (a) of this title shall be considered as applying as well to the loan operations for extra long staple cotton under this subsection.
(16) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, this subsection shall not be applicable to the 1996 and subsequent crops of extra long staple cotton.
[1] See References in Text note below.
[2] So in original.
[3] See References in Text note below.

7 USC 14441 - Omitted

7 USC 14442 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104127, title I, 171(b)(2)(B), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 103B, as added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title V, § 501, 104 Stat. 3421; amended Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, title I, § 1101(c), 104 Stat. 13881; Dec. 13, 1991, Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §§ 102(b), 106 (b), 107, 113 (2), (3), 125, 126, 105 Stat. 1821, 1825, 1827, 1837, 1845; Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1101(a), 107 Stat. 313; May 6, 1994, Pub. L. 103–247, § 1(a), 108 Stat. 618; Oct. 13, 1994, Pub. L. 103–354, title I, § 119(a)(3), 108 Stat. 3207; Dec. 8, 1994, Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, § 401(b)(2), 108 Stat. 4957; Aug. 20, 1996, Pub. L. 104–188, title I, § 1954(b)(5), 110 Stat. 1928, related to loans, payments, and acreage reduction programs for 1991 through 1997 crops of upland cotton.

7 USC 1444a - Corn and feed grains and cotton programs

(a) Referendum of 1958 corn producers 
Not later than December 15, 1958, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum of producers of corn in 1958 in the commercial corn-producing area for 1958 to determine whether such producers favor a price support program as provided in subsection (b) of this section for the 1959 and subsequent crops in lieu of acreage allotments as provided in the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1281 et seq.], and price support as provided in section 1441 of this title.
(b) Operative status of certain provisions 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if less than a majority of the producers voting in the referendum conducted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section favor a price support program as provided in this subsection (b), the following provisions of law shall become inoperative:
(1) [Section enacted section 1329a of this title.]
(2) [Section enacted section 1444b of this title.]
(3) [Section repealed section 1441 (d)(4) of this title.]
(c) Cotton research program 
The Secretary of Agriculture is hereby authorized and directed to conduct a special cotton research program designed to reduce the cost of producing upland cotton in the United States at the earliest practicable date. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums, not to exceed $10,000,000 annually, as may be necessary for the Secretary to carry out this special research program. The Secretary shall report annually to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate with respect to the results of such research.
(d) Cotton insect eradication 
In order to reduce cotton production costs, to prevent the movement of certain cotton plant insects to areas not now infested, and to enhance the quality of the environment, the Secretary is authorized and directed to carry out programs to destroy and eliminate cotton boll weevils in infested areas of the United States as provided herein and to carry out similar programs with respect to pink bollworms or any other major cotton insect if the Secretary determines that methods and systems have been developed to the point that success in eradication of such insects is assured. The Secretary shall carry out the eradication programs authorized by this subsection through the Commodity Credit Corporation. In carrying out insect eradication projects, the Secretary shall utilize the technical and related services of appropriate Federal, State, private agencies, and cotton organizations. Producers and landowners in an eradication zone, established by the Secretary, who are receiving benefits from any program administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, shall, as a condition of receiving or continuing any such benefits, participate in and cooperate with the eradication project, as specified in regulations of the Secretary. The Secretary may issue such regulations as he deems necessary to enforce the provisions of this subsection with respect to achieving the compliance of producers and landowners who are not receiving benefits from any program administered by the United States Department of Agriculture. Any person who knowingly violates any such regulation promulgated by the Secretary under this subsection may be assessed a civil penalty of not to exceed $5,000 for each offense. No civil penalty shall be assessed unless the person shall have been given notice and opportunity for a hearing on such charge in the county, parish, or incorporated city of the residence of the person charged. In determining the amount of the penalty the Secretary shall consider the appropriateness of such penalty to the size of the business of the person charged, the effect on the persons ability to continue in business, and the gravity of the violation. Where special measures deemed essential to achievement of the eradication objective are taken by the project and result in a loss of production and income to the producer, the Secretary shall provide reasonable and equitable indemnification from funds available for the project and also provide for appropriate protection of the allotment, acreage history, and average yield for the farm. The cost of the program in each eradication zone shall be determined, and cotton producers in the zone shall be required to pay up to one-half thereof, with the exact share in each zone area to be specified by the Secretary upon his finding that such share is reasonable and equitable based on population levels of the target insect and the degree of control measures normally required. Each producers pro rata share shall be deducted from his cotton payment under this Act or otherwise collected, as provided in regulations of the Secretary. Insofar as practicable, cotton producers and other persons engaged in cotton production in the eradication zone shall be employed to participate in the work of the project in such zone. Funding of the program shall be terminated at such time as the Secretary determines and reports to the Congress that complete eradication of the insects for which programs are undertaken pursuant to this subsection has been accomplished. Funds in custody of agencies carrying out the program shall, upon termination of such program, be accounted for to the Secretary for appropriate disposition. The Secretary is authorized to cooperate with the Government of Mexico in carrying out operations or measures in Mexico which he deems necessary and feasible to prevent the movement into the United States from Mexico of any insects eradicated under the provisions of this subsection. The measure and character of cooperation carried out under this subsection on the part of the United States and on the part of the Government of Mexico, including the expenditure or use of funds made available by the Secretary under this subsection, shall be such as may be prescribed by the Secretary. Arrangements for the cooperations authorized by this subsection shall be made through and in consultation with the Secretary of State. The Commodity Credit Corporation shall not make any expenditures for carrying out the purposes of this subsection unless the Corporation has received funds to cover such expenditures from appropriations made to carry out the purposes of this subsection. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Commodity Credit Corporation such sums as the Congress may from time to time determine to be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

7 USC 1444b - Feed grains; price support program

(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1441 of this title, beginning with the 1964 crop, price support shall be made available to producers for each crop of corn at such level, not less than 50 per centum or more than 90 per centum of the parity price therefor, as the Secretary determines will not result in increasing Commodity Credit Corporation stocks of corn: Provided, That in the case of any crop for which an acreage diversion program is in effect for feed grains, the level of price support for corn of such crop shall be at such level not less than 65 per centum or more than 90 per centum of the parity price therefor as the Secretary determines necessary to achieve the acreage reduction goal established by him for the crop.
(b) Beginning with the 1959 crop, price support shall be made available to producers for each crop of oats, rye, barley, and grain sorghums at such level of the parity price therefor as the Secretary of Agriculture determines is fair and reasonable in relation to the level at which price support is made available for corn, taking into consideration the feeding value of such commodity in relation to corn, and the other factors set forth in section 1421 (b) of this title.

1444c, 1444d. Repealed. Pub. L. 101624, title IV, 401(1), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3400

Section 1444c, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 105A, as added Sept. 29, 1977, Pub. L. 95–113, title V, §§ 501, 502, 91 Stat. 928, 930; amended Mar. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–213, §§ 2, 4 (c), 94 Stat. 119, 120; Sept. 26, 1980, Pub. L. 96–365, title II, § 201(c), 94 Stat. 1320, Dec. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–494, title II, § 202(a), 94 Stat. 2570, related to loan rates and target prices for 1977 through 1981 feed grain crops. Section 1444d, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 105B, as added Dec. 22, 1981, Pub. L. 97–98, title IV, § 401, 95 Stat. 1227; amended Sept. 8, 1982, Pub. L. 97–253, title I, §§ 123, 124, 96 Stat. 769; Sept. 29, 1983, Pub. L. 98–100, § 1(a), 97 Stat. 718; Apr. 10, 1984, Pub. L. 98–258, title II, §§ 201–203, 98 Stat. 132, 133, related to loan rates and target prices for 1982 through 1985 feed grain crops.

7 USC 1444e - Omitted

7 USC 1444e1 - Loans and purchases for 1986 through 1996 crops of corn

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, effective only for each of the 1986 through 1996 crops of feed grains, the Secretary of Agriculture may make available loans and purchases, as provided in this section, to producers on a farm who
(1) for silage
(A) cut corn (including mutilated corn) that the producers have produced in such crop year; or
(B) purchase or exchange corn (including mutilated corn) that has been produced in such crop year by another producer (including a producer that is not participating in an acreage limitation or set-aside program for such crop established by the Secretary); and
(2) participate in an acreage limitation or set-aside program for such crop of corn established by the Secretary.
(b) Such loans and purchases may be made on a quantity of corn of the same crop, other than the corn obtained for silage, acquired by the producer equivalent to a quantity determined by multiplying
(1) the acreage of corn obtained for silage; by
(2) the lower of the farm program payment yield or the actual yield on a field, as determined by the Secretary, that is similar to the field from which such silage was obtained.

7 USC 1444f - Repealed. Pub. L. 104127, title I, 171(b)(2)(C), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 105B, as added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title IV, § 401(3), 104 Stat. 3401; amended Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §§ 1101(b), 1102 (b), 1103 (b), 104 Stat. 13881, 13882; Dec. 13, 1991, Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §§ 102(c), 103 (a), 105, 106 (c), 108, 113 (4), (5), 114 (b)(1), 105 Stat. 1822, 1823, 1825, 1828, 1837, 1839; Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1103, 107 Stat. 315; May 6, 1994, Pub. L. 103–247, § 1(b), 108 Stat. 618; Oct. 13, 1994, Pub. L. 103–354, title I, § 119(a)(4), 108 Stat. 3207, related to loans, payments, and acreage reduction programs for 1991 through 1995 crops of feed grains.

7 USC 1444f1 - Repealed. Pub. L. 102237, title I, 114(b)(2), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1840

Section, Pub. L. 101–624, title IV, § 404, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3419, related to price support for high moisture feed grains. See section 1444f (q) of this title.

1445 to 14452. Repealed. Pub. L. 108357, title VI, 612(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1523

Section 1445, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 106, as added Pub. L. 86–389, § 1, Feb. 20, 1960, 74 Stat. 6; amended Pub. L. 89–12, § 3, Apr. 16, 1965, 79 Stat. 72; Pub. L. 92–10, § 3, Apr. 14, 1971, 85 Stat. 27; Pub. L. 97–218, title I, § 102, July 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 98–59, § 1, July 25, 1983, 97 Stat. 296; Pub. L. 98–180, title II, § 202, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1144; Pub. L. 99–157, § 6(a), Nov. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 99–272, title I, §§ 1102, 1105 (b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 84, 90; Pub. L. 100–203, title I, § 1104(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–4; Pub. L. 101–508, title I, § 1105(f), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–6; Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1106(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 321; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, § 422(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4964, related to tobacco price support levels for 1960 and subsequent years. Section 1445–1, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 106A, as added Pub. L. 97–218, title I, § 101, July 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 197; amended Pub. L. 98–180, title II, § 203, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1145; Pub. L. 99–272, title I, § 1108(a), (d), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 92, 95; Pub. L. 99–500, § 101(a) [title VI, 637], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783, 178334, and Pub. L. 99–591, § 101(a) [title VI, 637], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341, 334134; Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1106(b)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 321, related to producer contributions and purchaser assessments for the No Net Cost Tobacco Fund. Section 1445–2, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 106B, as added Pub. L. 97–218, title III, § 301, July 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 207; amended Pub. L. 98–180, title II, § 204, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1145; Pub. L. 99–157, § 6(b), Nov. 15, 1985, 99 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 99–272, title I, § 1108(b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 94; Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1106(b)(3), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 322, related to marketing assessments to No Net Cost Tobacco Account.

7 USC 14453 - Purchase of inventory stock

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in order to reduce or eliminate the excessive inventories of Flue-cured and Burley tobacco held by associations from the 1976 through 1984 crops, and in order to provide for the orderly disposition of such excessive inventories of tobacco in a manner that will not disrupt the orderly marketing of new tobacco crops and will minimize any losses to the Federal Government:
(a) Sale of inventory stock 

(1) The producer-owned cooperative marketing association that has entered into a loan agreement with the Commodity Credit Corporation to make price support available to producers of Flue-cured tobacco shall offer to sell the stocks of Flue-cured tobacco of the association from the 1976 through 1984 crops as provided in this section.
(2) Each producer-owned cooperative marketing association that has entered into a loan agreement with the Commodity Credit Corporation to make price support available to producers of Burley tobacco shall offer to sell its stocks of Burley tobacco from the 1982 and 1984 crops as provided in this section.
(3) 
(A) 
(i) Not later than 30 days after April 7, 1986, the Commodity Credit Corporation shall acquire title to the Burley tobacco from the 1983 crop that is pledged as security for loans on such tobacco by calling the loans on such tobacco.
(ii) The Corporation shall, then, offer such tobacco for sale at such times, in such quantities, and subject to such conditions as the Corporation considers appropriate.
(B) If the Commodity Credit Corporation has not sold all of the stocks of the 1983 crop of Burley tobacco within 2 years from the date the Corporation calls the loans on such tobacco, the Corporation may offer to sell to domestic manufacturers of cigarettes the remaining stocks of such tobacco as provided in this section.
(b) Sale prices 

(1) 
(A) The stocks of Flue-cured tobacco from the 1976 through 1984 crops shall be offered for sale at the base prices, including carrying charges, in effect as of the date of the offer, reduced by
(i) 90 percent for Flue-cured tobacco from the 1976 through 1981 crops; and
(ii) 10 percent for Flue-cured tobacco from the 1982 through 1984 crops.
(B) The purchasers of the stocks of Flue-cured tobacco from the 1976 through 1984 crops shall pay the full carrying charges that have accrued to such tobacco from the date of the offer made under this section to the date that such tobacco is removed from the inventory of the association.
(2) 
(A) The stocks of Burley tobacco from the 1982 crop shall be offered for sale at the listed base price in effect as of July 1, 1985.
(B) The stocks of Burley tobacco from the 1984 crop shall be offered for sale at the costs of the association for such tobacco as of April 7, 1986.
(C) The purchasers of the stocks of Burley tobacco from the 1982 crop shall pay the full carrying charges that have accrued to such tobacco.
(D) The purchasers of the stocks of Burley tobacco from the 1984 crop shall pay the full carrying charges that have accrued to such tobacco from April 7, 1986, to the date such tobacco is removed from the inventories of the associations.
(3) 
(A) After the 2-year period specified in subsection (a)(3)(B) of this section has expired, if the Commodity Credit Corporation offers to sell the stocks of the Corporation of Burley tobacco from the 1983 crop to domestic manufacturers of cigarettes, such stocks shall be offered for sale at the costs of the association, including carrying charges, as of the date on which the Corporation calls the loans on such tobacco, reduced by 90 percent.
(B) Neither tobacco producers nor tobacco purchasers shall be responsible for carrying charges that accrue to the 1983 crop of Burley tobacco after the date on which the Commodity Credit Corporation calls the loans on such tobacco.
(c) Terms of agreements 

(1) 
(A) Each domestic manufacturer of cigarettes may enter into agreements to purchase inventory stocks of Flue-cured and Burley tobacco, in accordance with this section.
(B) To be eligible for the reductions in price specified in this section, such manufacturer shall enter into such agreements as soon as practicable, but not later than 90 days after April 7, 1986, except that, with respect to the 1983 crop of Burley tobacco, if the Corporation offers to sell the stocks of such tobacco pursuant to subsection (b)(3)(A) of this section, such agreements shall be entered into as soon as practicable, but not later than 90 days after the end of the 2-year period referred to in subsection (a)(3)(B) of this section.
(C) 
(i) Such agreements shall provide that, over a period of time, each participating domestic manufacturer of cigarettes shall purchase a percentage of the stocks of Flue-cured and Burley tobacco held
(I) by the producer-owned cooperative marketing associations at the close of the 1984 marketing year; or
(II) in the case of the 1983 crop of Burley tobacco, by the Commodity Credit Corporation at the time the Corporation offers such tobacco for sale to domestic manufacturers of cigarettes under this section.
(ii) The period of time referred to in clause (i) may not exceed
(I) in the case of Flue-cured tobacco, 8 years from April 7, 1986;
(II) in the case of Burley tobacco from the 1982 and 1984 crops, 5 years from April 7, 1986; and
(III) in the case of the 1983 crop of Burley tobacco, 5 years from the end of the 2-year period referred to in subsection (a)(3)(B) of this section.
(2) 
(A) 
(i) The percentage to be purchased by each participating manufacturer shall be at least equal to the respective percentage of the participating manufacturer of the total quantity of net cigarettes manufactured for use as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture under this paragraph on the basis of the monthly reports (Manufacturer of Tobacco ProductsMonthly Reports) submitted by manufacturers of tobacco products to the Tax and Trade Bureau of the Department of the Treasury.
(ii) The Secretary of Agriculture shall request from the Secretary of the Treasury copies of such monthly reports necessary to make the determinations required under this section.
(iii) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of the Treasury may release and disclose such information to the Secretary of Agriculture.
(B) Net cigarettes manufactured for use shall be computed by subtracting
(i) the cumulative figures entered for large and small cigarettes in item 16f of ATF Form 3068 (Reduction to tobacco); from
(ii) the cumulative figures entered for large and small cigarettes in item 7 of such form (Manufactured).
(C) 
(i) The percentage to be purchased by each participating manufacturer shall be determined
(I) on April 7, 1986; and
(II) annually thereafter over the course of the respective buy-out periods specified in this subsection.
(ii) Such percentage shall be determined by dividing
(I) the average net cigarettes manufactured by a manufacturer for use for the 12-month period immediately preceding the appropriate determination date (April 7, 1986, and annually thereafter over the course of the respective buy-out periods specified in this subsection); by
(II) the aggregate average net cigarettes manufactured by all domestic cigarette manufacturers for use for such 12-month period.
(D) 
(i) The quantity of tobacco to be purchased by each participating manufacturer shall be determined annually.
(ii) Such quantity shall be based on
(I) the percentage of net cigarettes of a manufacturer manufactured for use, as determined under subparagraph (C); multiplied by
(II) the appropriate annual quantity to be withdrawn from the inventories of the associations or the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(iii) The appropriate annual quantity to be withdrawn from inventories shall be
(I) 121/2 percent of the inventories of Flue-cured tobacco from the 1976 through 1984 crops on hand on April 7, 1986;
(II) 20 percent of the inventories of Burley tobacco from the 1982 and 1984 crops on hand on April 7, 1986; and
(III) 20 percent of the inventories of Burley tobacco from the 1983 crop held by the Commodity Credit Corporation on the date that is 2 years after the call of the loans on such tobacco by the Corporation.
(E) Any purchases by a manufacturer from the inventories of the associations or from the Commodity Credit Corporation for a crop covered by this section in any year of the buy-out period that exceed the quantity of the purchases of the manufacturer required under the agreement, as determined under this section, shall be applied against future purchases required of such manufacturer.
(3) In carrying out this section, manufacturers may confer with one another and, separately or collectively, with associations, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the Commodity Credit Corporation, as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this section and the purposes of this subtitle.[1]
(d) Approval of agreements 

(1) 
(A) Each agreement entered into under this section shall be submitted to the Secretary of Agriculture for review and approval.
(B) In the case of an agreement to purchase tobacco from the inventory of a producer association, the agreement shall be submitted by the association.
(C) No agreement may become effective until approved by the Secretary.
(2) The Secretary of Agriculture shall not approve any agreement submitted under this section unless the Secretary has determined that
(A) the agreement
(i) will not unduly impair or disrupt the orderly marketing of current and future tobacco crops during the term of the agreement; and
(ii) is otherwise consistent with the purposes of this subtitle;[1] and
(B) the price and other terms of sale are uniform and nondiscriminatory among various purchasers.
(e) Disclosure 
The limitations on disclosure set forth in subsections (c) and (d) of section 1314g[1] of this title shall apply to information submitted by domestic manufacturers of cigarettes under this section with respect to net cigarettes manufactured for use, including information provided on ATF Form 3068. Any officer or employee of the Department of Agriculture who violates such limitations on disclosure shall be subject to the penalties set forth in section 1314g (c)(4)1 of this title.
[1] See References in Text note below.

7 USC 1445a - Wheat price support levels; cooperator defined

Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1441 of this title, beginning with the 1964 crop
(1) Price support for wheat accompanied by domestic certificates shall be at such level not less than 65 per centum or more than 90 per centum of the parity price therefor as the Secretary determines appropriate, taking into consideration the factors specified in section 1421 (b) of this title.
(2) Price support for wheat accompanied by export certificates shall be at such level not more than 90 per centum of the parity price therefor as the Secretary determines appropriate, taking into consideration the factors specified in section 1421 (b) of this title.
(3) Price support for wheat not accompanied by marketing certificates shall be at such level, not in excess of 90 per centum of the parity price therefor, as the Secretary determines appropriate, taking into consideration competitive world prices of wheat, the feeding value of wheat in relation to feed grains, and the level at which price support is made available for feed grains.
(4) Price support shall be made available only to cooperators: and, if a commercial wheat-producing area is established for such crop, price support shall be made available only in the commercial wheat-producing area.
(5) Effective with respect to crops planted for harvest in the calendar year 1966 and any subsequent year, the level of price support for any crop of wheat for which a national marketing quota is not proclaimed or for which marketing quotas have been disapproved by producers shall be as provided in section 1441 of this title.
(6) A cooperator with respect to any crop of wheat produced on a farm shall be a producer who (i) does not knowingly exceed (A) the farm acreage allotment for wheat on the farm or (B) except as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe, the farm acreage allotment for wheat on any other farm on which the producer shares in the production of wheat, and (ii) complies with the land-use requirements of section 1339 of this title, to the extent prescribed by the Secretary. Effective with respect to crops planted for harvest in the calendar year 1966 and any subsequent year, if marketing quotas are not in effect for the crop of wheat, a cooperator with respect to any crop of wheat produced on a farm shall be a producer who does not knowingly exceed the farm acreage allotment for wheat. No producer shall be deemed to have exceeded a farm acreage allotment for wheat if the entire amount of the farm marketing excess is delivered to the Secretary or stored in accordance with applicable regulations to avoid or postpone payment of the penalty, but the producer shall not be eligible to receive price support on such marketing excess. No producer shall be deemed to have exceeded the farm acreage allotment for wheat on any other farm, if such farm is exempt from the farm marketing quota for such crop under section 1335 of this title. No producer shall be deemed to have exceeded a farm acreage allotment for wheat if the production on the acreage in excess of the farm acreage allotment is stored pursuant to the provisions of section 1379c (b) of this title, but the producer shall not be eligible to receive price support on the wheat so stored.

1445b, 1445b1. Repealed. Pub. L. 101624, title III, 301(1), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3382

Section 1445b, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 107A, as added Sept. 29, 1977, Pub. L. 95–113, title IV, §§ 401, 402, 91 Stat. 921, 924; amended Mar. 18, 1980, Pub. L. 96–213, §§ 3, 4 (d), 94 Stat. 119, 120; Sept. 26, 1980, Pub. L. 96–365, title II, § 201(d), 94 Stat. 1320; Dec. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–494, title II, § 202(b), 94 Stat. 2570, related to loan rates and target prices for the 1977 through 1981 crops of wheat. Section 1445b–1, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 107B, as added Dec. 22, 1981, Pub. L. 97–98, title III, § 301, 95 Stat. 1221; Sept. 8, 1982, Pub. L. 97–253, title I, §§ 121, 122, 96 Stat. 768; amended Sept. 29, 1983, Pub. L. 98–100, § 1(b), 97 Stat. 718; Apr. 10, 1984, Pub. L. 98–258, title I, §§ 101–103, 98 Stat. 130, 131, related to loan rates and target prices for 1982 through 1985 wheat crops.

7 USC 1445b2 - Transferred

7 USC 1445b3 - Omitted

7 USC 1445b3a - Repealed. Pub. L. 104127, title I, 171(b)(2)(D), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 107B, as added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title III, § 301(3), 104 Stat. 3382; amended Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §§ 1101(a), 1102 (a), 104 Stat. 13881; Dec. 13, 1991, Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §§ 102(d), 103 (b), 106 (d), 113 (6), 105 Stat. 1822, 1823, 1826, 1837; Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1102, 107 Stat. 314; Oct. 13, 1994, Pub. L. 103–354, title I, § 119(a)(5), 108 Stat. 3207, related to loans, payments, and acreage reduction programs for 1991 through 1995 crops of wheat.

7 USC 1445b4 - Transferred

7 USC 1445b5 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101624, title XI, 1161(a)(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3520

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 107F, as added Dec. 23, 1985, Pub. L. 99–198, title X, § 1006, 99 Stat. 1448, related to export certificate programs for 1986 through 1990 crops of wheat and feed grains.

1445c, 1445c1. Repealed. Pub. L. 101624, title VIII, 806(1), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3475

Section 1445c, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 108, as added Sept. 29, 1977, Pub. L. 95–113, title VIII, § 807, 91 Stat. 947, related to price support program for 1978 through 1981 crops of peanuts. Section 1445c–1, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 108A, as added Dec. 22, 1981, Pub. L. 97–98, title VII, § 705, 95 Stat. 1254, related to price support program for 1982 through 1985 crops of peanuts.

7 USC 1445c2 - Omitted

7 USC 1445c3 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104127, title I, 171(b)(2)(E), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 108B, as added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title VIII, § 806(3), 104 Stat. 3475; amended Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, title I, § 1105(b), 104 Stat. 13883; Dec. 13, 1991, Pub. L. 102–237, title I, § 117(b)(1)(B), 105 Stat. 1841; Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103–66, title I, § 1109(a), 107 Stat. 325, related to price support program for 1991 through 1997 crops of peanuts.

7 USC 1445d - Special wheat acreage grazing and hay program for 1978 through 1990 crop years

Notwithstanding any other provision of law
(a) Authorization for program; acreage designation; payment 
The Secretary is authorized to administer a special wheat acreage grazing and hay program (hereinafter in this section referred to as the special program) in each of the crop years 1978 through 1990. If a special program is implemented, a producer shall be permitted to designate, under such regulations as established by the Secretary, a portion of the acreage on the farm intended to be planted to wheat, feed grains, or upland cotton for harvest, not in excess of 40 per centum thereof, or 50 acres, whichever is greater, which shall be planted to wheat (or some other commodity other than corn or grain sorghum) and used by the producer for grazing purposes or hay rather than for commercial grain production. A producer who elects to participate in the special program shall receive a payment as provided in subsection (c) of this section.
(b) Specific farm acreage 
Any producer who elects to participate in the special program under this section shall designate the specific acreage on the farm which is to be used for the purposes set forth in subsection (a) of this section. No crop other than hay may be harvested from acreage included in the special program.
(c) Determination of payment 
The Secretary shall pay the producer participating in the special program an amount determined by multiplying the farm program payment yield for wheat established for the farm, by the number of acres included in the special program, by a rate of payment determined by the Secretary to be fair and reasonable. The producer shall not be eligible for any other payment or price support on any portion of the acreage for the farm which the producer elects to include in the special program.
(d) Other acreage set-aside programs 
Acreage included in the special program shall be in addition to any acreage included in any acreage set-aside, reduced acreage, or land diversion program otherwise provided for by law.
(e) Rules and regulations 
The Secretary is authorized to issue such regulations as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.
(f) Commodity Credit Corporation 
The Secretary shall carry out the special program through the Commodity Credit Corporation.

7 USC 1445e - Farmer owned reserve program

(a) In general 
The Secretary shall formulate and administer a farmer owned reserve program under which producers of wheat and feed grains will be able to store wheat and feed grains when the commodities are in abundant supply, extend the time period for the orderly marketing of the commodities, and provide for adequate carryover stocks to ensure a reliable supply of the commodities.
(b) Terms of program 

(1) Price support loans 
In carrying out this program, the Secretary shall provide extended price support loans for wheat and feed grains. An extended loan shall only be made to a producer after the expiration of a 9-month price support loan (hereafter in this section referred to as the original loan) made in accordance with this subchapter.
(2) Level of loans 
Loans made under this section shall not be less than the then current level of support under the wheat and feed grain programs established under this subchapter.
(3) Other terms and conditions 
The Secretary shall provide for
(A) repayment of the extended price support loan 27 months from the date on which the original loan expired unless, at the discretion of the Secretary, the loan has been extended for one 6-month period;
(B) a rate of interest as provided under subsection (c) of this section; and
(C) payments to producers for storage as provided in subsection (d) of this section.
(4) Regional differences 
The Secretary shall ensure that producers are afforded a fair and equitable opportunity to participate in the program established under this section, taking into account regional differences in the time of harvest.
(c) Interest charges 

(1) Levying of interest 
The Secretary may charge interest on loans under this section whenever the price of wheat or feed grains is equal to or exceeds 105 percent of the then current established price for the commodity.
(2) 90-day period 
If interest is levied on the loans under paragraph (1), the interest may be charged for a period of 90 days after the last day on which the price of wheat or feed grains was equal to or in excess of 105 percent of the established price for the commodities.
(3) Rate of interest 
The rate of interest charged participants in this program shall not be less than the rate of interest charged by the Commodity Credit Corporation by the United States Treasury, except that the Secretary may waive or adjust the interest as the Secretary considers appropriate to effectuate the purposes of this section.
(d) Storage payments 

(1) In general 
The Secretary shall provide storage payments to producers for storage of wheat or feed grains under the program established in this section in such amounts and under such conditions as the Secretary determines appropriate to encourage producers to participate in the program.
(2) Timing 
The Secretary shall make storage payments available to participants in this program at the end of each quarter.
(3) Duration 
The Secretary shall cease making storage payments whenever the price of wheat or feed grains is equal to or exceeds 95 percent of the then current established price for the commodities, and for any 90-day period immediately following the last day on which the price of wheat or feed grains was equal to or in excess of 95 percent of the then current established price for the commodities.
(e) Emergencies 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may require producers to repay loans made under this section, plus accrued interest and such other charges as may be required by regulation prior to the maturity date thereof, if the Secretary determines that emergency conditions exist that require that the commodity be made available in the market to meet urgent domestic or international needs and the Secretary reports the determination and the reasons for the determination to the President, the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate at least 14 days before taking the action.
(f) Quantity of commodities in program 
The Secretary may establish maximum quantities of wheat and feed grains that may receive loans and storage payments under this program as follows:
(1) The maximum quantities of wheat may not be established at less than 300 million bushels, nor more than 450 million bushels.
(2) The maximum quantities of feed grains may not be established at less than 600 million bushels, nor more than 900 million bushels.
(g) Announcement of program 

(1) Time of announcement 
The Secretary shall announce the terms and conditions of the producer storage program for a crop of wheat and feed grains by
(A) in the case of wheat, December 15 of the year in which the crop of wheat was harvested; and
(B) in the case of feed grains, March 15 of the year following the year in which the crop of corn was harvested.
(2) Discretionary entry 
The Secretary may make extended loans available to producers of wheat or feed grains if
(A) the Secretary determines that the average market price for wheat or corn, respectively, for the 90-day period prior to the dates specified in paragraph (1) is less than 120 percent of the current loan rate for wheat or corn, respectively; or
(B) as of the appropriate date specified in paragraph (1), the Secretary estimates that the stocks-to-use ratio on the last day of the current marketing year will be
(i) in the case of wheat, more than 37.5 percent; and
(ii) in the case of corn, more than 22.5 percent.
(3) Mandatory entry 
The Secretary shall make extended loans available to producers of wheat or feed grains if the conditions specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2) are met for wheat or feed grains, respectively.
(4) Content of announcement 
In the announcement, the Secretary shall specify the maximum quantity of wheat or feed grains to be stored under this program that the Secretary determines appropriate to promote the orderly marketing of the commodities.
(h) Discretionary exit 
A producer may repay a loan extended under this section at any time.
(i) Reconcentration of grain 
The Secretary may, with the concurrence of the owner of grain stored under this program, reconcentrate all such grain stored in commercial warehouses at such points as the Secretary considers to be in the public interest, taking into account such factors as transportation and normal marketing patterns. The Secretary shall permit rotation of stocks and facilitate maintenance of quality under regulations that assure that the holding producer or warehouseman shall, at all times, have available for delivery at the designated place of storage both the quantity and quality of grain covered by the producers or warehousemans commitment.
(j) Management of grain 
Whenever grain is stored under this section, the Secretary may buy and sell at an equivalent price, allowing for the customary location and grade differentials, substantially equivalent quantities of grain in different locations or warehouses to the extent needed to properly handle, rotate, distribute, and locate the commodities that the Commodity Credit Corporation owns or controls. The purchases to offset sales shall be made within 2 market days following the sales. The Secretary shall make a daily list available showing the price, location, and quantity of the transactions.
(k) Use of Commodity Credit Corporation 
The Secretary shall use the Commodity Credit Corporation, to the extent feasible, to fulfill the purposes of this section. To the maximum extent practicable consistent with the fulfillment of the purposes of this section and the effective and efficient administration of this section, the Secretary shall utilize the usual and customary channels, facilities, and arrangements of trade and commerce.
(l) Use of commodity certificates 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if a producer has substituted purchased or other commodities for the commodities originally pledged as collateral for a loan made under this section, the Secretary may allow a producer to repay the loan using a generic commodity certificate that may be exchanged for commodities owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation, if the substitute commodities have been pledged as loan collateral and redeemed only within the same county.
(m) Additional authority 
The authority provided by this section shall be in addition to other authorities available to the Secretary for carrying out producer loan and storage operations.
(n) Regulations 
The Secretary of Agriculture shall issue such regulations as are necessary to carry out this section not later than 60 days after November 28, 1990.
(o) Review 
In announcing the terms and conditions of the producer storage program under this section, the Secretary shall review standards concerning the quality of grain that shall be allowed to be stored under the program, and such standards should encourage only quality grain, as determined by the Secretary, to be pledged as collateral for such loans. The Secretary shall review inspection, maintenance, and stock rotation requirements and take the necessary steps to maintain the quality of such grain.
(p) Crops 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, this section shall become effective December 1, 1990.

7 USC 1445f - International Emergency Food Reserve

The President is encouraged to enter into negotiations with other nations to develop an international system of food reserves to provide for humanitarian food relief needs and to establish and maintain a food reserve, as a contribution of the United States toward the development of such a system, to be made available in the event of food emergencies in foreign countries. The reserves shall be known as the International Emergency Food Reserve.

7 USC 1445g - Production of commodities for conversion into industrial hydrocarbons; terms and conditions; incentive payments; regulations; appropriations; effective date

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act
(a) The Secretary may permit, subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, all or any part of the acreage set aside or diverted from the production of a commodity for any crop year under this subchapter to be devoted to the production of any commodity (other than the commodities for which acreage is being set aside or diverted) for conversion into industrial hydrocarbons and blending with gasoline or other fossil fuels for use as motor or industrial fuel, if the Secretary determines that such production is desirable in order to provide an adequate supply of commodities for such purpose, is not likely to increase the cost of the price support programs, and will not adversely affect farm income.
(b) 
(1) During any year in which there is no set-aside or diversion of acreage under this subchapter, the Secretary may formulate and administer a program for the production, subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, of commodities for conversion into industrial hydrocarbons and blending with gasoline or other fossil fuels for use as motor or industrial fuel, if the Secretary determines that such production is desirable in order to provide an adequate supply of commodities for such purpose, is not likely to increase the cost of the price support programs, and will not adversely affect farm income. Under the program, producers of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice shall be paid incentive payments to devote a portion of their acreage to the production of commodities for conversion into industrial hydrocarbons and blending with gasoline or other fossil fuels for use as motor or industrial fuel.
(2) The payments under this subsection shall be at such rate or rates as the Secretary determines to be fair and reasonable, taking into consideration the participation necessary to ensure an adequate supply of the agricultural commodities for conversion into industrial hydrocarbons and blending with gasoline or other fossil fuels for use as motor or industrial fuels.
(3) The Secretary may issue such regulations as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection.
(4) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection.
(5) The provisions of this subsection shall become effective October 1, 1978.

7 USC 1445h - Repealed. Pub. L. 104127, title I, 171(b)(2)(F), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title I, 113, as added Dec. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–494, title II, § 207, 94 Stat. 2572; amended Dec. 22, 1981, Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, § 1105, 95 Stat. 1264; Dec. 23, 1985, Pub. L. 99–198, title X, § 1011, 99 Stat. 1454; Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, § 1125, 104 Stat. 3506, authorized Secretary to announce and provide for supplemental set-aside and acreage limitation program.

7 USC 1445i - Multiyear set-aside contracts for 1986 through 1990 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice

Notwithstanding any other provision of law:
(1) The Secretary of Agriculture may enter into multiyear set-aside contracts for a period not to extend beyond the 1990 crops. Such contracts may be entered into only as a part of the programs in effect for the 1986 through 1990 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice, and only producers participating in one or more of such programs shall be eligible to contract with the Secretary under this section. Producers agreeing to a multiyear set-aside agreement shall be required to devote the set-aside acreage to vegetative cover capable of maintaining itself through such period to provide soil protection, water quality enhancement, wildlife production, and natural beauty. Grazing of livestock under this section shall be prohibited, except in areas of a major disaster, as determined by the President, if the Secretary finds there is a need for such grazing as a result of such disaster. Producers entering into agreements under this section shall also agree to comply with all applicable State and local laws and regulations governing noxious weed control.
(2) The Secretary shall provide cost-sharing incentives to farm operators for the establishment of vegetative cover, whenever a multiyear set-aside contract is entered into under this section.
(3) The Secretary may issue such regulations as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out this section.
(4) The Secretary shall carry out the program authorized by this section through the Commodity Credit Corporation.

7 USC 1445j - Deficiency and land diversion payments

(a) Deficiency payments 

(1) In general 
If the Secretary establishes an acreage limitation program for any of the 1991 through 1997 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, or rice under this Act and determines that deficiency payments will likely be made for the commodity for the crop, the Secretary shall make advance deficiency payments available to producers for each of the crops.
(2) Terms and conditions 
Advance deficiency payments under paragraph (1) shall be made to the producer under the following terms and conditions:
(A) Form 
Such payments may be made available in the form of
(i) cash;
(ii) commodities owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation and certificates redeemable in a commodity owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation, except that not more than 50 percent of the payments may be made in commodities or the certificates in the case of any producer; or
(iii) any combination of clauses (i) and (ii).
(B) Commodities and certificates 
If payments are made available to producers as provided for under subparagraph (A)(ii), such producers may elect to receive such payments either in the form of
(i) such commodities; or
(ii) such certificates.
(C) Maturity 
Such a certificate shall be redeemable for a period not to exceed 3 years from the date the certificate is issued.
(D) Storage 
The Commodity Credit Corporation shall pay the cost of storing a commodity that may be received under such a certificate until such time as the certificate is redeemed.
(E) Timing 
The payments shall be made available as soon as practicable after the producer enters into a contract with the Secretary to participate in such program.
(F) Amounts 
The payments shall be made available in such amounts as the Secretary determines appropriate to encourage adequate participation in the program, except that the amount may not exceed an amount determined by multiplying
(i) the estimated payment acreage for the crop; by
(ii) the farm program payment yield for the crop; by
(iii) 
(I) in the case of wheat and feed grains, not less than 40 percent, nor more than 50 percent, of the projected payment rate; and
(II) in the case of rice and upland cotton, not less than 30 percent, nor more than 50 percent, of the projected payment rate,

as determined by the Secretary.

(G) Repayment 
If the deficiency payment payable to a producer for a crop, as finally determined by the Secretary under this Act, is less than the amount paid to the producer as an advance deficiency payment for the crop under this subsection, the producer shall repay an amount equal to the difference between the amount advanced and the amount finally determined by the Secretary to be payable to the producer as a deficiency payment for the crop concerned.
(H) Repayment requirement 
If the Secretary determines under this Act that deficiency payments will not be made available to producers on a crop with respect to which advance deficiency payments already have been made under this subsection, the producers who received the advance payments shall repay the payments.
(I) Deadline 
Any repayment required under subparagraph (G) or (H) shall be due at the end of the marketing year for the crop with respect to which the payments were made.
(J) Noncompliance 
If a producer fails to comply with requirements established under the acreage limitation program involved after obtaining an advance deficiency payment under this subsection, the producer shall repay immediately the amount of the advance, plus interest thereon in such amount as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulation.
(3) Regulations 
The Secretary may issue such regulations as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out this section.
(4) Commodity Credit Corporation 
The Secretary shall carry out the program authorized by this section through the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(5) Additional authority 
The authority provided in this section shall be in addition to, and not in place of, any authority granted to the Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation under any other provision of law.
(b) , (c) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–127, title I, § 171(b)(2)(G), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938 

7 USC 1445k - Payments in commodities

(a) In-kind payments by Secretary 
In making in-kind payments under any of the annual programs for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, or rice (other than negotiable marketing certificates for upland cotton or rice), the Secretary may
(1) acquire and use like commodities that have been pledged to the Commodity Credit Corporation as security for price support loans, including loans made to producers under section 1445e of this title; and
(2) use other like commodities owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation.
(b) Methods of payments 
The Secretary may make in-kind payments
(1) by delivery of the commodity to the producer at a warehouse or other similar facility, as determined by the Secretary;
(2) by the transfer of negotiable warehouse receipts;
(3) by the issuance of negotiable certificates which the Commodity Credit Corporation shall redeem for a commodity in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary; or
(4) by such other methods as the Secretary determines appropriate to enable the producer to receive payments in an efficient, equitable, and expeditious manner so as to ensure that the producer receives the same total return as if the payments had been made in cash.
(c) Commodity certificates 
The Secretary shall pay interest on the cash redemption of a commodity certificate issued by the Secretary to a producer who holds the certificate for at least 150 days. This subsection shall not apply with respect to commodity certificates issued in connection with the export enhancement program or the marketing promotion program established under the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978.