TITLE 46 - US CODE - SHIPPING

Subtitle I - General

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 1 - DEFINITIONS

46 USC 101 - Agency

In this title, the term agency means a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government.

46 USC 102 - Barge

In this title, the term barge means a non-self-propelled vessel.

46 USC 103 - Boundary Line

In this title, the term Boundary Line means a line established under section 2(b) of the Act of February 19, 1895 (33 U.S.C. 151).[1]
[1] So in original. Probably should be “(33 U.S.C. 151 (b)).”.

46 USC 104 - Citizen of the United States

In this title, the term citizen of the United States, when used in reference to a natural person, means an individual who is a national of the United States as defined in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(22)).

46 USC 105 - Consular officer

In this title, the term consular officer means an officer or employee of the United States Government designated under regulations to issue visas.

46 USC 106 - Documented vessel

In this title, the term documented vessel means a vessel for which a certificate of documentation has been issued under chapter 121 of this title.

46 USC 107 - Exclusive economic zone

In this title, the term exclusive economic zone means the zone established by Presidential Proclamation 5030 of March 10, 1983 (16 U.S.C. 1453 note ).

46 USC 108 - Fisheries

In this title, the term fisheries includes processing, storing, transporting (except in foreign commerce), planting, cultivating, catching, taking, or harvesting fish, shellfish, marine animals, pearls, shells, or marine vegetation in the navigable waters of the United States or in the exclusive economic zone.

46 USC 109 - Foreign commerce or trade

(a) In General.— 
In this title, the terms foreign commerce and foreign trade mean commerce or trade between a place in the United States and a place in a foreign country.
(b) Capital Construction Funds and Construction-Differential Subsidies.— 
In the context of capital construction funds under chapter 535 of this title, and in the context of construction-differential subsidies under title V of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, the terms foreign commerce and foreign trade also include, in the case of liquid and dry bulk cargo carrying services, trading between foreign ports in accordance with normal commercial bulk shipping practices in a manner that will permit bulk vessels of the United States to compete freely with foreign bulk vessels in their operation or competition for charters, subject to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation.

46 USC 110 - Foreign vessel

In this title, the term foreign vessel means a vessel of foreign registry or operated under the authority of a foreign country.

46 USC 111 - Numbered vessel

In this title, the term numbered vessel means a vessel for which a number has been issued under chapter 123 of this title.

46 USC 112 - State

In this title, the term State means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

46 USC 113 - Undocumented

In this title, the term undocumented means not having and not required to have a certificate of documentation issued under chapter 121 of this title.

46 USC 114 - United States

In this title, the term United States, when used in a geographic sense, means the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

46 USC 115 - Vessel

In this title, the term vessel has the meaning given that term in section 3 of title 1.

46 USC 116 - Vessel of the United States

In this title, the term vessel of the United States means a vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title (or exempt from documentation under section 12102 (c) of this title), numbered under chapter 123 of this title, or titled under the law of a State.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 3 - FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION

46 USC 301 - General organization

(a) Organization.— 
The Federal Maritime Commission is an independent establishment of the United States Government.
(b) Commissioners.— 

(1) Composition.— 
The Commission is composed of 5 Commissioners, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Not more than 3 Commissioners may be appointed from the same political party.
(2) Terms.— 
The term of each Commissioner is 5 years, with each term beginning one year apart. An individual appointed to fill a vacancy is appointed only for the unexpired term of the individual being succeeded. A vacancy shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment. When the term of a Commissioner ends, the Commissioner may continue to serve until a successor is appointed and qualified.
(3) Removal.— 
The President may remove a Commissioner for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office.
(c) Chairman.— 

(1) Designation.— 
The President shall designate one of the Commissioners as Chairman.
(2) General authority.— 
The Chairman is the chief executive and administrative officer of the Commission. In carrying out the duties and powers of the Commission (other than under paragraph (3)), the Chairman is subject to the policies, regulatory decisions, findings, and determinations of the Commission.
(3) Particular duties.— 

(A) In general.— 
The Chairman shall
(i) appoint and supervise officers and employees of the Commission;
(ii) appoint the heads of major organizational units, but only after consultation with the other Commissioners;
(iii) distribute the business of the Commission among personnel and organizational units;
(iv) supervise the expenditure of money for administrative purposes; and
(v) assign Commission personnel, including Commissioners, to perform duties and powers delegated by the Commission under section 304 of this title.
(B) Nonapplication.— 
Subparagraph (A) (other than clause (v)) does not apply to personnel employed regularly and full-time in the offices of Commissioners other than the Chairman.
(4) Delegation.— 
The Chairman may designate officers and employees under the Chairmans jurisdiction to perform duties and powers of the Chairman, subject to the Chairmans supervision and direction.
(d) Seal.— 
The Commission shall have a seal which shall be judicially recognized.

46 USC 302 - Quorum

A vacancy or vacancies in the membership of the Federal Maritime Commission do not impair the power of the Commission to execute its functions. The affirmative vote of a majority of the Commissioners serving on the Commission is required to dispose of any matter before the Commission.

46 USC 303 - Record of meetings and votes

The Federal Maritime Commission, through its secretary, shall keep a record of its meetings and the votes taken on any action, order, contract, or financial transaction of the Commission.

46 USC 304 - Delegation of authority

(a) Delegation.— 
The Federal Maritime Commission, by published order or regulation, may delegate to a division of the Commission, an individual Commissioner, an employee board, or an officer or employee of the Commission, any of its duties or powers, including those relating to hearing, determining, ordering, certifying, reporting, or otherwise acting on any matter. This subsection does not affect section 556 (b) of title 5.
(b) Review.— 
The Commission may review any action taken under a delegation of authority under subsection (a). The review may be taken on the Commissions own initiative or on the petition of a party to or an intervenor in the action, within the time and in the manner prescribed by the Commission. The vote of a majority of the Commission, less one member, is sufficient to bring an action before the Commission for review.
(c) Deemed Action of Commission.— 
If the Commission declines review, or if review is not sought, within the time prescribed under subsection (b), the action taken under the delegation of authority is deemed to be the action of the Commission.

46 USC 305 - Regulations

The Federal Maritime Commission may prescribe regulations to carry out its duties and powers.

46 USC 306 - Annual report

(a) In General.— 
Not later than April 1 of each year, the Federal Maritime Commission shall submit a report to Congress. The report shall include the results of its investigations, a summary of its transactions, the purposes for which all of its expenditures were made, and any recommendations for legislation.
(b) Report on Foreign Laws and Practices.— 
The Commission shall include in its annual report to Congress
(1) a list of the 20 foreign countries that generated the largest volume of oceanborne liner cargo for the most recent calendar year in bilateral trade with the United States;
(2) an analysis of conditions described in section 42302 (a) of this title being investigated or found to exist in foreign countries;
(3) any actions being taken by the Commission to offset those conditions;
(4) any recommendations for additional legislation to offset those conditions; and
(5) a list of petitions filed under section 42302 (b) of this title that the Commission rejected and the reasons for each rejection.

46 USC 307 - Expenditures

The Federal Maritime Commission may make such expenditures as are necessary in the performance of its functions from funds appropriated or otherwise made available to it, which appropriations are authorized.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 5 - OTHER GENERAL PROVISIONS

46 USC 501 - Waiver of navigation and vessel-inspection laws

(a) On Request of Secretary of Defense.— 
On request of the Secretary of Defense, the head of an agency responsible for the administration of the navigation or vessel-inspection laws shall waive compliance with those laws to the extent the Secretary considers necessary in the interest of national defense.
(b) By Head of Agency.— 
When the head of an agency responsible for the administration of the navigation or vessel-inspection laws considers it necessary in the interest of national defense, the individual may waive compliance with those laws to the extent, in the manner, and on the terms the individual prescribes.
(c) Termination of Authority.— 
The authority granted by this section shall terminate at such time as the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President may designate.

46 USC 502 - Cargo exempt from forfeiture

Cargo on a vessel is exempt from forfeiture under this title if
(1) the cargo is owned in good faith by a person not the owner, master, or crewmember of the vessel; and
(2) the customs duties on the cargo have been paid or secured for payment as provided by law.

46 USC 503 - Notice of seizure

When a forfeiture of a vessel or cargo accrues, the official of the United States Government required to give notice of the seizure of the vessel or cargo shall include in the notice, if they are known to that official, the name and the place of residence of the owner or consignee at the time of the seizure.

46 USC 504 - Remission of fees and penalties

Any part of a fee, tax, or penalty paid or a forfeiture incurred under a law or regulation relating to vessels or seamen may be remitted if
(1) application for the remission is made within one year after the date of the payment or forfeiture; and
(2) it is found that the fee, tax, penalty, or forfeiture was improperly or excessively imposed.

46 USC 505 - Penalty for violating regulation or order

A person convicted of knowingly and willfully violating a regulation or order of the Federal Maritime Commission or the Secretary of Transportation under subtitle IV or V of this title, for which no penalty is expressly provided, shall be fined not more than $500. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate offense.

Subtitle II - Vessels and Seamen

Part A - General Provisions

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 21 - GENERAL

46 USC 2101 - General definitions

In this subtitle
(1) associated equipment
(A) means
(i) a system, accessory, component, or appurtenance of a recreational vessel; or
(ii) a marine safety article intended for use on board a recreational vessel; but
(B) does not include radio equipment.
[(2) to (3a) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(4) Coast Guard means the organization established and continued under section 1 of title 14.
(5) commercial service includes any type of trade or business involving the transportation of goods or individuals, except service performed by a combatant vessel.
(5a) consideration means an economic benefit, inducement, right, or profit including pecuniary payment accruing to an individual, person, or entity, but not including a voluntary sharing of the actual expenses of the voyage, by monetary contribution or donation of fuel, food, beverage, or other supplies.
[(6) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(7) crude oil means a liquid hydrocarbon mixture occurring naturally in the earth, whether or not treated to render it suitable for transportation, and includes crude oil from which certain distillate fractions may have been removed, and crude oil to which certain distillate fractions may have been added.
(8) crude oil tanker means a tanker engaged in the trade of carrying crude oil.
(8a) dangerous drug means a narcotic drug, a controlled substance, or a controlled substance analog (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)).
(9) discharge, when referring to a substance discharged from a vessel, includes spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, or dumping, however caused.
[(10) , (10a) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(10b) ferry means a vessel that is used on a regular schedule
(A) to provide transportation only between places that are not more than 300 miles apart; and
(B) to transport only
(i) passengers; or
(ii) vehicles, or railroad cars, that are being used, or have been used, in transporting passengers or goods.
(11) fish means finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and all other forms of marine animal and plant life, except marine mammals and birds.
(11a) fishing vessel means a vessel that commercially engages in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish or an activity that can reasonably be expected to result in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish.
(11b) fish processing vessel means a vessel that commercially prepares fish or fish products other than by gutting, decapitating, gilling, skinning, shucking, icing, freezing, or brine chilling.
(11c) fish tender vessel means a vessel that commercially supplies, stores, refrigerates, or transports fish, fish products, or materials directly related to fishing or the preparation of fish to or from a fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel or a fish processing facility.
[(12) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(13) freight vessel means a motor vessel of more than 15 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that carries freight for hire, except an oceanographic research vessel or an offshore supply vessel.
(13a) Great Lakes barge means a non-self-propelled vessel of at least 3,500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title operating on the Great Lakes.
(14) hazardous material means a liquid material or substance that is
(A) flammable or combustible;
(B) designated a hazardous substance under section 311(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1321); or
(C) designated a hazardous material under section 5103 (a) of title 49;
(14a) major conversion means a conversion of a vessel that
(A) substantially changes the dimensions or carrying capacity of the vessel;
(B) changes the type of the vessel;
(C) substantially prolongs the life of the vessel; or
(D) otherwise so changes the vessel that it is essentially a new vessel, as decided by the Secretary.
(15) marine environment means
(A) the navigable waters of the United States and the land and resources in and under those waters;
(B) the waters and fishery resources of an area over which the United States asserts exclusive fishery management authority;
(C) the seabed and subsoil of the outer Continental Shelf of the United States, the resources of the Shelf, and the waters superjacent to the Shelf; and
(D) the recreational, economic, and scenic values of the waters and resources referred to in subclauses (A)(C) of this clause.
(15a) mobile offshore drilling unit means a vessel capable of engaging in drilling operations for the exploration or exploitation of subsea resources.
(16) motor vessel means a vessel propelled by machinery other than steam.
(17) nautical school vessel means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school or an educational institution under section 558 of title 40.
(17a) navigable waters of the United States includes all waters of the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation No. 5928 of December 27, 1988.
[(17b) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(18) oceanographic research vessel means a vessel that the Secretary finds is being employed only in instruction in oceanography or limnology, or both, or only in oceanographic or limnological research, including studies about the sea such as seismic, gravity meter, and magnetic exploration and other marine geophysical or geological surveys, atmospheric research, and biological research.
(19) offshore supply vessel means a motor vessel of more than 15 gross tons but less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that regularly carries goods, supplies, individuals in addition to the crew, or equipment in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources.
(20) oil includes oil of any type or in any form, including petroleum, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse, and oil mixed with wastes except dredged spoil.
(20a) oil spill response vessel means a vessel that is designated in its certificate of inspection as such a vessel, or that is adapted to respond to a discharge of oil or a hazardous material.
(20b) overall in length means
(A) for a foreign vessel or a vessel engaged on a foreign voyage, the greater of
(i) 96 percent of the length on a waterline at 85 percent of the least molded depth measured from the top of the keel (or on a vessel designed with a rake of keel, on a waterline parallel to the designed waterline); or
(ii) the length from the fore side of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on that waterline; and
(B) for any other vessel, the horizontal distance of the hull between the foremost part of the stem and the aftermost part of the stern, excluding fittings and attachments.
(21) passenger
(A) means an individual carried on the vessel except
(i) the owner or an individual representative of the owner or, in the case of a vessel under charter, an individual charterer or individual representative of the charterer;
(ii) the master; or
(iii) a member of the crew engaged in the business of the vessel who has not contributed consideration for carriage and who is paid for on board services;
(B) on an offshore supply vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except
(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;
(ii) an employee of the owner, or of a subcontractor to the owner, engaged in the business of the owner;
(iii) an employee of the charterer, or of a subcontractor to the charterer, engaged in the business of the charterer; or
(iv) an individual employed in a phase of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources served by the vessel;
(C) on a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except
(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;
(ii) a managing operator;
(iii) an employee of the owner, or of a subcontractor to the owner, engaged in the business of the owner;
(iv) an employee of the charterer, or of a subcontractor to the charterer, engaged in the business of the charterer; or
(v) an observer or sea sampler on board the vessel pursuant to a requirement of State or Federal law; or
(D) on a sailing school vessel, means an individual carried on the vessel except
(i) an individual included in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph;
(ii) an employee of the owner of the vessel engaged in the business of the owner, except when the vessel is operating under a demise charter;
(iii) an employee of the demise charterer of the vessel engaged in the business of the demise charterer; or
(iv) a sailing school instructor or sailing school student.
(21a) passenger for hire means a passenger for whom consideration is contributed as a condition of carriage on the vessel, whether directly or indirectly flowing to the owner, charterer, operator, agent, or any other person having an interest in the vessel.
(22) passenger vessel means a vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(A) carrying more than 12 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire;
(B) that is chartered and carrying more than 12 passengers;
(C) that is a submersible vessel carrying at least one passenger for hire; or
(D) that is a ferry carrying a passenger.
(23) product carrier means a tanker engaged in the trade of carrying oil except crude oil.
(24) public vessel means a vessel that
(A) is owned, or demise chartered, and operated by the United States Government or a government of a foreign country; and
(B) is not engaged in commercial service.
(25) recreational vessel means a vessel
(A) being manufactured or operated primarily for pleasure; or
(B) leased, rented, or chartered to another for the latters pleasure.
(26) recreational vessel manufacturer means a person engaged in the manufacturing, construction, assembly, or importation of recreational vessels, components, or associated equipment.
(26a) riding gang member means an individual who
(A) has not been issued a merchant mariner document under chapter 73;
(B) does not perform
(i) watchstanding, automated engine room duty watch, or personnel safety functions; or
(ii) cargo handling functions, including any activity relating to the loading or unloading of cargo, the operation of cargo-related equipment (whether or not integral to the vessel), and the handling of mooring lines on the dock when the vessel is made fast or let go;
(C) does not serve as part of the crew complement required under section 8101;
(D) is not a member of the stewards department; and
(E) is not a citizen or temporary or permanent resident of a country designated by the United States as a sponsor of terrorism or any other country that the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the heads of other appropriate United States agencies, determines to be a security threat to the United States.
(27) sailing instruction means teaching, research, and practical experience in operating vessels propelled primarily by sail and may include
(A) any subject related to that operation and to the sea, including seamanship, navigation, oceanography, other nautical and marine sciences, and maritime history and literature; and
(B) only when in conjunction with a subject referred to in subclause (A) of this clause, instruction in mathematics and language arts skills to sailing school students having learning disabilities.
(28) sailing school instructor means an individual who is on board a sailing school vessel to provide sailing instruction, but does not include an operator or crewmember who is among those required to be on board the vessel to meet a requirement established under part F of this subtitle.
(29) sailing school student means an individual who is on board a sailing school vessel to receive sailing instruction.
(30) sailing school vessel means a vessel
(A) that is less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title;
(B) carrying more than 6 individuals who are sailing school instructors or sailing school students;
(C) principally equipped for propulsion by sail, even if the vessel has an auxiliary means of propulsion; and
(D) owned or demise chartered, and operated by an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 501 (c)(3)) and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of that Code, or by a State or political subdivision of a State, during times that the vessel is operated by the organization, State, or political subdivision only for sailing instruction.
(31) scientific personnel means individuals on board an oceanographic research vessel only to engage in scientific research, or to instruct or receive instruction in oceanography or limnology.
(32) seagoing barge means a non-self-propelled vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title making voyages beyond the Boundary Line.
(33) seagoing motor vessel means a motor vessel of at least 300 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title making voyages beyond the Boundary Line.
(34) Secretary means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.
(35) small passenger vessel means a wing-in-ground craft, regardless of tonnage, carrying at least one passenger for hire, and a vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(A) carrying more than 6 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire;
(B) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owners representative and carrying more than 6 passengers;
(C) that is chartered with no crew provided or specified by the owner or the owners representative and carrying more than 12 passengers;
(D) that is a submersible vessel carrying at least one passenger for hire; or
(E) that is a ferry carrying more than 6 passengers.
[(36) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(37) steam vessel means a vessel propelled in whole or in part by steam, except a recreational vessel of not more than 40 feet in length.
(37a) submersible vessel means a vessel that is capable of operating below the surface of the water.
(38) tanker means a self-propelled tank vessel constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil or hazardous material in bulk in the cargo spaces.
(39) tank vessel means a vessel that is constructed or adapted to carry, or that carries, oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or cargo residue, and that
(A) is a vessel of the United States;
(B) operates on the navigable waters of the United States; or
(C) transfers oil or hazardous material in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(40) towing vessel means a commercial vessel engaged in or intending to engage in the service of pulling, pushing, or hauling along side, or any combination of pulling, pushing, or hauling along side.
[(41) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(42) uninspected passenger vessel means an uninspected vessel
(A) of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(i) carrying not more than 12 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire; or
(ii) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owners representative and carrying not more than 12 passengers; and
(B) of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(i) carrying not more than 6 passengers, including at least one passenger for hire; or
(ii) that is chartered with the crew provided or specified by the owner or the owners representative and carrying not more than 6 passengers.
(43) uninspected vessel means a vessel not subject to inspection under section 3301 of this title that is not a recreational vessel.
[(44) to (46) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–304, § 15(2)(A), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702.]
(47) vessel of war means a vessel
(A) belonging to the armed forces of a country;
(B) bearing the external marks distinguishing vessels of war of that country;
(C) under the command of an officer commissioned by the government of that country and whose name appears in the appropriate service list or its equivalent; and
(D) staffed by a crew under regular armed forces discipline.
(48) wing-in-ground craft means a vessel that is capable of operating completely above the surface of the water on a dynamic air cushion created by aerodynamic lift due to the ground effect between the vessel and the waters surface.

46 USC 2102 - Limited definitions

In chapters 33, 45, 51, 81, and 87 of this title, Aleutian trade means the transportation of cargo (including fishery related products) for hire on board a fish tender vessel to or from a place in Alaska west of 153 degrees west longitude and east of 172 degrees east longitude, if that place receives weekly common carrier service by water, to or from a place in the United States (except a place in Alaska).

46 USC 2103 - Superintendence of the merchant marine

The Secretary has general superintendence over the merchant marine of the United States and of merchant marine personnel insofar as the enforcement of this subtitle is concerned and insofar as those vessels and personnel are not subject, under other law, to the supervision of another official of the United States Government. In the interests of marine safety and seamens welfare, the Secretary shall enforce this subtitle and shall carry out correctly and uniformly administer this subtitle. The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out the provisions of this subtitle.

46 USC 2104 - Delegation

(a) The Secretary may delegate the duties and powers conferred by this subtitle to any officer, employee, or member of the Coast Guard, and may provide for the subdelegation of those duties and powers.
(b) When this subtitle authorizes an officer or employee of the Customs Service to act in place of a Coast Guard official, the Secretary may designate that officer or employee subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

46 USC 2105 - Report

The Secretary shall provide for the investigation of the operation of this subtitle and of all laws related to marine safety, and shall require that a report be made to the Secretary annually about those matters that may require improvement or amendment.

46 USC 2106 - Liability in rem

When a vessel is made liable in rem under this subtitle, the vessel may be libeled and proceeded against in the district court of the United States for any district in which the vessel is found.

46 USC 2107 - Civil penalty procedures

(a) After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, a person found by the Secretary to have violated this subtitle or subtitle VII or a regulation prescribed under this subtitle or subtitle VII for which a civil penalty is provided, is liable to the United States Government for the civil penalty provided. The amount of the civil penalty shall be assessed by the Secretary by written notice. In determining the amount of the penalty, the Secretary shall consider the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the prohibited acts committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, any history of prior offenses, ability to pay, and other matters that justice requires.
(b) The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without consideration, a civil penalty under this subtitle or subtitle VII until the assessment is referred to the Attorney General.
(c) If a person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become final, the Secretary may refer the matter to the Attorney General for collection in an appropriate district court of the United States.

46 USC 2108 - Repealed. Pub. L. 109304, 15(5), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1702]

Section, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 507, related to refund of penalties unlawfully, improperly, or excessively imposed. See section 504 of this title.

46 USC 2109 - Public vessels

Except as otherwise provided, this subtitle does not apply to a public vessel of the United States. However, this subtitle does apply to a vessel (except a Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation vessel) owned or operated by the Department of Transportation or by any corporation organized or controlled by the Department.

46 USC 2110 - Fees

(a) 
(1) Except as otherwise provided in this title, the Secretary shall establish a fee or charge for a service or thing of value provided by the Secretary under this subtitle, in accordance with section 9701 of title 31.
(2) The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a non-self-propelled tank vessel under part B of this subtitle that is more than $500 annually. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination of a small passenger vessel under this title that is more than $300 annually for such vessels under 65 feet in length, or more than $600 annually for such vessels 65 feet in length and greater. The Secretary may not establish a fee or charge under paragraph (1) for inspection or examination under this title for any publicly-owned ferry.
(3) The Secretary may, by regulation, adjust a fee or charge collected under this subsection to accommodate changes in the cost of providing a specific service or thing of value, but the adjusted fee or charge may not exceed the total cost of providing the service or thing of value for which the fee or charge is collected, including the cost of collecting the fee or charge.
(4) The Secretary may not collect a fee or charge under this subsection that is in conflict with the international obligations of the United States.
(5) The Secretary may not collect a fee or charge under this subsection for any search or rescue service.
(b) 
(1) The Secretary shall establish a fee or charge as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, and collect it annually in fiscal years 1993 and 1994, from the owner or operator of each recreational vessel to which paragraph (2) of this subsection applies.
(2) The fee or charge established under paragraph (1) of this subsection is as follows:
(A) in fiscal year 1993
(i) for vessels of more than 21 feet in length but less than 27 feet, not more than $35;
(ii) for vessels of at least 27 feet in length but less than 40 feet, not more than $50; and
(iii) for vessels of at least 40 feet in length, not more than $100; and
(B) in fiscal year 1994
(i) for vessels of at least 37 feet in length but less than 40 feet, not more than $50; and
(ii) for vessels of at least 40 feet in length, not more than $100.
(3) The fee or charge established under this subsection applies only to vessels operated on the navigable waters of the United States where the Coast Guard has a presence.
(4) The fee or charge established under this subsection does not apply to a
(A) public vessel; or
(B) vessel deemed to be a public vessel under section 827 of title 14.
(5) The Secretary shall provide to each person who pays a fee or charge under this subsection a separate document on which appears, in readily discernible print, only the following statement: The fee for which this document was provided was established under the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990. Persons paying this fee can expect no increase in the quantity, quality, or variety of services the person receives from the Coast Guard as a result of that payment.
(c) In addition to the collection of fees and charges established under subsections (a) and (b), the Secretary may recover appropriate collection and enforcement costs associated with delinquent payments of the fees and charges.
(d) 
(1) The Secretary may employ any Federal, State, or local agency or instrumentality, or any private enterprise or business, to collect a fee or charge established under this section. A private enterprise or business selected by the Secretary to collect fees or charges
(A) shall be subject to reasonable terms and conditions agreed to by the Secretary and the enterprise or business;
(B) shall provide appropriate accounting to the Secretary; and
(C) may not institute litigation as part of that collection.
(2) A Federal agency shall account for the agencys costs of collecting the fee or charge under this subsection as a reimbursable expense, and the costs shall be credited to the account from which expended.
(e) A person that violates this section by failing to pay a fee or charge established under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.
(f) When requested by the Secretary, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall deny the clearance required by section 60105 of this title to a vessel for which a fee or charge established under this section has not been paid until the fee or charge is paid or until a bond is posted for the payment.
(g) The Secretary may exempt a person from paying a fee or charge established under this section if the Secretary determines that it is in the public interest to do so.
(h) Fees and charges collected by the Secretary under this section shall be deposited in the general fund of the Treasury as offsetting receipts of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating and ascribed to Coast Guard activities.
(i) The collection of a fee or charge under this section does not alter or expand the functions, powers, responsibilities, or liability of the United States under any law for the performance of services or the provision of a thing of value for which a fee or charge is collected under this section.
(j) The Secretary may not establish or collect a fee or charge for the inspection under part B of this subtitle of training vessels operated by State maritime academies.
(k) The Secretary may not plan, implement or finalize any regulation that would promulgate any new maritime user fee which was not implemented and collected prior to January 1, 1998, including a fee or charge for any domestic icebreaking service or any other navigational assistance service. This subsection expires on September 30, 2006.

46 USC 2111 - Pay for overtime services

(a) The Secretary may prescribe a reasonable rate of extra pay for overtime services of civilian officers and employees of the Coast Guard required to remain on duty between 5 p.m. and 8 a.m., or on Sundays or holidays, to perform services related to
(1) the inspection of vessels or their equipment;
(2) the engagement and discharge of crews of vessels;
(3) the measurement of vessels; and
(4) the documentation of vessels.
(b) Except for Sundays and holidays, the overtime rate provided under subsection (a) of this section is one-half days additional pay for each 2 hours of overtime (or part of 2 hours of at least one hour). The total extra pay may be not more than 2 and one-half days pay for any one period from 5 p.m. to 8 a.m.
(c) The overtime rate provided under subsection (a) of this section for Sundays and holidays is 2 additional days pay.
(d) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel shall pay the amount of the overtime pay provided under this section to the official designated by regulation. The official shall deposit the amount paid to the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts. Payment to the officer or employee entitled to the pay shall be made from the annual appropriations for salaries and expenses of the Coast Guard.
(e) The overtime pay provided under this section shall be paid if the authorized officers and employees have been ordered to report for duty and have reported, even if services requested were not performed.

46 USC 2112 - Authority to change working hours

In a port at which the customary working hours begin before 8 a.m. or end after 5 p.m., the Secretary may regulate the working hours of the officers and employees referred to in section 2111 of this title so that those hours conform to the prevailing working hours of the port. However
(1) the total period for which overtime pay may be required under section 2111 of this title may not be more than 15 hours between any 2 periods of ordinary working hours on other than Sundays and holidays;
(2) the length of the working day for the officers and employees involved may not be changed; and
(3) the rate of overtime pay may not be changed.

46 USC 2113 - Authority to exempt certain vessels

If the Secretary decides that the application of a provision of part B, C, F, or G of this subtitle is not necessary in performing the mission of the vessel engaged in excursions or an oceanographic research vessel, or not necessary for the safe operation of certain vessels carrying passengers, the Secretary by regulation may
(1) for a vessel, issue a special permit specifying the conditions of operation and equipment;
(2) exempt an oceanographic research vessel from that provision under conditions the Secretary may specify;
(3) establish different operating and equipment requirements for vessels defined in section 2101 (42)(A) of this title;
(4) establish different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for vessels of at least 100 gross tons but less than 300 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title carrying not more than 150 passengers on domestic voyages if the owner of the vessel
(A) makes application for inspection to the Coast Guard within 6 months of the date of enactment of the Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993; and
(B) provides satisfactory documentation that the vessel was chartered at least once within the previous 12 months prior to the date of enactment of that Act; and
(5) establish different structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for former public vessels of the United States of at least 100 gross tons but less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, carrying not more than 150 passengers on domestic voyages, if the owner of the vessel
(A) makes application for inspection to the Coast Guard within 6 months of the date of enactment of the Passenger Vessel Safety Act of 1993; and
(B) provides satisfactory documentation that the vessel was chartered at least once within the previous 12 months prior to the date of enactment of that Act.

46 USC 2114 - Protection of seamen against discrimination

(a) 
(1) A person may not discharge or in any manner discriminate against a seaman because
(A) the seaman in good faith has reported or is about to report to the Coast Guard or other appropriate Federal agency or department that the seaman believes that a violation of a maritime safety law or regulation prescribed under that law or regulation has occurred; or
(B) the seaman has refused to perform duties ordered by the seamans employer because the seaman has a reasonable apprehension or expectation that performing such duties would result in serious injury to the seaman, other seamen, or the public.
(2) The circumstances causing a seamans apprehension of serious injury under paragraph (1)(B) must be of such a nature that a reasonable person, under similar circumstances, would conclude that there is a real danger of an injury or serious impairment of health resulting from the performance of duties as ordered by the seamans employer.
(3) To qualify for protection against the seamans employer under paragraph (1)(B), the employee must have sought from the employer, and been unable to obtain, correction of the unsafe condition.
(b) A seaman discharged or otherwise discriminated against in violation of this section may bring an action in an appropriate district court of the United States. In that action, the court may order any appropriate relief, including
(1) restraining violations of this section;
(2) reinstatement to the seamans former position with back pay;
(3) an award of costs and reasonable attorneys fees to a prevailing plaintiff not exceeding $1,000; and
(4) an award of costs and reasonable attorneys fees to a prevailing employer not exceeding $1,000 if the court finds that a complaint filed under this section is frivolous or has been brought in bad faith.

46 USC 2115 - Civil penalty to enforce alcohol and dangerous drug testing

Any person who fails to implement or conduct, or who otherwise fails to comply with the requirements prescribed by the Secretary for, chemical testing for dangerous drugs or for evidence of alcohol use, as prescribed under this subtitle or a regulation prescribed by the Secretary to carry out the provisions of this subtitle, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 23 - OPERATION OF VESSELS GENERALLY

46 USC 2301 - Application

Except as provided in sections 2304 and 2306 of this title, this chapter applies to a vessel operated on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States (including the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation No. 5928 of December 27, 1988) and, for a vessel owned in the United States, on the high seas.

46 USC 2302 - Penalties for negligent operations and interfering with safe operation

(a) A person operating a vessel in a negligent manner or interfering with the safe operation of a vessel, so as to endanger the life, limb, or property of a person is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 in the case of a recreational vessel, or $25,000 in the case of any other vessel.
(b) A person operating a vessel in a grossly negligent manner that endangers the life, limb, or property of a person commits a class A misdemeanor.
(c) An individual who is under the influence of alcohol, or a dangerous drug in violation of a law of the United States when operating a vessel, as determined under standards prescribed by the Secretary by regulation
(1) is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000; or
(2) commits a class A misdemeanor.
(d) For a penalty imposed under this section, the vessel also is liable in rem unless the vessel is
(1) owned by a State or a political subdivision of a State;
(2) operated principally for governmental purposes; and
(3) identified clearly as a vessel of that State or subdivision.
(e) 
(1) A vessel may not transport Government-impelled cargoes if
(A) the vessel has been detained and determined to be substandard by the Secretary for violation of an international safety convention to which the United States is a party, and the Secretary has published notice of that detention and determination in an electronic form, including the name of the owner of the vessel; or
(B) the operator of the vessel has on more than one occasion had a vessel detained and determined to be substandard by the Secretary for violation of an international safety convention to which the United States is a party, and the Secretary has published notice of that detention and determination in an electronic form, including the name of the owner of the vessel.
(2) The prohibition in paragraph (1) expires for a vessel on the earlier of
(A) 1 year after the date of the publication in electronic form on which the prohibition is based; or
(B) any date on which the owner or operator of the vessel prevails in an appeal of the violation of the relevant international convention on which the detention is based.
(3) As used in this subsection, the term Government-impelled cargo means cargo for which a Federal agency contracts directly for shipping by water or for which (or the freight of which) a Federal agency provides financing, including financing by grant, loan, or loan guarantee, resulting in shipment of the cargo by water.

46 USC 2303 - Duties related to marine casualty assistance and information

(a) The master or individual in charge of a vessel involved in a marine casualty shall
(1) render necessary assistance to each individual affected to save that affected individual from danger caused by the marine casualty, so far as the master or individual in charge can do so without serious danger to the masters or individuals vessel or to individuals on board; and
(2) give the masters or individuals name and address and identification of the vessel to the master or individual in charge of any other vessel involved in the casualty, to any individual injured, and to the owner of any property damaged.
(b) An individual violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned for not more than 2 years. The vessel also is liable in rem to the United States Government for the fine.
(c) An individual complying with subsection (a) of this section or gratuitously and in good faith rendering assistance at the scene of a marine casualty without objection by an individual assisted, is not liable for damages as a result of rendering assistance or for an act or omission in providing or arranging salvage, towage, medical treatment, or other assistance when the individual acts as an ordinary, reasonable, and prudent individual would have acted under the circumstances.

46 USC 2303a - Post serious marine casualty alcohol testing

(a) The Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that after a serious marine casualty occurs, alcohol testing of crew members or other persons responsible for the operation or other safety-sensitive functions of the vessel or vessels involved in such casualty is conducted no later than 2 hours after the casualty occurs, unless such testing cannot be completed within that time due to safety concerns directly related to the casualty.
(b) The procedures in subsection (a) shall require that if alcohol testing cannot be completed within 2 hours of the occurrence of the casualty, such testing shall be conducted as soon thereafter as the safety concerns in subsection (a) have been adequately addressed to permit such testing, except that such testing may not be required more than 8 hours after the casualty occurs.

46 USC 2304 - Duty to provide assistance at sea

(a) 
(1) A master or individual in charge of a vessel shall render assistance to any individual found at sea in danger of being lost, so far as the master or individual in charge can do so without serious danger to the masters or individuals vessel or individuals on board.
(2) Paragraph (1) does not apply to a vessel of war or a vessel owned by the United States Government appropriated only to a public service.
(b) A master or individual violating this section shall be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both.

46 USC 2305 - Injunctions

(a) The district courts of the United States have jurisdiction to enjoin the negligent operation of vessels prohibited by this chapter on the petition of the Attorney General for the United States Government.
(b) When practicable, the Secretary shall
(1) give notice to any person against whom an action for injunctive relief is considered under this section an opportunity to present that persons views; and
(2) except for a knowing and willful violation, give the person a reasonable opportunity to achieve compliance.
(c) The failure to give notice and opportunity to present views under subsection (b) of this section does not preclude the court from granting appropriate relief.

46 USC 2306 - Vessel reporting requirements

(a) 
(1) An owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent of a vessel of the United States, having reason to believe (because of lack of communication with or nonappearance of a vessel or any other incident) that the vessel may have been lost or imperiled, immediately shall
(A) notify the Coast Guard; and
(B) use all available means to determine the status of the vessel.
(2) When more than 48 hours have passed since the owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent of a vessel required to report to the United States Flag Merchant Vessel Location Filing System under authority of section 50113 of this title has received a communication from the vessel, the owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent immediately shall
(A) notify the Coast Guard; and
(B) use all available means to determine the status of the vessel.
(3) A person notifying the Coast Guard under paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection shall provide the name and identification number of the vessel, the names of individuals on board, and other information that may be requested by the Coast Guard. The owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent also shall submit written confirmation to the Coast Guard within 24 hours after nonwritten notification to the Coast Guard under those paragraphs.
(4) An owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent violating this subsection is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day during which the violation occurs.
(b) 
(1) The master of a vessel of the United States required to report to the System shall report to the owner, charterer, managing operator, or agent at least once every 48 hours.
(2) A master violating this subsection is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each day during which the violation occurs.
(c) The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this section.

46 USC 2307 - Limitation of liability for Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service pilots

Any pilot, acting in the course and scope of his or her duties while at a United States Coast Guard Vessel Traffic Service, who provides information, advice, or communication assistance while under the supervision of a Coast Guard officer, member, or employee shall not be liable for damages caused by or related to such assistance unless the acts or omissions of such pilot constitute gross negligence or willful misconduct.

Part B - Inspection and Regulation of Vessels

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 31 - GENERAL

46 USC 3101 - Authority to suspend inspection

When the President decides that the needs of foreign commerce require, the President may suspend a provision of this part for a foreign-built vessel registered as a vessel of the United States on conditions the President may specify.

46 USC 3102 - Immersion suits

(a) The Secretary shall by regulation require immersion suits on vessels designated by the Secretary that operate in the Atlantic Ocean north of 32 degrees North latitude or south of 32 degrees South latitude and in all other waters north of 35 degrees North latitude or south of 35 degrees South latitude. The Secretary may not exclude a vessel from designation under this section only because that vessel carries other lifesaving equipment.
(b) The Secretary shall establish standards for an immersion suit required by this section, including standards to guarantee adequate thermal protection, buoyance, and flotation stability.
(c) 
(1) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(2) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section may be fined not more than $25,000, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.

46 USC 3103 - Use of reports, documents, and records

The Secretary may rely, as evidence of compliance with this subtitle, on
(1) reports, documents, and records of other persons who have been determined by the Secretary to be reliable; and
(2) other methods the Secretary has determined to be reliable.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 32 - MANAGEMENT OF VESSELS

46 USC 3201 - Definitions

In this chapter
(1) International Safety Management Code has the same meaning given that term in chapter IX of the Annex to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974;
(2) responsible person means
(A) the owner of a vessel to which this chapter applies; or
(B) any other person that has
(i) assumed the responsibility for operation of a vessel to which this chapter applies from the owner; and
(ii) agreed to assume with respect to the vessel responsibility for complying with all the requirements of this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter.
(3) vessel engaged on a foreign voyage means a vessel to which this chapter applies
(A) arriving at a place under the jurisdiction of the United States from a place in a foreign country;
(B) making a voyage between places outside the United States; or
(C) departing from a place under the jurisdiction of the United States for a place in a foreign country.

46 USC 3202 - Application

(a) Mandatory Application.— 
This chapter applies to a vessel that
(1) 
(A) is transporting more than 12 passengers described in section 2101 (21)(A) of this title; or
(B) is of at least 500 gross tons as measured under section 14302 of this title and is a tanker, freight vessel, bulk freight vessel, high speed freight vessel, or self-propelled mobile offshore drilling unit; and
(2) 
(A) is engaged on a foreign voyage; or
(B) is a foreign vessel departing from a place under the jurisdiction of the United States on a voyage, any part of which is on the high seas.
(b) Voluntary Application.— 
This chapter applies to a vessel not described in subsection (a) of this section if the owner of the vessel requests the Secretary to apply this chapter to the vessel.
(c) Exception.— 
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this chapter does not apply to
(1) a barge;
(2) a recreational vessel not engaged in commercial service;
(3) a fishing vessel;
(4) a vessel operating on the Great Lakes or its tributary and connecting waters; or
(5) a public vessel.

46 USC 3203 - Safety management system

(a) In General.— 
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which establish a safety management system for responsible persons and vessels to which this chapter applies, including
(1) a safety and environmental protection policy;
(2) instructions and procedures to ensure safe operation of those vessels and protection of the environment in compliance with international and United States law;
(3) defined levels of authority and lines of communications between, and among, personnel on shore and on the vessel;
(4) procedures for reporting accidents and nonconformities with this chapter;
(5) procedures for preparing for and responding to emergency situations; and
(6) procedures for internal audits and management reviews of the system.
(b) Compliance With Code.— 
Regulations prescribed under this section shall be consistent with the International Safety Management Code with respect to vessels to which this chapter applies under section 3202 (a) of this title.

46 USC 3204 - Implementation of safety management system

(a) Safety Management Plan.— 
Each responsible person shall establish and submit to the Secretary for approval a safety management plan describing how that person and vessels of the person to which this chapter applies will comply with the regulations prescribed under section 3203 (a) of this title.
(b) Approval.— 
Upon receipt of a safety management plan submitted under subsection (a), the Secretary shall review the plan and approve it if the Secretary determines that it is consistent with and will assist in implementing the safety management system established under section 3203.
(c) Prohibition on Vessel Operation.— 
A vessel to which this chapter applies under section 3202 (a) may not be operated without having on board a Safety Management Certificate and a copy of a Document of Compliance issued for the vessel under section 3205 of this title.

46 USC 3205 - Certification

(a) Issuance of Certificate and Document.— 
After verifying that the responsible person for a vessel to which this chapter applies and the vessel comply with the applicable requirements under this chapter, the Secretary shall issue for the vessel, on request of the responsible person, a Safety Management Certificate and a Document of Compliance.
(b) Maintenance of Certificate and Document.— 
A Safety Management Certificate and a Document of Compliance issued for a vessel under this section shall be maintained by the responsible person for the vessel as required by the Secretary.
(c) Verification of Compliance.— 
The Secretary shall
(1) periodically review whether a responsible person having a safety management plan approved under section 3204 (b) and each vessel to which the plan applies is complying with the plan; and
(2) revoke the Secretarys approval of the plan and each Safety Management Certificate and Document of Compliance issued to the person for a vessel to which the plan applies, if the Secretary determines that the person or a vessel to which the plan applies has not complied with the plan.
(d) Enforcement.— 
At the request of the Secretary, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall withhold or revoke the clearance required by section 60105 of this title of a vessel that is subject to this chapter under section 3202 (a) of this title or to the International Safety Management Code, if the vessel does not have on board a Safety Management Certificate and a copy of a Document of Compliance for the vessel. Clearance may be granted on filing a bond or other surety satisfactory to the Secretary.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 33 - INSPECTION GENERALLY

46 USC 3301 - Vessels subject to inspection

The following categories of vessels are subject to inspection under this part:
(1) freight vessels.
(2) nautical school vessels.
(3) offshore supply vessels.
(4) passenger vessels.
(5) sailing school vessels.
(6) seagoing barges.
(7) seagoing motor vessels.
(8) small passenger vessels.
(9) steam vessels.
(10) tank vessels.
(11) fish processing vessels.
(12) fish tender vessels.
(13) Great Lakes barges.
(14) oil spill response vessels.
(15) towing vessels.

46 USC 3302 - Exemptions

(a) A vessel is not excluded from one category only because the vessel is
(1) included in another category of section 3301 of this title; or
(2) excluded by this section from another category of section 3301 of this title.
(b) Except as provided in subsection (c)(3) of this section, a fishing vessel, including a vessel chartered part-time as a fish tender vessel, is exempt from section 3301 (1), (7), (11), and (12) of this title.
(c) 
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection, a fish processing vessel of not more than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title is exempt from section 3301 (1), (6), (7), (11), and (12) of this title.
(2) Except as provided in paragraphs (3) and (4) of this subsection, the following fish tender vessels are exempt from section 3301 (1), (6), (7), (11), and (12) of this title:
(A) A vessel of not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title.
(B) A vessel engaged in the Aleutian trade that is not more than 2,500 gross tons as measured under section 14302 of this title.
(3) 
(A) A fishing vessel or fish processing vessel is exempt from section 3301 (1), (6), and (7) of this title when transporting cargo (including fisheries-related cargo) to or from a place in Alaska if
(i) that place does not receive weekly common carrier service by water from a place in the United States;
(ii) that place receives such common carrier service and the cargo is of a type not accepted by that common carrier service; or
(iii) the cargo is proprietary cargo owned by the owner of the vessel or any affiliated entity or subsidiary.
(B) A fish tender vessel of not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or is less than 2,500 gross tons as measured under section 14302 of this title, which is qualified to engage in the Aleutian trade is exempt from section 3301 (1), (6), and (7) of this title when transporting cargo (including fisheries-related cargo) to or from a place in Alaska outside the Aleutian trade geographic area if
(i) that place does not receive weekly common carrier service by water from a place in the United States;
(ii) that place receives such common carrier service and the cargo is of a type not accepted by that common carrier service; or
(iii) the cargo is proprietary cargo owned by the owner of the vessel or any affiliated entity or subsidiary.
(C) In this paragraph, the term proprietary cargo means cargo that
(i) is used by the owner of the vessel or any affiliated entity or subsidiary in activities directly related to fishing or the processing of fish;
(ii) is consumed by employees of the owner of the vessel or any affiliated entity or subsidiary who are engaged in fishing or in the processing of fish; or
(iii) consists of fish or fish products harvested or processed by the owner of the vessel or any affiliated entity or subsidiary.
(D) Notwithstanding the restrictions in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, vessels qualifying under subparagraph (B) may transport cargo (including fishery-related products) from a place in Alaska receiving weekly common carrier service by water to a final destination in Alaska not receiving weekly service by water from common carriers.
(4) A fish tender vessel is exempt from section 3301 (1), (6), and (7) of this title when engaged in the Aleutian trade if the vessel
(A) is not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or is less than 2,500 gross tons as measured under section 14302 of this title;
(B) has an incline test performed by a marine surveyor; and
(C) has written stability instructions posted on board the vessel.
(d) 
(1) A motor vessel of less than 150 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, constructed before August 23, 1958, is not subject to inspection under section 3301 (1) of this title if the vessel is owned or demise chartered to a cooperative or association that only transports cargo owned by at least one of its members on a nonprofit basis between places within the waters of
(A) southeastern Alaska shoreward of the Boundary Line; or
(B) southeastern Alaska shoreward of the Boundary Line and
(i) Prince Rupert, British Columbia; or
(ii) waters of Washington shoreward of the Boundary Line, via sheltered waters, as defined in article I of the treaty dated December 9, 1933, between the United States and Canada defining certain waters as sheltered waters.
(2) The transportation authorized under this subsection is limited to and from places not receiving annual weekly transportation service from any part of the United States by an established water common carrier. However, the limitation does not apply to transporting cargo of a character not accepted for transportation by that carrier.
(e) A vessel laid up, dismantled, or out of commission is exempt from inspection.
(f) Section 3301 (4) and (8) of this title does not apply to an oceanographic research vessel because it is carrying scientific personnel.
(g) 
(1) Except when compliance with major structural or major equipment requirements is necessary to remove an especially hazardous condition, an offshore supply vessel is not subject to regulations or standards for those requirements if the vessel
(A) was operating as an offshore supply vessel before January 2, 1979; or
(B) was contracted for before January 2, 1979, and entered into service as an offshore supply vessel before October 6, 1980.
(2) After December 31, 1988, this subsection does not apply to an offshore supply vessel that is at least 20 years of age.
(h) An offshore supply vessel operating on January 1, 1979, under a certificate of inspection issued by the Secretary, is subject to an inspection standard or requirement only if the standard or requirement could have been prescribed for the vessel under authority existing under law on October 5, 1980.
(i) 
(1) The Secretary may issue a permit exempting a vessel from any part of the requirements of this part for vessels transporting cargo, including bulk fuel, from one place in Alaska to another place in Alaska only if the vessel
(A) is not more than 300 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title;
(B) is in a condition that does not present an immediate threat to the safety of life or the environment; and
(C) was operating in the waters off Alaska as of June 1, 1976, or the vessel is a replacement for a vessel that was operating in the waters off Alaska as of June 1, 1976, if the vessel being replaced is no longer in service.
(2) Except in a situation declared to be an emergency by the Secretary, a vessel operating under a permit may not transport cargo to or from a place if the cargo could be transported by another commercial vessel that is reasonably available and that does not require exemptions to operate legally or if the cargo could be readily transported by overland routes.
(3) A permit may be issued for a specific voyage or for not more than one year. The permit may impose specific requirements about the amount or type of cargo to be carried, manning, the areas or specific routes over which the vessel may operate, or other similar matters. The duration of the permit and restrictions contained in the permit shall be at the sole discretion of the Secretary.
(4) A designated Coast Guard official who has reason to believe that a vessel issued a permit is in a condition or is operated in a manner that creates an immediate threat to the safety of life or the environment or is operated in a manner that is inconsistent with the terms of the permit, may direct the master or individual in charge to take immediate and reasonable steps to safeguard life and the environment, including directing the vessel to a port or other refuge.
(5) If a vessel issued a permit creates an immediate threat to the safety of life or the environment, or is operated in a manner inconsistent with the terms of the permit or the requirements of paragraph (2) of this subsection, the permit may be revoked. The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel issued a permit, that willfully permits the vessel to be operated, or operates, the vessel in a manner inconsistent with the terms of the permit, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000.
(j) Notwithstanding another provision of this chapter, the Secretary is not required to inspect or prescribe regulations for a nautical school vessel of not more than 15 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(1) when used in connection with a course of instruction dealing with any aspect of maritime education or study; and
(2) operated by
(A) the United States Merchant Marine Academy; or
(B) a State maritime academy assisted under chapter 515 of this title.
(k) Only the boiler, engine, and other operating machinery of a steam vessel that is a recreational vessel of not more than 65 feet overall in length are subject to inspection under section 3301 (9) of this title.
(l) 
(1) The Secretary may issue a permit exempting the following vessels from the requirements of this part for passenger vessels so long as the vessels are owned by nonprofit organizations and operated as nonprofit memorials to merchant mariners:
(A) The steamship John W. Brown (United States official number 242209), owned by Project Liberty Ship Baltimore, Incorporated, located in Baltimore, Maryland.
(B) The steamship Lane Victory (United States official number 248094), owned by the United States Merchant Marine Veterans of World War II, located in San Pedro, California.
(C) The steamship Jeremiah OBrien (United States official number 243622), owned by the National Liberty Ship Memorial, Inc.
(D) The SS Red Oak Victory (United States official number 249410), owned by the Richmond Museum Association, located in Richmond, California.
(E) The SS American Victory (United States official number 248005), owned by Victory Ship, Inc., of Tampa, Florida.
(F) The LST325, owned by USS LST Ship Memorial, Incorporated, located in Mobile, Alabama.
(2) The Secretary may issue a permit for a specific voyage or for not more than one year. The Secretary may impose specific requirements about the number of passengers to be carried, manning, the areas or specific routes over which the vessel may operate, or other similar matters.
(3) A designated Coast Guard official who has reason to believe that a vessel operating under this subsection is in a condition or is operated in a manner that creates an immediate threat to life or the environment or is operated in a manner that is inconsistent with this section, may direct the master or individual in charge to take immediate and reasonable steps to safeguard life and the environment, including directing the vessel to a port or other refuge.
(m) A seagoing barge is not subject to inspection under section 3301 (6) of this title if the vessel is unmanned and does not carry
(1) a hazardous material as cargo; or
(2) a flammable or combustible liquid, including oil, in bulk.

46 USC 3303 - Reciprocity for foreign vessels

Except as provided in chapter 37 and section 3505 of this title, a foreign vessel of a country having inspection laws and standards similar to those of the United States and that has an unexpired certificate of inspection issued by proper authority of its respective country, is subject to an inspection to ensure that the condition of the vessel is as stated in its current certificate of inspection. A foreign country is considered to have inspection laws and standards similar to those of the United States when it is a party to an International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea to which the United States Government is currently a party. A foreign certificate of inspection may be accepted as evidence of lawful inspection only when presented by a vessel of a country that has by its laws accorded to vessels of the United States visiting that country the same privileges accorded to vessels of that country visiting the United States.

46 USC 3304 - Transporting individuals in addition to crew

(a) A documented vessel transporting cargo that transports not more than 12 individuals in addition to the crew on international voyages, or not more than 16 individuals in addition to the crew on other voyages, is not subject to inspection as a passenger vessel or a small passenger vessel if the vessel is otherwise subject to inspection under this chapter.
(b) Except when subsection (e) of this section applies, before an individual in addition to the crew is transported on a vessel as permitted by this section, the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel first shall notify the individual of the presence on board of dangerous articles as defined by law, and of other conditions or circumstances that would constitute a risk of safety to the individual on board.
(c) A privilege authorized by this section applies to a vessel of a foreign country that affords a similar privilege to vessels of the United States in trades not restricted to vessels under its own flag.
(d) A fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel that transports not more than 12 individuals employed in the fishing industry in addition to the crew is not subject to inspection as a passenger or small passenger vessel.
(e) The Secretary may by regulation allow individuals in addition to the crew to be transported in an emergency or under section 2304 of this title.

46 USC 3305 - Scope and standards of inspection

(a) 
(1) The inspection process shall ensure that a vessel subject to inspection
(A) is of a structure suitable for the service in which it is to be employed;
(B) is equipped with proper appliances for lifesaving, fire prevention, and firefighting;
(C) has suitable accommodations for the crew, sailing school instructors, and sailing school students, and for passengers on the vessel if authorized to carry passengers;
(D) has an adequate supply of potable water for drinking and washing by passengers and crew;
(E) is in a condition to be operated with safety to life and property; and
(F) complies with applicable marine safety laws and regulations.
(2) In determining the adequacy of the supply of potable water under paragraph (1)(D), the Secretary shall consider
(A) the size and type of vessel;
(B) the number of passengers or crew on board;
(C) the duration and routing of voyages; and
(D) guidelines for potable water recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Public Health Service.
(b) If an inspection, or examination under section 3308 of this title, reveals that a life preserver, lifesaving device, or firehose is defective and incapable of being repaired, the owner or master shall destroy the life preserver, lifesaving device, or firehose in the presence of the official conducting the inspection or examination.
(c) A nautical school vessel operated by a civilian nautical school or by an educational institution under section 558 of title 40 shall be inspected like a small passenger vessel or a passenger vessel, depending on its tonnage.

46 USC 3306 - Regulations

(a) To carry out this part and to secure the safety of individuals and property on board vessels subject to inspection, the Secretary shall prescribe necessary regulations to ensure the proper execution of, and to carry out, this part in the most effective manner for
(1) the design, construction, alteration, repair, and operation of those vessels, including superstructures, hulls, fittings, equipment, appliances, propulsion machinery, auxiliary machinery, boilers, unfired pressure vessels, piping, electric installations, and accommodations for passengers and crew, sailing school instructors, and sailing school students;
(2) lifesaving equipment and its use;
(3) firefighting equipment, its use, and precautionary measures to guard against fire;
(4) inspections and tests related to paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection; and
(5) the use of vessel stores and other supplies of a dangerous nature.
(b) 
(1) Equipment and material subject to regulation under this section may not be used on any vessel without prior approval of the Secretary.
(2) Except with respect to use on a public vessel, the Secretary may treat an approval of equipment or materials by a foreign government as approval by the Secretary for purposes of paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines that
(A) the design standards and testing procedures used by that government meet the requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974;
(B) the approval of the equipment or material by the foreign government will secure the safety of individuals and property on board vessels subject to inspection; and
(C) for lifesaving equipment, the foreign government
(i) has given equivalent treatment to approvals of lifesaving equipment by the Secretary; and
(ii) otherwise ensures that lifesaving equipment approved by the Secretary may be used on vessels that are documented and subject to inspection under the laws of that country.
(c) In prescribing regulations for sailing school vessels, the Secretary shall consult with representatives of the private sector having experience in the operation of vessels likely to be certificated as sailing school vessels. The regulations shall
(1) reflect the specialized nature of sailing school vessel operations, and the character, design, and construction of vessels operating as sailing school vessels; and
(2) include requirements for notice to sailing school instructors and sailing school students about the specialized nature of sailing school vessels and applicable safety regulations.
(d) In prescribing regulations for nautical school vessels operated by the United States Merchant Marine Academy or by a State maritime academy (as defined in section 51102 of this title), the Secretary shall consider the function, purpose, and operation of the vessels, their routes, and the number of individuals who may be carried on the vessels.
(e) When the Secretary finds it in the public interest, the Secretary may suspend or grant exemptions from the requirements of a regulation prescribed under this section related to lifesaving and firefighting equipment, muster lists, ground tackle and hawsers, and bilge systems.
(f) In prescribing regulations for offshore supply vessels, the Secretary shall consider the characteristics, methods of operation, and the nature of the service of offshore supply vessels.
(g) In prescribing regulations for fish processing or fish tender vessels, the Secretary shall consult with representatives of the private sector having experience in the operation of these vessels. The regulations shall reflect the specialized nature and economics of fish processing or fish tender vessel operations and the character, design, and construction of fish processing or fish tender vessels.
(h) The Secretary shall establish appropriate structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for vessels of at least 100 gross tons but less than 300 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title carrying not more than 150 passengers on domestic voyages, which meet the eligibility criteria of section 2113 (4) of this title.
(i) The Secretary shall establish appropriate structural fire protection, manning, operating, and equipment requirements for former public vessels of the United States of at least 100 gross tons but less that 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title carrying not more than 150 passengers on domestic voyages, which meet the eligibility criteria of section 2113 (5) of this title.
(j) The Secretary may establish by regulation a safety management system appropriate for the characteristics, methods of operation, and nature of service of towing vessels.

46 USC 3307 - Frequency of inspection

Each vessel subject to inspection under this part shall undergo an initial inspection for certification before being put into service. After being put into service
(1) each passenger vessel, nautical school vessel, and small passenger vessel allowed to carry more than 12 passengers on a foreign voyage shall be inspected at least once a year; and
(2) any other vessel shall be inspected at least once every 5 years.

46 USC 3308 - Examinations

In addition to inspections required by section 3307 of this title, the Secretary shall examine or have examined
(1) each vessel subject to inspection at proper times to ensure compliance with law and regulations; and
(2) crewmember accommodations on each vessel subject to inspection at least once a month or when the vessel enters United States ports to ensure that the accommodations are
(A) of the size required by law and regulations;
(B) properly ventilated and in a clean and sanitary condition; and
(C) equipped with proper plumbing and mechanical appliances required by law and regulations, and the appliances are in good working condition.

46 USC 3309 - Certificate of inspection

(a) When an inspection under section 3307 of this title has been made and a vessel has been found to be in compliance with the requirements of law and regulations, a certificate of inspection, in a form prescribed by the Secretary, shall be issued to the vessel.
(b) The Secretary may issue a temporary certificate of inspection in place of a regular certificate of inspection issued under subsection (a) of this section.
(c) At least 30 days before the current certificate of inspection issued to a vessel under subsection (a) of this section expires, the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel shall submit to the Secretary in writing a notice that the vessel
(1) will be required to be inspected; or
(2) will not be operated so as to require an inspection.

46 USC 3310 - Records of certification

The Secretary shall keep records of certificates of inspection of vessels and of all acts in the examination and inspection of vessels, whether of approval or disapproval.

46 USC 3311 - Certificate of inspection required

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), a vessel subject to inspection under this part may not be operated without having on board a certificate of inspection issued under section 3309 of this title.
(b) The Secretary may direct the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel subject to inspection under this chapter and not having on board a certificate of inspection
(1) to have the vessel proceed to mooring and remain there until a certificate of inspection is issued;
(2) to take immediate steps necessary for the safety of the vessel, individuals on board the vessel, or the environment; or
(3) to have the vessel proceed to a place to make repairs necessary to obtain a certificate of inspection.

46 USC 3312 - Display of certificate of inspection

The certificate of inspection issued to a vessel under section 3309 of this title shall be displayed, suitably framed, in a conspicuous place on the vessel. When it is not practicable to so display the certificate, it shall be carried in the manner prescribed by regulation.

46 USC 3313 - Compliance with certificate of inspection

(a) During the term of a vessels certificate of inspection, the vessel must be in compliance with its conditions, unless relieved by a suspension or an exemption granted under section 3306 (e) of this title.
(b) When a vessel is not in compliance with its certificate or fails to meet a standard prescribed by this part or a regulation prescribed under this part
(1) the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge shall be ordered in writing to correct the noted deficiencies promptly;
(2) the Secretary may permit any repairs to be made at a place most convenient to the owner, charterer, or managing operator when the Secretary decides the repairs can be made with safety to those on board and the vessel;
(3) the vessel may be required to cease operating at once; and
(4) if necessary, the certificate shall be suspended or revoked.
(c) The vessels certificate of inspection shall be revoked if a condition unsafe to life that is ordered to be corrected under this section is not corrected at once.
(d) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel whose certificate has been suspended or revoked shall be given written notice immediately of the suspension or revocation. The owner or master may appeal to the Secretary the suspension or revocation within 30 days of receiving the notice, as provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

46 USC 3314 - Expiration of certificate of inspection

(a) If the certificate of inspection of a vessel expires when the vessel is on a foreign voyage, the vessel may complete the voyage to a port of the United States within 30 days of the expiration of the certificate without incurring the penalties for operating without a certificate of inspection.
(b) If the certificate of inspection would expire within 15 days of sailing on a foreign voyage from a United States port, the vessel shall secure a new certificate of inspection before sailing, unless the voyage is scheduled to be completed prior to the expiration date of the certificate. If a voyage scheduled to be completed in that time is not so completed, the applicable penalties may be enforced unless the failure to meet the schedule was beyond the control of the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel.
(c) When the certificate of inspection of a foreign vessel carrying passengers, operated on a regularly established line, expires at sea after leaving the country to which it belongs or when the vessel is in the United States, the Secretary may permit the vessel to sail on its regular route without further inspection than would have been required had the certificate not expired. This permission applies only when the vessel will be regularly inspected and issued a certificate before the vessels next return to the United States.

46 USC 3315 - Disclosure of defects and protection of informants

(a) Each individual licensed under part E of this subtitle shall assist in the inspection or examination under this part of the vessel on which the individual is serving, and shall point out defects and imperfections known to the individual in matters subject to regulations and inspection. The individual also shall make known to officials designated to enforce this part, at the earliest opportunity, any marine casualty producing serious injury to the vessel, its equipment, or individuals on the vessel.
(b) An official may not disclose the name of an individual providing information under this section, or the source of the information, to a person except a person authorized by the Secretary. An official violating this subsection is liable to disciplinary action under applicable law.

46 USC 3316 - Classification societies

(a) Each department, agency, and instrumentality of the United States Government shall recognize the American Bureau of Shipping as its agent in classifying vessels owned by the Government and in matters related to classification, as long as the Bureau is maintained as an organization having no capital stock and paying no dividends. The Secretary and the Secretary of Transportation each shall appoint one representative (except when the Secretary is the Secretary of Transportation, in which case the Secretary shall appoint both representatives) who shall represent the Government on the executive committee of the Bureau. The Bureau shall agree that the representatives shall be accepted by it as active members of the committee. The representatives shall serve without compensation, except for necessary traveling expenses.
(b) 
(1) The Secretary may delegate to the American Bureau of Shipping or another classification society recognized by the Secretary as meeting acceptable standards for such a society, for a vessel documented or to be documented under chapter 121 of this title, the authority to
(A) review and approve plans required for issuing a certificate of inspection required by this part;
(B) conduct inspections and examinations; and
(C) issue a certificate of inspection required by this part and other related documents.
(2) The Secretary may make a delegation under paragraph (1) to a foreign classification society only
(A) to the extent that the government of the foreign country in which the society is headquartered delegates authority and provides access to the American Bureau of Shipping to inspect, certify, and provide related services to vessels documented in that country; and
(B) if the foreign classification society has offices and maintains records in the United States.
(3) When an inspection or examination has been delegated under this subsection, the Secretarys delegate
(A) shall maintain in the United States complete files of all information derived from or necessarily connected with the inspection or examination for at least 2 years after the vessel ceases to be certified; and
(B) shall permit access to those files at all reasonable times to any officer, employee, or member of the Coast Guard designated
(i) as a marine inspector and serving in a position as a marine inspector; or
(ii) in writing by the Secretary to have access to those files.
(c) 
(1) A classification society (including an employee or agent of that society) may not review, examine, survey, or certify the construction, repair, or alteration of a vessel in the United States unless
(A) the society has applied for approval under this subsection and the Secretary has reviewed and approved that society with respect to the conduct of that society under paragraph (2); or
(B) the society is a full member of the International Association of Classification Societies.
(2) The Secretary may approve a person for purposes of paragraph (1) only if the Secretary determines that
(A) the vessels surveyed by the person while acting as a classification society have an adequate safety record; and
(B) the person has an adequate program to
(i) develop and implement safety standards for vessels surveyed by the person;
(ii) make the safety records of the person available to the Secretary in an electronic format;
(iii) provide the safety records of a vessel surveyed by the person to any other classification society that requests those records for the purpose of conducting a survey of the vessel; and
(iv) request the safety records of a vessel the person will survey from any classification society that previously surveyed the vessel.

46 USC 3317 - Fees

(a) The Secretary may prescribe by regulation fees for inspecting or examining a small passenger vessel or a sailing school vessel.
(b) When an inspection or examination under this part of a documented vessel or a foreign vessel is conducted at a foreign port or place at the request of the owner or managing operator of the vessel, the owner or operator shall reimburse the Secretary for the travel and subsistence expenses incurred by the personnel assigned to perform the inspection or examination. Amounts received as reimbursement for these expenses shall be credited to the appropriation for operating expenses of the Coast Guard.

46 USC 3318 - Penalties

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel operated in violation of this part or a regulation prescribed under this part, and a person violating a regulation that applies to a small passenger vessel, freight vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, or sailing school vessel, are liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(b) 
(1) A person that knowingly manufactures, sells, offers for sale, or possesses with intent to sell, any equipment subject to this part, and the equipment is so defective as to be insufficient to accomplish the purpose for which it is intended, commits a class D felony.
(2) A person commits a class D felony if the person
(A) alters or services lifesaving, fire safety, or any other equipment subject to this part for compensation; and
(B) by that alteration or servicing, intentionally renders that equipment unsafe and unfit for the purpose for which it is intended.
(c) A person that employs a means or device whereby a boiler may be subjected to a pressure greater than allowed by the terms of the vessels certificate of inspection commits a class D felony.
(d) A person that deranges or hinders the operation of any machinery or device employed on a vessel to denote the state of steam or water in any boiler or to give warning of approaching danger, or permits the water level of any boiler when in operation of a vessel to fall below its prescribed low-water line, commits a class D felony.
(e) A person that alters, defaces, obliterates, removes, or destroys any plans or specifications required by and approved under a regulation prescribed under section 3306 of this title, with intent to deceive or impede any official of the United States in carrying out that officials duties, commits a class A misdemeanor.
(f) A person commits a class D felony if the person
(1) forges or counterfeits with intent to make it appear genuine any mark or stamp prescribed for material to be tested and approved under section 3306 of this title or a regulation prescribed under section 3306;
(2) knowingly uses, affixes, or causes to be used or affixed, any such forged or counterfeited mark or stamp to or on material of any description;
(3) with fraudulent intent, possesses any such mark, stamp, or other device knowing it to be forged or counterfeited; or
(4) with fraudulent intent, marks or causes to be marked with the trademark or name of another, material required to be tested and approved under section 3306 of this title or a regulation prescribed under section 3306.
(g) A person is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000, if the person
(1) interferes with the inspection of a nautical school vessel;
(2) violates a regulation prescribed for a nautical school vessel;
(3) is an owner of a nautical school vessel operated in violation of this part; or
(4) is an officer or member of the board of directors of a school, organization, association, partnership, or corporation owning a nautical school vessel operated in violation of a regulation prescribed for a nautical school vessel.
(h) An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel that fails to give the notice required by section 3304 (b) of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(i) A person violating section 3309 (c) of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000.
(j) 
(1) An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel required to be inspected under this chapter operating the vessel without the certificate of inspection is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 for each day during which the violation occurs, except when the violation involves operation of a vessel of less than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, the penalty is not more than $2,000 for each day during which the violation occurs. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(2) A person is not liable for a penalty under this subsection if
(A) the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel has notified the Secretary under section 3309 (c) of this title;
(B) the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel has complied with all other directions and requirements for obtaining an inspection under this part; and
(C) the Secretary believes that unforeseen circumstances exist so that it is not feasible to conduct a scheduled inspection before the expiration of the certificate of inspection.
(k) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel failing to comply with a direction issued by the Secretary under section 3311 (b) of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 for each day during which the violation occurs. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(l) A person committing an act described by subsections (b)(f) of this section is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. If the violation involves the operation of a vessel, the vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 35 - CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS

46 USC 3501 - Number of passengers

(a) Each certificate of inspection issued to a vessel carrying passengers (except a ferry) shall include a statement on the number of passengers that the vessel is permitted to carry.
(b) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel is liable to a person suing them for carrying more passengers than the number of passengers permitted by the certificate of inspection in an amount equal to
(1) passage money; and
(2) $100 for each passenger in excess of the number of passengers permitted.
(c) An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel that knowingly carries more passengers than the number of passengers permitted by the certificate of inspection also shall be fined not more than $100, imprisoned for not more than 30 days, or both.
(d) The vessel also is liable in rem for a penalty under this section.
(e) An offshore supply vessel may not carry passengers except in an emergency.

46 USC 3502 - List or count of passengers

(a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, master, or individual in charge of the following categories of vessels carrying passengers shall keep a correct list of passengers received and delivered from day to day:
(1) vessels arriving from foreign ports (except at United States Great Lakes ports from Canadian Great Lakes ports).
(2) seagoing vessels in the coastwise trade.
(3) passenger vessels making voyages of more than 300 miles on the Great Lakes except from a Canadian to a United States port.
(b) The master of a vessel carrying passengers (except a vessel listed in subsection (a) of this section) shall keep a correct count of all passengers received and delivered.
(c) Lists and counts required under this section shall be open to the inspection of designated officials of the Coast Guard and the Customs Service at all times. The total number of passengers shall be provided to the Coast Guard when requested.
(d) This section applies to a foreign vessel arriving at a United States port.
(e) The owner, charterer, managing operator, master, or individual in charge of a passenger vessel failing to make a list or count of passengers as required by this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $100. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

46 USC 3503 - Fire-retardant materials

(a) A passenger vessel of the United States having berth or stateroom accommodations for at least 50 passengers shall be granted a certificate of inspection only if the vessel is constructed of fire-retardant materials. Before November 1, 2008, this section does not apply to any vessel in operation before January 1, 1968, and operating only within the Boundary Line.
(b) 
(1) When a vessel is exempted from the fire-retardant standards of this section
(A) the owner or managing operator of the vessel shall notify prospective passengers that the vessel does not comply with applicable fire safety standards due primarily to the wooden construction of passenger berthing areas;
(B) the owner or managing operator of the vessel may not disclaim liability to a passenger for death, injury, or any other loss caused by fire due to the negligence of the owner or managing operator;
(C) the penalties provided in section 3504 (c) of this title apply to a violation of this subsection; and
(D) the owner or managing operator of the vessel shall notify the Coast Guard of structural alterations to the vessel, and with regard to those alterations comply with any noncombustible material requirements that the Coast Guard prescribes for nonpublic spaces. Coast Guard requirements shall be consistent with preservation of the historic integrity of the vessel in areas carrying or accessible to passengers or generally visible to the public.
(2) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations under this subsection on the manner in which prospective passengers are to be notified.

46 USC 3504 - Notification to passengers

(a) A person selling passage on a foreign or domestic passenger vessel having berth or stateroom accommodations for at least 50 passengers and embarking passengers at United States ports for a coastwise or an international voyage shall notify each prospective passenger of the safety standards applicable to the vessel in a manner prescribed by regulation.
(b) All promotional literature or advertising through any medium of communication in the United States offering passage or soliciting passengers for ocean voyages anywhere in the world shall include information similar to the information described in subsection (a) of this section, and shall specify the registry of each vessel named, as a part of the advertisement or description of the voyage. Except for the inclusion of the country of registry of the vessel, this subsection does not apply to voyages by vessels meeting the safety standards described in section 3505 of this title.
(c) A person violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000. If the violation involves the sale of tickets for passage, the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, individual in charge, or any other person involved in each violation also is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $500 for each ticket sold. The vessel on which passage is sold also is liable in rem for a violation of this section or a regulation prescribed under this section.

46 USC 3505 - Prevention of departure

Notwithstanding section 3303 of this title, a foreign vessel carrying a citizen of the United States as a passenger or embarking passengers from a United States port may not depart from a United States port if the Secretary finds that the vessel does not comply with the standards stated in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea to which the United States Government is currently a party.

46 USC 3506 - Copies of laws

A master of a passenger vessel shall keep on board a copy of this subtitle, to be provided by the Secretary at reasonable cost. If the master fails to do so, the master is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $200.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 37 - CARRIAGE OF LIQUID BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES

46 USC 3701 - Definitions

In this chapter
(1) existing, when referring to a type of vessel to which this chapter applies, means a vessel that is not a new vessel.
[(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 100–424, § 8(c)(2), Sept. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 1593.]
(3) new, when referring to a type of vessel to which this chapter applies, means a vessel
(A) for which the building contract is placed after June 1, 1979;
(B) in the absence of a building contract, the keel of which is laid, or which is at a similar stage of construction, after January 1, 1980;
(C) the delivery of which is after June 1, 1982; or
(D) that has undergone a major conversion under a contract made after June 1, 1979, or construction work that began after January 1, 1980, or was completed after June 1, 1982.
(4) person means an individual (even if not a citizen or national of the United States), a corporation, partnership, association, or other entity (even if not organized or existing under the laws of a State), the United States Government, a State or local government, a government of a foreign country, or an entity of one of those governments.

46 USC 3702 - Application

(a) Subject to subsections (b)(e) of this section, this chapter applies to a tank vessel.
(b) This chapter does not apply to a documented vessel that would be subject to this chapter only because of the transfer of fuel from the fuel supply tanks of the vessel to offshore drilling or production facilities in the oil industry if the vessel is
(1) not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title;
(2) not a tanker; and
(3) in the service of oil exploitation.
(c) This chapter does not apply to a fishing or fish tender vessel of not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title when engaged only in the fishing industry.
(d) This chapter does not apply to a fish processing vessel of not more than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title. However, the vessel is subject to regulation by the Secretary when carrying flammable or combustible liquid cargo in bulk.
(e) This chapter does not apply to a foreign vessel on innocent passage on the navigable waters of the United States.
(f) This chapter does not apply to an oil spill response vessel if
(1) the vessel is used only in response-related activities; or
(2) the vessel is
(A) not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title;
(B) designated in its certificate of inspection as an oil spill response vessel; and
(C) engaged in response-related activities.

46 USC 3703 - Regulations

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for the design, construction, alteration, repair, maintenance, operation, equipping, personnel qualification, and manning of vessels to which this chapter applies, that may be necessary for increased protection against hazards to life and property, for navigation and vessel safety, and for enhanced protection of the marine environment. The Secretary may prescribe different regulations applicable to vessels engaged in the domestic trade, and also may prescribe regulations that exceed standards set internationally. Regulations prescribed by the Secretary under this subsection are in addition to regulations prescribed under other laws that may apply to any of those vessels. Regulations prescribed under this subsection shall include requirements about
(1) superstructures, hulls, cargo holds or tanks, fittings, equipment, appliances, propulsion machinery, auxiliary machinery, and boilers;
(2) the handling or stowage of cargo, the manner of handling or stowage of cargo, and the machinery and appliances used in the handling or stowage;
(3) equipment and appliances for lifesaving, fire protection, and prevention and mitigation of damage to the marine environment;
(4) the manning of vessels and the duties, qualifications, and training of the officers and crew;
(5) improvements in vessel maneuvering and stopping ability and other features that reduce the possibility of marine casualties;
(6) the reduction of cargo loss if a marine casualty occurs; and
(7) the reduction or elimination of discharges during ballasting, deballasting, tank cleaning, cargo handling, or other such activity.
(b) In prescribing regulations under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall consider the types and grades of cargo permitted to be on board a tank vessel.
(c) In prescribing regulations under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall establish procedures for consulting with, and receiving and considering the views of
(1) interested departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government;
(2) officials of State and local governments;
(3) representatives of port and harbor authorities and associations;
(4) representatives of environmental groups; and
(5) other interested parties knowledgeable or experienced in dealing with problems involving vessel safety, port and waterways safety, and protection of the marine environment.

46 USC 3703a - Tank vessel construction standards

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a vessel to which this chapter applies shall be equipped with a double hull
(1) if it is constructed or adapted to carry, or carries, oil in bulk as cargo or cargo residue; and
(2) when operating on the waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, including the Exclusive Economic Zone.
(b) This section does not apply to
(1) a vessel used only to respond to a discharge of oil or a hazardous substance;
(2) a vessel of less than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title equipped with a double containment system determined by the Secretary to be as effective as a double hull for the prevention of a discharge of oil;
(3) before January 1, 2015
(A) a vessel unloading oil in bulk at a deepwater port licensed under the Deepwater Port Act of 1974 (33 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.); or
(B) a delivering vessel that is offloading in lightering activities
(i) within a lightering zone established under section 3715 (b)(5) of this title; and
(ii) more than 60 miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured;
(4) a vessel documented under chapter 121 of this title that was equipped with a double hull before August 12, 1992;
(5) a barge of less than 1,500 gross tons (as measured under chapter 145 of this title) carrying refined petroleum product in bulk as cargo in or adjacent to waters of the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Arctic Ocean and waters tributary thereto and in the waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaskan Peninsula west of 155 degrees west longitude; or
(6) a vessel in the National Defense Reserve Fleet pursuant to section 11 of the Merchant Ship Sales Act of 1946 (50 App. U.S.C. 1744).
(c) 
(1) In this subsection, the age of a vessel is determined from the later of the date on which the vessel
(A) is delivered after original construction;
(B) is delivered after completion of a major conversion; or
(C) had its appraised salvage value determined by the Coast Guard and is qualified for documentation as a wrecked vessel under section 12112 of this title.
(2) A vessel of less than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title for which a building contract or contract for major conversion was placed before June 30, 1990, and that is delivered under that contract before January 1, 1994, and a vessel of less than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that had its appraised salvage value determined by the Coast Guard before June 30, 1990, and that qualifies for documentation as a wrecked vessel under section 12112 of this title before January 1, 1994, may not operate in the navigable waters or the Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States after January 1, 2015, unless the vessel is equipped with a double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Secretary to be as effective as a double hull for the prevention of a discharge of oil.
(3) A vessel for which a building contract or contract for major conversion was placed before June 30, 1990, and that is delivered under that contract before January 1, 1994, and a vessel that had its appraised salvage value determined by the Coast Guard before June 30, 1990, and that qualifies for documentation as a wrecked vessel under section 12112 of this title before January 1, 1994, may not operate in the navigable waters or Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States unless equipped with a double hull
(A) in the case of a vessel of at least 5,000 gross tons but less than 15,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(i) after January 1, 1995, if the vessel is 40 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 45 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(ii) after January 1, 1996, if the vessel is 39 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 44 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(iii) after January 1, 1997, if the vessel is 38 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 43 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(iv) after January 1, 1998, if the vessel is 37 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 42 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(v) after January 1, 1999, if the vessel is 36 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 41 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(vi) after January 1, 2000, if the vessel is 35 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 40 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides; and
(vii) after January 1, 2005, if the vessel is 25 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 30 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(B) in the case of a vessel of at least 15,000 gross tons but less than 30,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(i) after January 1, 1995, if the vessel is 40 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 45 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(ii) after January 1, 1996, if the vessel is 38 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 43 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(iii) after January 1, 1997, if the vessel is 36 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 41 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(iv) after January 1, 1998, if the vessel is 34 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 39 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(v) after January 1, 1999, if the vessel is 32 years old or older and has a single hull, or 37 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(vi) after January 1, 2000, if the vessel is 30 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 35 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(vii) after January 1, 2001, if the vessel is 29 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 34 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(viii) after January 1, 2002, if the vessel is 28 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 33 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(ix) after January 1, 2003, if the vessel is 27 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 32 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(x) after January 1, 2004, if the vessel is 26 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 31 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides; and
(xi) after January 1, 2005, if the vessel is 25 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 30 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides; and
(C) in the case of a vessel of at least 30,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title
(i) after January 1, 1995, if the vessel is 28 years old or older and has a single hull, or 33 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(ii) after January 1, 1996, if the vessel is 27 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 32 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(iii) after January 1, 1997, if the vessel is 26 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 31 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(iv) after January 1, 1998, if the vessel is 25 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 30 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides;
(v) after January 1, 1999, if the vessel is 24 years old or older and has a single hull, or 29 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides; and
(vi) after January 1, 2000, if the vessel is 23 years old or older and has a single hull, or is 28 years old or older and has a double bottom or double sides.
(4) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section
(A) a vessel that has a single hull may not operate after January 1, 2010; and
(B) a vessel that has a double bottom or double sides may not operate after January 1, 2015.
(d) The operation of barges described in subsection (b)(5) outside waters described in that subsection shall be on any conditions as the Secretary may require.
(e) 
(1) For the purposes of this section and except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, the gross tonnage of a vessel shall be the gross tonnage that would have been recognized by the Secretary on July 1, 1997, as the tonnage measured under section 14502 of this title, or as an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title.
(2) 
(A) The Secretary may waive the application of paragraph (1) to a tank vessel if
(i) the owner of the tank vessel applies to the Secretary for the waiver before January 1, 1998;
(ii) the Secretary determines that
(I) the owner of the tank vessel has entered into a binding agreement to alter the tank vessel in a shipyard in the United States to reduce the gross tonnage of the tank vessel by converting a portion of the cargo tanks of the tank vessel into protectively located segregated ballast tanks; and
(II) that conversion will result in a significant reduction in the risk of a discharge of oil;
(iii) at least 60 days before the date of the issuance of the waiver, the Secretary
(I) publishes notice that the Secretary has received the application and made the determinations required by clause (ii), including a description of the agreement entered into pursuant to clause (ii)(I); and
(II) provides an opportunity for submission of comments regarding the application; and
(iv) the alterations referred to in clause (ii)(I) are completed before the later of
(I) the date by which the first special survey of the tank vessel is required to be completed after the date of the enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998; or
(II) July 1, 1999.
(B) A waiver under subparagraph (A) shall not be effective after the expiration of the 3-year period beginning on the first date on which the tank vessel would have been prohibited by subsection (c) from operating if the alterations referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii)(I) were not made.
(3) This subsection does not apply to a tank vessel that, before July 1, 1997, had undergone, or was the subject of a contract for, alterations that reduce the gross tonnage of the tank vessel, as shown by reliable evidence acceptable to the Secretary.

46 USC 3704 - Coastwise trade vessels

A segregated ballast tank, a crude oil washing system, or an inert gas system, required by this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter, on a vessel entitled to engage in the coastwise trade under chapter 551 of this title shall be installed in the United States (except the trust territories). A vessel failing to comply with this section may not engage in the coastwise trade.

46 USC 3705 - Crude oil tanker minimum standards

(a) A new crude oil tanker of at least 20,000 deadweight tons shall be equipped with
(1) protectively located segregated ballast tanks;
(2) a crude oil washing system; and
(3) a cargo tank protection system consisting of a fixed deck froth system and a fixed inert gas system.
(b) 
(1) An existing crude oil tanker of at least 40,000 deadweight tons shall be equipped with
(A) segregated ballast tanks; or
(B) a crude oil washing system.
(2) Compliance with paragraph (1) of this subsection may be delayed until June 1, 1985, for any tanker of less than 70,000 deadweight tons that has dedicated clean ballast tanks.
(c) An existing crude oil tanker of at least 20,000 deadweight tons but less than 40,000 deadweight tons, and at least 15 years of age, shall be equipped with segregated ballast tanks or a crude oil washing system before January 2, 1986, or the date on which the tanker reaches 15 years of age, whichever is later.
(d) An existing crude oil tanker of at least 20,000 deadweight tons shall be equipped with an inert gas system. However, for a crude oil tanker of less than 40,000 deadweight tons not fitted with high capacity tank washing machines, the Secretary may grant an exemption if the vessels owner can show clearly that compliance would be unreasonable and impracticable due to the vessels design characteristics.
(e) A crude oil tanker engaged in transferring oil from an offshore oil exploitation or production facility on the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States shall be equipped with segregated ballast tanks, or may operate with dedicated clean ballast tanks or special ballast arrangements. However, the tanker shall comply with other applicable minimum standards of this section.

46 USC 3706 - Product carrier minimum standards

(a) A new product carrier of at least 30,000 deadweight tons shall be equipped with protectively located segregated ballast tanks.
(b) A new product carrier of at least 20,000 deadweight tons shall be equipped with a cargo tank protection system consisting of a fixed deck froth system and a fixed inert gas system or, if the product carrier carries dedicated products incompatible with the cargo tank protection system, an alternate protection system authorized by the Secretary.
(c) An existing product carrier of at least 40,000 deadweight tons shall be equipped with segregated ballast tanks or may operate with dedicated clean ballast tanks.
(d) An existing product carrier of at least 20,000 deadweight tons but less than 40,000 deadweight tons, and at least 15 years of age, shall be equipped with segregated ballast tanks or may operate with dedicated clean ballast tanks before January 2, 1986, or the date on which it reaches 15 years of age, whichever is later.
(e) An existing product carrier of at least 40,000 deadweight tons, or an existing product carrier of at least 20,000 deadweight tons but less than 40,000 deadweight tons that is fitted with high-capacity tank washing machines, shall be equipped with an inert gas system.

46 USC 3707 - Tanker minimum standards

(a) A new tanker of at least 10,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title shall be equipped with
(1) 2 remote steering gear control systems operable separately from the navigating bridge;
(2) the main steering gear control in the steering gear compartment;
(3) means of communications and rudder angle indicators on the navigating bridge, a remote steering gear control station, and the steering gear compartment;
(4) at least 2 identical and adequate power units for the main steering gear;
(5) an alternative and adequate power supply, either from an emergency source of electrical power or from another independent source of power located in the steering gear compartment; and
(6) means of automatic starting and stopping of power units with attendant alarms at all steering stations.
(b) An existing tanker of at least 10,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title shall be equipped with
(1) 2 remote steering gear control systems operable separately from the navigating bridge;
(2) the main steering gear control in the steering gear compartment; and
(3) means of communications and rudder angle indicators on the navigating bridge, a remote steering gear control station, and the steering gear compartment.

46 USC 3708 - Self-propelled tank vessel minimum standards

A self-propelled tank vessel of at least 10,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title shall be equipped with
(1) a dual radar system with short-range and long-range capabilities, each with true-north features;
(2) an electronic relative motion analyzer that is at least functionally equivalent to equipment complying with specifications established by the Secretary of Transportation;
(3) an electronic position-fixing device;
(4) adequate communications equipment;
(5) a sonic depth finder;
(6) a gyrocompass; and
(7) up-to-date charts.

46 USC 3709 - Exemptions

The Secretary may exempt a vessel from the minimum requirements established by sections 3704–3706 of this title for segregated ballast, crude oil washing, and dedicated clean ballast if the Secretary decides that shore-based reception facilities are a preferred method of handling ballast and that adequate facilities are readily available.

46 USC 3710 - Evidence of compliance by vessels of the United States

(a) A vessel of the United States to which this chapter applies that has on board oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or cargo residue must have a certificate of inspection issued under this part, endorsed to indicate that the vessel complies with regulations prescribed under this chapter.
(b) Each certificate endorsed under this section is valid for not more than 5 years and may be renewed as specified by the Secretary. In appropriate circumstances, the Secretary may issue a temporary certificate valid for not more than 30 days. A certificate shall be suspended or revoked if the Secretary finds that the vessel does not comply with the conditions under which the certificate was issued.

46 USC 3711 - Evidence of compliance by foreign vessels

(a) A foreign vessel to which this chapter applies may operate on the navigable waters of the United States, or transfer oil or hazardous material in a port or place under the jurisdiction of the United States, only if the vessel has been issued a certificate of compliance by the Secretary. The Secretary may issue the certificate only after the vessel has been examined and found to be in compliance with this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter. The Secretary may accept any part of a certificate, endorsement, or document, issued by the government of a foreign country under a treaty, convention, or other international agreement to which the United States is a party, as a basis for issuing a certificate of compliance.
(b) A certificate issued under this section is valid for not more than 24 months and may be renewed as specified by the Secretary. In appropriate circumstances, the Secretary may issue a temporary certificate valid for not more than 30 days.
(c) A certificate shall be suspended or revoked if the Secretary finds that the vessel does not comply with the conditions under which the certificate was issued.

46 USC 3712 - Notification of noncompliance

The Secretary shall notify the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel found not to be in compliance with a regulation prescribed under this part and state how compliance may be achieved.

46 USC 3713 - Prohibited acts

(a) A person may not
(1) violate this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter;
(2) refuse to permit any official, authorized by the Secretary to enforce this chapter, to board a vessel or to enter a shore area, place, or premises, under a persons control to make an inspection under this chapter; or
(3) refuse to obey a lawful directive issued under this chapter.
(b) A vessel to which this chapter applies may not
(1) operate on the navigable waters of the United States or use a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States when not in compliance with this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter;
(2) fail to comply with a lawful directive issued under this chapter; or
(3) carry a type or grade of oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or cargo residue unless its certificate is endorsed to allow that carriage.

46 USC 3714 - Inspection and examination

(a) 
(1) The Secretary shall have each vessel to which this chapter applies inspected or examined at least once each year.
(2) Each of those vessels that is more than 10 years of age shall undergo a special and detailed inspection of structural strength and hull integrity as specified by the Secretary.
(3) The Secretary may make contracts for conducting inspections or examinations in the United States and in foreign countries. An inspector conducting an inspection or examination under contract may not issue a certificate of inspection or a certificate of compliance, but the inspector may issue a temporary certificate.
(4) The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation reasonable fees for an inspection or examination conducted under this section outside the United States, or which, when involving a foreign vessel, is conducted under a contract authorized by paragraph (3) of this subsection. The owner, charterer, or managing operator of a vessel inspected or examined by the Secretary is liable for the fees. Amounts received as fees shall be deposited in the Treasury.
(5) The Secretary may allow provisional entry of a vessel to conduct an inspection or examination under this chapter.
(b) Each vessel to which this chapter applies shall have on board those documents the Secretary considers necessary for inspection and enforcement, including documents listing
(1) the type, grade, and approximate quantities of cargo on board;
(2) the shipper and consignee of the cargo;
(3) the places of origin and destination of the vessel; and
(4) the name of an agent in the United States authorized to accept service of legal process.
(c) Each vessel to which this chapter applies that operates in the United States shall have a person designated as authorized to accept service of legal process for the vessel.

46 USC 3715 - Lightering

(a) A vessel may transfer oil or hazardous material in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, when the cargo has been transferred from another vessel on the navigable waters of the United States or in the marine environment, only if
(1) the transfer was conducted consistent with regulations prescribed by the Secretary;
(2) both the delivering and receiving vessels had on board, at the time of transfer, a certificate of inspection or a certificate of compliance, as would have been required under section 3710 or 3711 of this title, had the transfer taken place in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; and[1]
(3) the delivering and the receiving vessel had on board at the time of transfer, a certificate of financial responsibility as would have been required under section 1016 of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, had the transfer taken place in a place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States;
(4) the delivering and the receiving vessel had on board at the time of transfer, evidence that each vessel is operating in compliance with section 311(j) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1321 (j)); and
(5) the delivering and the receiving vessel are operating in compliance with section 3703a of this title.
(b) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to carry out subsection (a) of this section. The regulations shall include provisions on
(1) minimum safe operating conditions, including sea state, wave height, weather, proximity to channels or shipping lanes, and other similar factors;
(2) the prevention of spills;
(3) equipment for responding to a spill;
(4) the prevention of any unreasonable interference with navigation or other reasonable uses of the high seas, as those uses are defined by treaty, convention, or customary international law;
(5) the establishment of lightering zones; and
(6) requirements for communication and prearrival messages.
[1] So in original. The word “and” probably should not appear.

46 USC 3716 - Tank washings

(a) A vessel may not transfer cargo in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States if, before arriving, the vessel has discharged tank washings containing oil or hazardous material in preparation for loading at that port or place in violation of the laws of the United States or in a manner or quantities inconsistent with a treaty to which the United States is a party.
(b) The Secretary shall establish effective control and supervisory measures to carry out this section.

46 USC 3717 - Marine safety information system

(a) The Secretary shall establish a marine safety information system that shall contain information about each vessel to which this chapter applies that operates on the navigable waters of the United States, or that transfers oil or hazardous material in a port or place under the jurisdiction of the United States. In acquiring this information, the Secretary shall make full use of publicly available information. The Secretary may by regulation require the vessel to provide information that the Secretary considers necessary to carry out this subsection, including
(1) the name of each person with an ownership interest in the vessel;
(2) details of compliance with the financial responsibility requirements of applicable laws or regulations;
(3) registration information, including all changes in the name of the vessel;
(4) the history of marine casualties and serious repair problems of the vessel; and
(5) a record of all inspections and examinations of a vessel conducted under section 3714 of this title.
(b) On written request from the Secretary, the head of each department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government shall provide available information that the Secretary considers necessary to confirm the information received under subsection (a) of this section.

46 USC 3718 - Penalties

(a) 
(1) A person violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate violation.
(2) Each vessel to which this chapter applies that is operated in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable in rem for a civil penalty under this subsection.
(b) A person willfully and knowingly violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter commits a class D felony.
(c) Instead of the penalties provided by subsection (b) of this section, a person willfully and knowingly violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter, and using a dangerous weapon, or engaging in conduct that causes bodily injury or fear of imminent bodily injury to an official authorized to enforce this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter, commits a class C felony.
(d) The district courts of the United States have jurisdiction to restrain a violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter.
(e) 
(1) If any owner, operator, or individual in charge of a vessel is liable for any penalty or fine under this section, or if reasonable cause exists to believe that the owner, operator, or individual in charge may be subject to any penalty or fine under this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, upon the request of the Secretary, shall with respect to such vessel refuse or revoke any clearance required by section 60105 of this title.
(2) Clearance or a permit refused or revoked under this subsection may be granted upon filing of a bond or other surety satisfactory to the Secretary.

46 USC 3719 - Reduction of oil spills from single hull non-self-propelled tank vessels

The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Towing Safety Advisory Committee and taking into consideration the characteristics, methods of operation, and the size and nature of service of single hull non-self-propelled tank vessels and towing vessels, prescribe regulations requiring a single hull non-self-propelled tank vessel that operates in the open ocean or coastal waters, or the vessel towing it, to have at least one of the following:
(1) A crew member and an operable anchor on board the tank vessel that together are capable of arresting the tank vessel without additional assistance under reasonably foreseeable sea conditions.
(2) An emergency system on the tank vessel or towing vessel that without additional assistance under reasonably foreseeable sea conditions will allow the tank vessel to be retrieved by the towing vessel if the tow line ruptures.
(3) Any other measure or combination of measures that the Secretary determines will provide protection against grounding of the tank vessel comparable to that provided by the measures described in paragraph (1) or (2).

[CHAPTER 39 - REPEALED]

3901, 3902. Repealed. Pub. L. 107171, title X, 10418(a)(20), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 508]

Section 3901, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 528, related to regulations for accommodations for export animals. Section 3902, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 528, related to penalties.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 41 - UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERALLY

46 USC 4101 - Application

This chapter applies to an uninspected vessel not subject to chapter 45 of this title
(1) on the navigable waters of the United States; or
(2) owned in the United States and operating on the high seas.

46 USC 4102 - Safety equipment

(a) Each uninspected vessel propelled by machinery shall be provided with the number, type, and size of fire extinguishers, capable of promptly and effectively extinguishing burning liquid fuel, that may be prescribed by regulation. The fire extinguishers shall be kept in condition for immediate and effective use and so placed as to be readily accessible.
(b) Each uninspected vessel propelled by machinery shall carry at least one readily accessible life preserver or other lifesaving device, of the type prescribed by regulation, for each individual on board.
(c) Each uninspected vessel shall have the carburetors of each engine of the vessel (except an outboard motor) using gasoline as fuel, equipped with an efficient flame arrestor, backfire trap, or other similar device prescribed by regulation.
(d) Each uninspected vessel using a volatile liquid as fuel shall be provided with the means prescribed by regulation for properly and efficiently ventilating the bilges of the engine and fuel tank compartments, so as to remove any explosive or flammable gases.
(e) Each manned uninspected vessel owned in the United States and operating beyond 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured or beyond three nautical miles from the coastline of the Great Lakes shall be equipped with the number and type of alerting and locating equipment, including emergency position indicating radio beacons, prescribed by the Secretary.
(f) 
(1) The Secretary, in consultation with the Towing Safety Advisory Committee and taking into consideration the characteristics, methods of operation, and nature of service of towing vessels, may require the installation, maintenance, and use of a fire suppression system or other measures to provide adequate assurance that fires on board towing vessels can be suppressed under reasonably foreseeable circumstances.
(2) The Secretary shall require under paragraph (1) the use of a fire suppression system or other measures to provide adequate assurance that a fire on board a towing vessel that is towing a non-self-propelled tank vessel can be suppressed under reasonably foreseeable circumstances.

46 USC 4103 - Exemptions

(a) The Secretary may exempt a vessel from any part of this chapter if, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary (including regulations on special operating conditions), the Secretary finds that
(1) good cause exists for granting an exemption; and
(2) the safety of the vessel and individuals on board will not be adversely affected.
(b) Section 4102 (a) of this title does not apply to a vessel propelled by outboard motors when competing in a race previously arranged and announced or, if the vessel is designed and intended only for racing, when operated incidental to tuning up the vessel and its engines for the race.

46 USC 4104 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101595, title VI, 603(3)(A), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2993]

Section, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 529, required Secretary to prescribe regulations to carry out provisions of this chapter.

46 USC 4105 - Uninspected passenger vessels

(a) Chapter 43 of this title applies to an uninspected passenger vessel.
(b) Within twenty-four months of the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall, by regulation, require certain additional equipment which may include liferafts or other lifesaving equipment, construction standards, or specify additional operating standards for those uninspected passenger vessels defined in section 2101 (42)(A) of this title.

46 USC 4106 - Penalties

If a vessel to which this chapter applies is operated in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter, the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, and individual in charge are each liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 43 - RECREATIONAL VESSELS

46 USC 4301 - Application

(a) This chapter applies to a recreational vessel and associated equipment carried in the vessel on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States (including the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation No. 5928 of December 27, 1988) and, for a vessel owned in the United States, on the high seas.
(b) Except when expressly otherwise provided, this chapter does not apply to a foreign vessel temporarily operating on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(c) Until there is a final judicial decision that they are navigable waters of the United States, the following waters lying entirely in New Hampshire are declared not to be waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States within the meaning of this section: Lake Winnisquam, Lake Winnipesaukee, parts of the Merrimack River, and their tributary and connecting waters.

46 USC 4302 - Regulations

(a) The Secretary may prescribe regulations
(1) establishing minimum safety standards for recreational vessels and associated equipment, and establishing procedures and tests required to measure conformance with those standards, with each standard
(A) meeting the need for recreational vessel safety; and
(B) being stated, insofar as practicable, in terms of performance;
(2) requiring the installation, carrying, or use of associated equipment (including fuel systems, ventilation systems, electrical systems, sound-producing devices, firefighting equipment, lifesaving devices, signaling devices, ground tackle, life- and grab-rails, and navigational equipment) on recreational vessels and classes of recreational vessels subject to this chapter, and prohibiting the installation, carrying, or use of associated equipment that does not conform with safety standards established under this section; and
(3) requiring or permitting the display of seals, labels, plates, insignia, or other devices for certifying or evidencing compliance with safety regulations and standards of the United States Government for recreational vessels and associated equipment.
(b) Each regulation prescribed under this section shall specify an effective date that is not earlier than 180 days from the date the regulation was published, unless the Secretary finds that there exists a recreational vessel safety hazard so critical as to require an earlier effective date. However, this period may not be more than 24 months for cases involving, in the discretion of the Secretary, major product design, retooling, or major changes in the manufacturing process.
(c) In prescribing regulations under this section, the Secretary shall, among other things
(1) consider the need for and the extent to which the regulations will contribute to recreational vessel safety;
(2) consider relevant available recreational vessel safety standards, statistics, and data, including public and private research, development, testing, and evaluation;
(3) not compel substantial alteration of a recreational vessel or item of associated equipment that is in existence, or the construction or manufacture of which is begun before the effective date of the regulation, but subject to that limitation may require compliance or performance, to avoid a substantial risk of personal injury to the public, that the Secretary considers appropriate in relation to the degree of hazard that the compliance will correct; and
(4) consult with the National Boating Safety Advisory Council established under section 13110 of this title about the considerations referred to in clauses (1)(3) of this subsection.
(d) Section 8903 of this title does not apply to a vessel being operated for bona fide dealer demonstrations provided without fee to business invitees. However, if on the basis of substantial evidence, the Secretary decides under this section that requiring vessels so operated to be under the control of licensed individuals is necessary for boating safety, then the Secretary may prescribe regulations requiring the licensing of individuals controlling these vessels in the same manner as provided in chapter 89 of this title for individuals in control of vessels carrying passengers for hire.

46 USC 4303 - Inspection and testing

(a) Subject to regulations, supervision, and reviews that the Secretary may prescribe, the Secretary may delegate to a person, private or public agency, or organization, or to an officer or employee under the supervision of that person or agency, any work, business, or function related to the testing, inspection, and examination necessary for compliance enforcement and for the development of data to enable the Secretary to prescribe regulations under section 4302 of this title.
(b) The Secretary may
(1) conduct research, testing, and development necessary to carry out this chapter, including the procurement by negotiation or otherwise of experimental and other recreational vessels or associated equipment for research and testing purposes; and
(2) subsequently sell those vessels.

46 USC 4304 - Importation of nonconforming vessels and equipment

The Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury may authorize by joint regulations the importation of any nonconforming recreational vessel or associated equipment on conditions, including providing a bond, that will ensure that the recreational vessel or associated equipment will be brought into conformity with applicable safety regulations and standards of the Government before the vessel or equipment is operated on waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

46 USC 4305 - Exemptions

If the Secretary considers that recreational vessel safety will not be adversely affected, the Secretary may issue an exemption from this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter.

46 USC 4306 - Federal preemption

Unless permitted by the Secretary under section 4305 of this title, a State or political subdivision of a State may not establish, continue in effect, or enforce a law or regulation establishing a recreational vessel or associated equipment performance or other safety standard or imposing a requirement for associated equipment (except insofar as the State or political subdivision may, in the absence of the Secretarys disapproval, regulate the carrying or use of marine safety articles to meet uniquely hazardous conditions or circumstances within the State) that is not identical to a regulation prescribed under section 4302 of this title.

46 USC 4307 - Prohibited acts

(a) A person may not
(1) manufacture, construct, assemble, sell or offer for sale, introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce, or import into the United States, a recreational vessel, associated equipment, or component of the vessel or equipment unless
(A) 
(i) it conforms with this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter; and
(ii) it does not contain a defect which has been identified, in any communication to such person by the Secretary or the manufacturer of that vessel, equipment or component, as creating a substantial risk of personal injury to the public; or
(B) it is intended only for export and is so labeled, tagged, or marked on the recreational vessel or equipment, including any markings on the outside of the container in which it is to be exported;
(2) affix, attach, or display a seal, document, label, plate, insignia, or other device indicating or suggesting compliance with standards of the United States Government on, in, or in connection with, a recreational vessel or item of associated equipment that is false or misleading; or
(3) fail to provide a notification as required by this chapter or fail to exercise reasonable diligence in carrying out the notification and reporting requirements of this chapter.
(b) A person may not operate a vessel in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter.

46 USC 4308 - Termination of unsafe operation

If an official charged with the enforcement of this chapter observes a recreational vessel being operated without sufficient lifesaving or firefighting devices or in an overloaded or other unsafe condition (as defined in regulations prescribed under this chapter) and, in the judgment of the official, the operation creates an especially hazardous condition, the official may direct the individual in charge of the recreational vessel to take immediate and reasonable steps necessary for the safety of individuals on board the vessel, including directing the individual in charge to return to a mooring and to remain there until the situation creating the hazard is corrected or ended.

46 USC 4309 - Investigation and reporting

(a) A recreational vessel manufacturer to whom this chapter applies shall establish and maintain records and reports and provide information the Secretary may require to enable the Secretary to decide whether the manufacturer has acted or is acting in compliance with this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter. On request of an officer, employee, or agent authorized by the Secretary, a recreational vessel manufacturer shall permit the officer, employee, or agent to inspect, at reasonable times, factories or other facilities, and records related to deciding whether the manufacturer has acted or is acting in compliance with this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter.
(b) Information reported to or otherwise obtained by the Secretary or the representative of the Secretary under this section containing or related to a trade secret or other matter referred to in section 1905 of title 18, or authorized to be exempt from public disclosure by section 552 (b) of title 5, is confidential under section 1905. However, on approval of the Secretary, the information may be disclosed to other officers, employees, or agents concerned with carrying out this chapter or when it is relevant in a proceeding under this chapter.

46 USC 4310 - Repair and replacement of defects

(a) In this section, associated equipment includes only items or classes of associated equipment that the Secretary shall prescribe by regulation after deciding that the application of the requirements of this section to those items or classes of associated equipment is reasonable and in furtherance of this chapter.
(b) If a recreational vessel or associated equipment has left the place of manufacture and the recreational vessel manufacturer discovers or acquires information that the manufacturer decides, in the exercise of reasonable and prudent judgment, indicates that a recreational vessel or associated equipment subject to an applicable regulation prescribed under section 4302 of this title either fails to comply with the regulation, or contains a defect that creates a substantial risk of personal injury to the public, the manufacturer shall provide notification of the defect or failure of compliance as provided by subsections (c) and (d) of this section within a reasonable time after the manufacturer has discovered the defect.
(c) 
(1) The notification required by subsection (b) of this section shall be given to the following persons in the following manner:
(A) by first class mail or by certified mail to the first purchaser for other than resale, except that the requirement for notification of the first purchaser shall be satisfied if the recreational vessel manufacturer exercises reasonable diligence in establishing and maintaining a list of those purchasers and their current addresses, and sends the required notice to each person on that list at the address appearing on the list.
(B) by first class mail or by certified mail to subsequent purchasers if known to the manufacturer.
(C) by first class mail or by certified mail or other more expeditious means to the dealers and distributors of the recreational vessels or associated equipment.
(2) The notification required by subsection (b) of this section is required to be given only for a defect or failure of compliance discovered by the recreational vessel manufacturer within a reasonable time after the manufacturer has discovered the defect or failure, except that the manufacturers duty of notification under paragraph (1)(A) and (B) of this subsection applies only to a defect or failure of compliance discovered by the manufacturer within one of the following appropriate periods:
(A) if a recreational vessel or associated equipment required by regulation to have a date of certification affixed, 10 years from the date of certification.
(B) if a recreational vessel or associated equipment not required by regulation to have a date of certification affixed, 10 years from the date of manufacture.
(d) The notification required by subsection (b) of this section shall contain a clear description of the defect or failure to comply, an evaluation of the hazard reasonably related to the defect or failure, a statement of the measures to correct the defect or failure, and an undertaking by the recreational vessel manufacturer to take those measures only at the manufacturers cost and expense.
(e) Each recreational vessel manufacturer shall provide the Secretary with a copy of all notices, bulletins, and other communications to dealers and distributors of that manufacturer, and to purchasers of recreational vessels or associated equipment of that manufacturer, about a defect related to safety in the recreational vessels or associated equipment, and any failure to comply with the regulation or order applicable to the recreational vessels or associated equipment. The Secretary may publish or otherwise disclose to the public information in the notices or other information the Secretary has that the Secretary considers will assist in carrying out this chapter. However, the Secretary may disclose any information that contains or relates to a trade secret only if the Secretary decides that the information is necessary to carry out this chapter.
(f) If, through testing, inspection, investigation, or examination of reports, the Secretary decides that a recreational vessel or associated equipment to which this chapter applies contains a defect related to safety or fails to comply with an applicable regulation prescribed under this chapter and notification under this chapter is appropriate, the Secretary shall notify the recreational vessel manufacturer of the defect or failure. The notice shall contain the findings of the Secretary and shall include a synopsis of the information on which they are based. The manufacturer may then provide the notification required by this chapter to the persons designated in this chapter or dispute the Secretarys decision. If disputed, the Secretary shall provide the manufacturer with an opportunity to present views and establish that there is no such defect or failure. When the Secretary considers it to be in the public interest, the Secretary may publish notice of the proceeding in the Federal Register and provide interested persons, including the National Boating Safety Advisory Council, with an opportunity to comment. If, after presentation by the manufacturer, the Secretary decides that the recreational vessel or associated equipment contains a defect related to safety or fails to comply with an applicable regulation, the Secretary may direct the manufacturer to provide the notifications specified in this chapter.
(g) The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this section, including the establishment of procedures that require dealers and distributors to assist manufacturers in obtaining information required by this section. A regulation prescribed under this subsection does not relieve a manufacturer of any obligation imposed by this section.

46 USC 4311 - Penalties and injunctions

(a) A person willfully operating a recreational vessel in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.
(b) 
(1) A person violating section 4307 (a) of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000, except that the maximum civil penalty may be not more than $250,000 for a related series of violations.
(2) If the Secretary decides under section 4310 (f) that a recreational vessel or associated equipment contains a defect related to safety or fails to comply with an applicable regulation and directs the manufacturer to provide the notifications specified in this chapter, any person, including a director, officer or executive employee of a corporation, who knowingly and willfully fails to comply with that order, may be fined not more than $10,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.
(3) When a corporation violates section 4307 (a), or fails to comply with the Secretarys decision under section 4310 (f), any director, officer, or executive employee of the corporation who knowingly and willfully ordered, or knowingly and willfully authorized, a violation is individually liable to the Government for a penalty under paragraphs (1) or (2) in addition to the corporation. However, the director, officer, or executive employee is not liable individually under this subsection if the director, officer, or executive employee can demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that
(A) the order or authorization was issued on the basis of a decision, in exercising reasonable and prudent judgment, that the defect or the nonconformity with standards and regulations constituting the violation would not cause or constitute a substantial risk of personal injury to the public; and
(B) at the time of the order or authorization, the director, officer, or executive employee advised the Secretary in writing of acting under this subparagraph and subparagraph (A).
(c) A person violating any other provision of this chapter or other regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000. If the violation involves the operation of a vessel, the vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(d) When a civil penalty of not more than $200 has been assessed under this chapter, the Secretary may refer the matter of collection of the penalty directly to the United States magistrate judge of the jurisdiction in which the person liable may be found for collection procedures under supervision of the district court and under an order issued by the court delegating this authority under section 636 (b) of title 28.
(e) The district courts of the United States have jurisdiction to restrain a violation of this chapter, or to restrain the sale, offer for sale, introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce, or importation into the United States, of a recreational vessel or associated equipment that the court decides does not conform to safety standards of the Government. A civil action under this subsection shall be brought by filing a petition by the Attorney General for the Government. When practicable, the Secretary shall give notice to a person against whom an action for injunctive relief is contemplated and provide the person with an opportunity to present views and, except for a knowing and willful violation, shall provide the person with a reasonable opportunity to achieve compliance. The failure to give notice and provide the opportunity does not preclude the granting of appropriate relief by the district court.
(f) A person is not subject to a penalty under this chapter if the person
(1) establishes that the person did not have reason to know, in exercising reasonable care, that a recreational vessel or associated equipment does not conform with the applicable safety standards of the Government or that the person was not advised by the Secretary or the manufacturer of that vessel, equipment or component that the vessel, equipment or component contains a defect which creates a substantial risk of personal injury to the public; or
(2) holds a certificate issued by the manufacturer of that recreational vessel or associated equipment to the effect that the recreational vessel or associated equipment conforms to all applicable recreational vessel safety standards of the Government, unless the person knows or reasonably should have known that the recreational vessel or associated equipment does not so conform.
(g) Compliance with this chapter or standards, regulations, or orders prescribed under this chapter does not relieve a person from liability at common law or under State law.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 45 - UNINSPECTED COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS

46 USC 4501 - Application

(a) This chapter applies to an uninspected vessel which is a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel.
(b) This chapter does not apply to the carriage of bulk dangerous cargoes regulated under chapter 37 of this title.

46 USC 4502 - Safety standards

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which require that each vessel to which this chapter applies shall be equipped with
(1) readily accessible fire extinguishers capable of promptly and effectively extinguishing a flammable or combustible liquid fuel fire;
(2) at least one readily accessible life preserver or other lifesaving device for each individual on board;
(3) an efficient flame arrestor, backfire trap, or other similar device on the carburetors of each inboard engine which uses gasoline as fuel;
(4) the means to properly and efficiently ventilate enclosed spaces, including engine and fuel tank compartments, so as to remove explosive or flammable gases;
(5) visual distress signals;
(6) a buoyant apparatus, if the vessel is of a type required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary to be equipped with that apparatus;
(7) alerting and locating equipment, including emergency position indicating radio beacons, on vessels that operate beyond 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured, and which are owned in the United States or beyond 3 nautical miles from the coastline of the Great Lakes; and
(8) a placard as required by regulations prescribed under section 10603 (b) of this title.
(b) 
(1) In addition to the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring the installation, maintenance, and use of the equipment in paragraph (2) of this subsection for documented vessels to which this chapter applies that
(A) operate beyond the Boundary Line;
(B) operate with more than 16 individuals on board; or
(C) in the case of a fish tender vessel, engage in the Aleutian trade.
(2) The equipment to be required is as follows:
(A) alerting and locating equipment, including emergency position indicating radio beacons;
(B) lifeboats or liferafts sufficient to accommodate all individuals on board;
(C) at least one readily accessible immersion suit for each individual on board that vessel when operating on the waters described in section 3102 of this title;
(D) radio communications equipment sufficient to effectively communicate with land-based search and rescue facilities;
(E) navigation equipment, including compasses, radar reflectors, nautical charts, and anchors;
(F) first aid equipment, including medicine chests; and
(G) other equipment required to minimize the risk of injury to the crew during vessel operations, if the Secretary determines that a risk of serious injury exists that can be eliminated or mitigated by that equipment.
(c) 
(1) In addition to the requirements described in subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the Secretary may prescribe regulations establishing the standards in paragraph (2) of this subsection for vessels to which this chapter applies that
(A) 
(i) were built after December 31, 1988, or undergo a major conversion completed after that date; and
(ii) operate with more than 16 individuals on board; or
(B) in the case of a fish tender vessel, engage in the Aleutian trade.
(2) The standards shall be minimum safety standards, including standards relating to
(A) navigation equipment, including radars and fathometers;
(B) lifesaving equipment, immersion suits, signaling devices, bilge pumps, bilge alarms, life rails, and grab rails;
(C) fire protection and firefighting equipment, including fire alarms and portable and semiportable fire extinguishing equipment;
(D) use and installation of insulation material;
(E) storage methods for flammable or combustible material; and
(F) fuel, ventilation, and electrical systems.
(d) 
(1) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for the operating stability of a vessel to which this chapter applies
(A) that was built after December 31, 1989; or
(B) the physical characteristics of which are substantially altered after December 31, 1989, in a manner that affects the vessels operating stability.
(2) The Secretary may accept, as evidence of compliance with this subsection, a certification of compliance issued by the person providing insurance for the vessel or by another qualified person approved by the Secretary.
(e) In prescribing regulations under this chapter, the Secretary
(1) shall consider the specialized nature and economics of the operations and the character, design, and construction of the vessel; and
(2) may not require the alteration of a vessel or associated equipment that was constructed or manufactured before the effective date of the regulation.
(f) To ensure compliance with the requirements of this chapter, at least once every 2 years the Secretary shall examine
(1) a fish processing vessel; and
(2) a fish tender vessel engaged in the Aleutian trade.

46 USC 4503 - Fish processing vessel certification

(a) A fish processing vessel to which this section applies may not be operated unless the vessel
(1) meets all survey and classification requirements prescribed by the American Bureau of Shipping or another similarly qualified organization approved by the Secretary; and
(2) has on board a certificate issued by the American Bureau of Shipping or that other organization evidencing compliance with this subsection.
(b) This section applies to a fish processing vessel to which this chapter applies that
(1) is built after July 27, 1990; or
(2) undergoes a major conversion completed after that date.

46 USC 4504 - Prohibited acts

A person may not operate a vessel in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter.

46 USC 4505 - Termination of unsafe operations

An official authorized to enforce this chapter
(1) may direct the individual in charge of a vessel to which this chapter applies to immediately take reasonable steps necessary for the safety of individuals on board the vessel if the official observes the vessel being operated in an unsafe condition that the official believes creates an especially hazardous condition, including ordering the individual in charge to return the vessel to a mooring and to remain there until the situation creating the hazard is corrected or ended; and
(2) may order the individual in charge of an uninspected fish processing vessel that does not have on board the certificate required under section 4503 (1) of this title to return the vessel to a mooring and to remain there until the vessel is in compliance with that section.

46 USC 4506 - Exemptions

(a) The Secretary may exempt a vessel from any part of this chapter if, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary (including regulations on special operating conditions), the Secretary finds that
(1) good cause exists for granting an exemption; and
(2) the safety of the vessel and those on board will not be adversely affected.
(b) A vessel to which this chapter applies is exempt from section 4502 (b)(2)(B) of this title if it
(1) is less than 36 feet in length; and
(2) is operating
(A) in internal waters of the United States; or
(B) within 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured.

46 USC 4507 - Penalties

(a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, and individual in charge of a vessel to which this chapter applies which is operated in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter may each be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of not more than $5,000. Any vessel with respect to which a penalty is assessed under this subsection is liable in rem for the penalty.
(b) A person willfully violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

46 USC 4508 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee

(a) The Secretary shall establish a Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee. The Committee
(1) may advise, consult with, report to, and make recommendations to the Secretary on matters relating to the safe operation of vessels to which this chapter applies, including navigation safety, safety equipment and procedures, marine insurance, vessel design, construction, maintenance and operation, and personnel qualifications and training;
(2) may review proposed regulations under this chapter;
(3) may make available to Congress any information, advice, and recommendations that the Committee is authorized to give to the Secretary; and
(4) shall meet at the call of the Secretary, who shall call such a meeting at least once during each calendar year.
(b) 
(1) The Committee shall consist of seventeen members with particular expertise, knowledge, and experience regarding the commercial fishing industry as follows:
(A) ten members from the commercial fishing industry who
(i) reflect a regional and representational balance; and
(ii) have experience in the operation of vessels to which this chapter applies or as a crew member or processing line worker on an uninspected fish processing vessel;
(B) three members from the general public, including, whenever possible, an independent expert or consultant in maritime safety and a member of a national organization composed of persons representing owners of vessels to which this chapter applies and persons representing the marine insurance industry;
(C) one member representing each of
(i) naval architects or marine surveyors;
(ii) manufacturers of equipment for vessels to which this chapter applies;
(iii) education or training professionals related to fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel safety or personnel qualifications; and
(iv) underwriters that insure vessels to which this chapter applies.
(2) At least once each year, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation in coastal areas soliciting nominations for membership on the Committee, and, after timely notice is published, appoint the members of the Committee. An individual may be appointed to a term as a member of the Committee more than once. The Secretary may not seek or use information concerning the political affiliation of individuals in making appointments to the Committee.
(3) 
(A) A member of the Committee shall serve a term of three years.
(B) If a vacancy occurs in the membership of the Committee, the Secretary shall appoint a member to fill the remainder of the vacated term.
(4) The Committee shall elect one of its members as the Chairman and one of its members as the Vice Chairman. The Vice Chairman shall act as Chairman in the absence or incapacity of, or in the event of a vacancy in the office of, the Chairman.
(5) The Secretary shall, and any other interested agency may, designate a representative to participate as an observer with the Committee. These representatives shall, as appropriate, report to and advise the Committee on matters relating to vessels to which this chapter applies which are under the jurisdiction of their respective agencies. The Secretarys designated representative shall act as executive secretary for the Committee and perform the duties set forth in section 10(c) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.).
(c) 
(1) The Secretary shall, whenever practicable, consult with the Committee before taking any significant action relating to the safe operation of vessels to which this chapter applies.
(2) The Secretary shall consider the information, advice, and recommendations of the Committee in consulting with other agencies and the public or in formulating policy regarding the safe operation of vessels to which this chapter applies.
(d) 
(1) A member of the Committee who is not an officer or employee of the United States or a member of the Armed Forces, when attending meetings of the Committee or when otherwise engaged in the business of the Committee, is entitled to receive
(A) compensation at a rate fixed by the Secretary, not exceeding the daily equivalent of the current rate of basic pay in effect for GS18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5 including travel time; and
(B) travel or transportation expenses under section 5703 of title 5.
(2) Payments under this section do not render a member of the Committee an officer or employee of the United States or a member of the Armed Forces for any purpose.
(3) A member of the Committee who is an officer or employee of the United States or a member of the Armed Forces may not receive additional pay based on the members service to the Committee.
(4) The provisions of this section relating to an officer or employee of the United States or a member of the Armed Forces do not apply to a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces unless that member is in an active status.
(e) 
(1) The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.) applies to the Committee, except that the Committee terminates on September 30, 2010.
(2) Two years prior to the termination date referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Committee shall submit to Congress its recommendation regarding whether the Committee should be renewed and continued beyond the termination date.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 47 - ABANDONMENT OF BARGES

46 USC 4701 - Definitions

In this chapter
(1) abandon means to moor, strand, wreck, sink, or leave a barge of more than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title unattended for longer than forty-five days.
(2) barge removal contractor means a person that enters into a contract with the United States to remove an abandoned barge under this chapter.
(3) navigable waters of the United States means waters of the United States, including the territorial sea.
(4) removal or remove means relocation, sale, scrapping, or other method of disposal.

46 USC 4702 - Abandonment of barge prohibited

An owner or operator of a barge may not abandon it on the navigable waters of the United States. A barge is deemed not to be abandoned if
(1) it is located at a Federally- or State-approved mooring area;
(2) it is on private property with the permission of the owner of the property; or
(3) the owner or operator notifies the Secretary that the barge is not abandoned and the location of the barge.

46 USC 4703 - Penalty for unlawful abandonment of barge

Thirty days after the notification procedures under section 4704 (a)(1) are completed, the Secretary may assess a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each day of the violation against an owner or operator that violates section 4702. A vessel with respect to which a penalty is assessed under this chapter is liable in rem for the penalty.

46 USC 4704 - Removal of abandoned barges

(a) 
(1) The Secretary may remove a barge that is abandoned after complying with the following procedures:
(A) If the identity of the owner or operator can be determined, the Secretary shall notify the owner or operator by certified mail
(i) that if the barge is not removed it will be removed at the owners or operators expense; and
(ii) of the penalty under section 4703.
(B) If the identity of the owner or operator cannot be determined, the Secretary shall publish an announcement in
(i) a notice to mariners; and
(ii) an official journal of the county in which the barge is located that if the barge is not removed it will be removed at the owners or operators expense.
(2) The United States, and any officer or employee of the United States is not liable to an owner or operator for damages resulting from removal of an abandoned barge under this chapter.
(b) The owner or operator of an abandoned barge is liable, and an abandoned barge is liable in rem, for all expenses that the United States incurs in removing an abandoned barge under this chapter.
(c) 
(1) The Secretary may, after providing notice under subsection (a)(1), solicit by public advertisement sealed bids for the removal of an abandoned barge.
(2) After solicitation under paragraph (1) the Secretary may award a contract. The contract
(A) may be subject to the condition that the barge and all property on the barge is the property of the barge removal contractor; and
(B) must require the barge removal contractor to submit to the Secretary a plan for the removal.
(3) Removal of an abandoned barge may begin thirty days after the Secretary completes the procedures under subsection (a)(1).

46 USC 4705 - Liability of barge removal contractors

(a) A barge removal contractor and its subcontractor are not liable for damages that result from actions taken or omitted to be taken in the course of removing a barge under this chapter.
(b) Subsection (a) does not apply
(1) with respect to personal injury or wrongful death; or
(2) if the contractor or subcontractor is grossly negligent or engages in willful misconduct.

Part C - Load Lines of Vessels

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 51 - LOAD LINES

46 USC 5101 - Definitions

In this chapter
(1) domestic voyage means movement of a vessel between places in, or subject to the jurisdiction of, the United States, except movement between
(A) a place in a territory or possession of the United States or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; and
(B) a place outside that territory, possession, or Trust Territory.
(2) economic benefit of the overloading means the amount obtained by multiplying the weight of the overload (in tons) by the lesser of
(A) the average freight rate value of a ton of the vessels cargo for the voyage; or
(B) $50.
(3) existing vessel means
(A) a vessel on a domestic voyage, the keel of which was laid, or that was at a similar stage of construction, before January 1, 1986; and
(B) a vessel on a foreign voyage, the keel of which was laid, or that was at a similar stage of construction, before July 21, 1968.
(4) freeboard means the distance from the mark of the load line assigned under this chapter to the freeboard deck.
(5) freeboard deck means the deck or other structure the Secretary prescribes by regulation.
(6) minimum safe freeboard means the freeboard that the Secretary decides cannot be reduced safely without limiting the operation of the vessel.
(7) weight of the overload means the amount obtained by multiplying the number of inches that the vessel is submerged below the applicable assigned freeboard by the tons-an-inch immersion factor for the vessel at the assigned minimum safe freeboard.

46 USC 5102 - Application

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this chapter applies to the following:
(1) a vessel of the United States.
(2) a vessel on the navigable waters of the United States.
(3) a vessel
(A) owned by a citizen of the United States or a corporation established by or under the laws of the United States or a State; and
(B) not registered in a foreign country.
(4) a public vessel of the United States.
(5) a vessel otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.
(b) This chapter does not apply to the following:
(1) a vessel of war.
(2) a recreational vessel when operated only for pleasure.
(3) a fishing vessel.
(4) a fish processing vessel of not more than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that
(A) 
(i) was constructed as a fish processing vessel before August 16, 1974; or
(ii) was converted for use as a fish processing vessel before January 1, 1983; and
(B) is not on a foreign voyage.
(5) a fish tender vessel of not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that
(A) 
(i) was constructed, under construction, or under contract to be constructed as a fish tender vessel before January 1, 1980; or
(ii) was converted for use as a fish tender vessel before January 1, 1983; and
(B) 
(i) is not on a foreign voyage; or
(ii) is not engaged in the Aleutian trade (except a vessel in that trade assigned a load line at any time before June 1, 1992).
(6) a vessel of the United States on a domestic voyage that does not cross the Boundary Line, except a voyage on the Great Lakes.
(7) a vessel of less than 24 meters (79 feet) overall in length.
(8) a public vessel of the United States on a domestic voyage.
(9) a vessel excluded from the application of this chapter by an international agreement to which the United States Government is a party.
(10) an existing vessel of not more than 150 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that is on a domestic voyage.
(11) a small passenger vessel on a domestic voyage.
(12) a vessel of the working fleet of the Panama Canal Commission not on a foreign voyage.
(c) On application by the owner and after a survey under section 5105 of this title, the Secretary may assign load lines for a vessel excluded from the application of this chapter under subsection (b) of this section. A vessel assigned load lines under this subsection is subject to this chapter until the surrender of its load line certificate and the removal of its load line marks.
(d) This chapter does not affect an international agreement to which the Government is a party that is not in conflict with the International Convention on Load Lines currently in force for the United States.

46 USC 5103 - Load line requirements

(a) A vessel may be operated only if the vessel has been assigned load lines.
(b) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, and individual in charge of a vessel shall mark and maintain the load lines permanently and conspicuously in the way prescribed by the Secretary.

46 USC 5104 - Assignment of load lines

(a) The Secretary shall assign load lines for a vessel so that they indicate the minimum safe freeboard to which the vessel may be loaded. However, if the owner requests, the Secretary may assign load lines that result in greater freeboard than the minimum safe freeboard.
(b) In assigning load lines for a vessel, the Secretary shall consider
(1) the service, type, and character of the vessel;
(2) the geographic area in which the vessel will operate; and
(3) applicable international agreements to which the United States Government is a party.
(c) An existing vessel may retain its load lines assigned before January 1, 1986, unless the Secretary decides that a substantial change in the vessel after those load lines were assigned requires that new load lines be assigned under this chapter.
(d) The minimum freeboard of an existing vessel may be reduced only if the vessel complies with every applicable provision of this chapter.
(e) The Secretary may designate by regulation specific geographic areas that have less severe weather or sea conditions and from which there is adequate time to return to available safe harbors. The Secretary may reduce the minimum freeboard of a vessel operating in these areas.

46 USC 5105 - Load line surveys

(a) The Secretary may provide for annual, renewal, and other load line surveys.
(b) In conducting a load line survey, the Secretary shall consider whether
(1) the hull and fittings of the vessel
(A) are adequate to protect the vessel from the sea; and
(B) meet other requirements the Secretary may prescribe by regulation;
(2) the strength of the hull is adequate for all loading conditions;
(3) the stability of the vessel is adequate for all loading conditions;
(4) the topsides of the vessel are arranged and constructed to allow rapid overboard drainage of deck water in heavy weather; and
(5) the topsides of the vessel are adequate in design, arrangement, and equipment to protect crewmembers performing outside tasks necessary for safe operation of the vessel.

46 USC 5106 - Load line certificate

(a) On finding that a load line survey of a vessel under this chapter is satisfactory and that the vessels load lines are marked correctly, the Secretary shall issue the vessel a load line certificate and deliver it to the owner, master, or individual in charge of the vessel.
(b) The certificate shall be maintained as required by the Secretary.

46 USC 5107 - Delegation of authority

(a) The Secretary shall delegate to the American Bureau of Shipping or other similarly qualified organizations the authority to assign load lines, survey vessels, determine that load lines are marked correctly, and issue load line certificates under this chapter.
(b) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a decision of an organization delegated authority under subsection (a) of this section related to the assignment of a load line may be appealed to the Secretary.
(c) For a vessel intended to be engaged on a foreign voyage, the Secretary may delegate to another country that is a party to the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, the authority to assign load lines, survey vessels, determine that the load lines are marked correctly, and issue an International Load Line Certificate (1966).
(d) The Secretary may terminate a delegation made under this section after giving written notice to the organization.

46 USC 5108 - Special exemptions

(a) The Secretary may exempt a vessel from any part of this chapter when
(1) the vessel is entitled to an exemption under an international agreement to which the United States Government is a party; or
(2) under regulations (including regulations on special operations conditions) prescribed by the Secretary, the Secretary finds that good cause exists for granting an exemption.
(b) When the Secretary grants an exemption under this section, the Secretary may issue a certificate of exemption stating the extent of the exemption.
(c) A certificate of exemption issued under subsection (b) of this section shall be maintained as required by the Secretary.

46 USC 5109 - Reciprocity for foreign vessels

(a) When the Secretary finds that the laws and regulations of a foreign country related to load lines are similar to those of this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter, or when a foreign country is a party to an international load line agreement to which the United States Government is a party, the Secretary shall accept the load line marks and certificate of a vessel of that foreign country as complying with this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter. The Secretary may control the vessel as provided for in the applicable international agreement.
(b) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to a vessel of a foreign country that does not recognize load lines assigned under this chapter.

46 USC 5110 - Submersible vessels

Notwithstanding sections 5103–5105 of this title, the Secretary may prescribe regulations for submersible vessels to provide a minimum level of safety. In developing the regulations, the Secretary shall consider factors relevant to submersible vessels, including the structure, stability, and watertight integrity of those vessels.

46 USC 5111 - Providing loading information

The Secretary may prescribe regulations requiring the owner, charterer, managing operator, and agent of a vessel to provide loading information (including information on loading distribution, stability, and margin of strength) to the master or individual in charge of the vessel in a language the master or individual understands.

46 USC 5112 - Loading restrictions

(a) A vessel may not be loaded in a way that submerges the assigned load line or the place at which the load line is required to be marked on the vessel.
(b) If the loading or stability conditions of a vessel change, the master or individual in charge of the vessel, before moving the vessel, shall record in the official logbook or other permanent record of the vessel
(1) the position of the assigned load line relative to the water surface; and
(2) the draft of the vessel fore and aft.
(c) A vessel may be operated only if the loading distribution, stability, and margin of strength are adequate for the voyage or movement intended.
(d) Subsections (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to a submersible vessel.

46 USC 5113 - Detention of vessels

(a) When the Secretary believes that a vessel is about to leave a place in the United States in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter, the Secretary may detain the vessel by giving notice to the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel.
(b) A detained vessel may be cleared under section 60105 of this title only after the violation has been corrected. If the vessel was cleared before being detained, the clearance shall be withdrawn.
(c) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a detained vessel may petition the Secretary to review the detention order.
(d) After reviewing a petition, the Secretary may affirm, withdraw, or change the detention order. Before acting on the petition, the Secretary may require any independent survey that may be necessary to determine the condition of the vessel.
(e) The owner of a vessel is liable for the cost incident to a petition for review and any required survey if the vessel is found to be in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter.

46 USC 5114 - Use of Customs Service officers and employees for enforcement

(a) With the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary may use an officer or employee of the United States Customs Service to enforce this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter.
(b) The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of the Treasury before prescribing a regulation that affects the enforcement responsibilities of an officer or employee of the Customs Service.

46 USC 5115 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101595, title VI, 603(5)(A), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2993]

Section, Pub. L. 99–509, title V, § 5101(2), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1918, authorized Secretary to prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter.

46 USC 5116 - Penalties

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, and individual in charge of a vessel violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter are each liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate violation. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(b) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, and individual in charge of a vessel allowing, causing, attempting to cause, or failing to take reasonable care to prevent a violation of section 5112 (a) of this title are each liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 plus an additional amount equal to twice the economic benefit of the overloading. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(c) The master or individual in charge of a vessel violating section 5112 (b) of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(d) A person causing or allowing the departure of a vessel from a place within the jurisdiction of the United States in violation of a detention order issued under section 5113 of this title commits a class A misdemeanor.
(e) A person causing or allowing the alteration, concealment, or removal of a mark placed on a vessel under section 5103 (b) of this title and the regulations prescribed under this chapter, except to make a lawful change or to escape enemy capture in time of war, commits a class A misdemeanor.

Part D - Marine Casualties

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 61 - REPORTING MARINE CASUALTIES

46 USC 6101 - Marine casualties and reporting

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations on the marine casualties to be reported and the manner of reporting. The regulations shall require reporting the following marine casualties:
(1) death of an individual.
(2) serious injury to an individual.
(3) material loss of property.
(4) material damage affecting the seaworthiness or efficiency of the vessel.
(5) significant harm to the environment.
(b) A marine casualty shall be reported within 5 days as provided in this part and regulations prescribed under this part. Each report filed under this section shall include information as to whether the use of alcohol contributed to the casualty.
[(c) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–498, title II, § 212(b)(1)(B), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2306.]
(d) 
(1) This part applies to a foreign vessel when involved in a marine casualty on the navigable waters of the United States.
(2) This part applies, to the extent consistent with generally recognized principles of international law, to a foreign vessel constructed or adapted to carry, or that carries, oil in bulk as cargo or cargo residue involved in a marine casualty described under subsection (a)(4) or (5) in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, including the Exclusive Economic Zone.
(e) A marine casualty not resulting in the death of an individual shall be classified according to the gravity of the casualty, as prescribed by regulation, giving consideration to the extent of injuries to individuals, the extent of property damage, the dangers that the casualty creates, and the size, occupation, and means of propulsion of each vessel involved.
(f) 
(1) This chapter applies to a marine casualty involving a United States citizen on a foreign passenger vessel operating south of 75 degrees north latitude, west of 35 degrees west longitude, and east of the International Date Line; or operating in the area south of 60 degrees south latitude that
(A) embarks or disembarks passengers in the United States; or
(B) transports passengers traveling under any form of air and sea ticket package marketed in the United States.
(2) When there is a marine casualty described in paragraph (1) of this subsection and an investigation is conducted, the Secretary shall ensure that the investigation
(A) is thorough and timely; and
(B) produces findings and recommendations to improve safety on passenger vessels.
(3) When there is a marine casualty described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary may
(A) seek a multinational investigation of the casualty under auspices of the International Maritime Organization; or
(B) conduct an investigation of the casualty under chapter 63 of this title.
(g) To the extent consistent with generally recognized practices and procedures of international law, this part applies to a foreign vessel involved in a marine casualty or incident, as defined in the International Maritime Organization Code for the Investigation of Marine Casualties and Incidents, where the United States is a Substantially Interested State and is, or has the consent of, the Lead Investigating State under the Code.
(h) 
(1) The Secretary shall publish all major marine casualty reports prepared in accordance with this section in an electronic form, and shall provide information electronically regarding how other marine casualty reports can be obtained.
(2) For purposes of this paragraph, the term major marine casualty means a casualty involving a vessel, other than a public vessel, that results in
(A) the loss of 6 or more lives;
(B) the loss of a mechanically propelled vessel of 100 or more gross tons;
(C) property damage initially estimated at $500,000 or more; or
(D) serious threat, as determined by the Commandant of the Coast Guard with concurrence by the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board, to life, property, or the environment by hazardous materials.
(i) The Secretary shall, as soon as possible, and no later than January 1, 2005, publish all marine casualty reports prepared in accordance with this section in an electronic form.

46 USC 6102 - State marine casualty reporting system

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for a uniform State marine casualty reporting system for vessels. Regulations shall prescribe the casualties to be reported and the manner of reporting. A State shall compile and submit to the Secretary reports, information, and statistics on casualties reported to the State, including information and statistics concerning the number of casualties in which the use of alcohol contributed to the casualty.
(b) The Secretary shall collect, analyze, and publish reports, information, and statistics on marine casualties together with findings and recommendations the Secretary considers appropriate. If a State marine casualty reporting system provides that information derived from casualty reports (except statistical information) may not be publicly disclosed, or otherwise prohibits use by the State or any person in any action or proceeding against a person, the Secretary may use the information provided by the State only in the same way that the State may use the information.

46 USC 6103 - Penalty

(a) An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel failing to report a casualty as required under section 6101 of this title or a regulation prescribed under section 6101 or 6102 is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000.
(b) A person failing to comply with section 6104 of this title or a regulation prescribed under that section is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000.

46 USC 6104 - Commercial fishing industry vessel casualty statistics

(a) The Secretary shall compile statistics concerning marine casualties from data compiled from insurers of fishing vessels, fish processing vessels, and fish tender vessels.
(b) A person underwriting primary insurance for a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel shall submit periodically to the Secretary data concerning marine casualties that is required by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(c) After consulting with the insurance industry, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations under this section to gather a statistical base for analyzing vessel risks.
(d) The Secretary may delegate to a qualified person that has knowledge and experience in the collection of statistical insurance data the authority of the Secretary under this section to compile statistics from insurers.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 63 - INVESTIGATING MARINE CASUALTIES

46 USC 6301 - Investigation of marine casualties

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for the immediate investigation of marine casualties under this part to decide, as closely as possible
(1) the cause of the casualty, including the cause of any death;
(2) whether an act of misconduct, incompetence, negligence, unskillfulness, or willful violation of law committed by any individual licensed, certificated, or documented under part E of this subtitle has contributed to the cause of the casualty, or to a death involved in the casualty, so that appropriate remedial action under chapter 77 of this title may be taken;
(3) whether an act of misconduct, incompetence, negligence, unskillfulness, or willful violation of law committed by any person, including an officer, employee, or member of the Coast Guard, contributed to the cause of the casualty, or to a death involved in the casualty;
(4) whether there is evidence that an act subjecting the offender to a civil penalty under the laws of the United States has been committed, so that appropriate action may be undertaken to collect the penalty;
(5) whether there is evidence that a criminal act under the laws of the United States has been committed, so that the matter may be referred to appropriate authorities for prosecution; and
(6) whether there is need for new laws or regulations, or amendment or repeal of existing laws or regulations, to prevent the recurrence of the casualty.

46 USC 6302 - Public investigations

Each investigation conducted under this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter shall be open to the public, except when evidence affecting the national security is to be received.

46 USC 6303 - Rights of parties in interest

In an investigation conducted under this chapter, the following shall be allowed to be represented by counsel, to cross-examine witnesses, and to call witnesses:
(1) an owner,
(2) any holder of a license or certificate of registry,
(3) any holder of a merchant mariners document,
(4) any other person whose conduct is under investigation, and
(5) any other party in interest.

46 USC 6304 - Subpena authority

(a) In an investigation under this chapter, the attendance and testimony of witnesses, including parties in interest, and the production of any evidence may be compelled by subpena. The subpena authority granted by this section is coextensive with that of a district court of the United States, in civil matters, for the district in which the investigation is conducted.
(b) When a person fails to obey a subpena issued under this section, the district court of the United States for the district in which the investigation is conducted or in which the person failing to obey is found, shall on proper application issue an order directing that person to comply with the subpena. The court may punish as contempt any disobedience of its order.
(c) A witness complying with a subpena issued under this section may be paid for actual travel and attendance at the rate provided for witnesses in the district courts of the United States.
(d) An official designated to conduct an investigation under this part may issue subpenas as provided in this section and administer oaths to witnesses.

46 USC 6305 - Reports of investigations

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations about the form and manner of reports of investigations conducted under this part.
(b) Reports of investigations conducted under this part shall be made available to the public. This subsection does not require the release of information described by section 552 (b) of title 5 or protected from disclosure by another law of the United States.

46 USC 6306 - Penalty

A person attempting to coerce a witness, or to induce a witness, to testify falsely in connection with a marine casualty, or to induce a witness to leave the jurisdiction of the United States, shall be fined $5,000, imprisoned for one year, or both.

46 USC 6307 - Notifications to Congress

(a) The Secretary shall notify the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives of any hearing, before the hearing occurs, investigating a major marine casualty involving a death under section 6301 of this title.
(b) The Secretary shall submit to a committee referred to in subsection (a) of this section information on a major marine casualty that is requested by that committee or the chairman of the committee if the submission of that information is not prohibited by a law of the United States.
(c) The Secretary shall submit annually to Congress a summary of the marine casualties reported during the prior fiscal year, together with a brief statement of action taken concerning those casualties.

46 USC 6308 - Information barred in legal proceedings

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no part of a report of a marine casualty investigation conducted under section 6301 of this title, including findings of fact, opinions, recommendations, deliberations, or conclusions, shall be admissible as evidence or subject to discovery in any civil or administrative proceedings, other than an administrative proceeding initiated by the United States.
(b) Any member or employee of the Coast Guard investigating a marine casualty pursuant to section 6301 of this title shall not be subject to deposition or other discovery, or otherwise testify in such proceedings relevant to a marine casualty investigation, without the permission of the Secretary. The Secretary shall not withhold permission for such employee or member to testify, either orally or upon written questions, on solely factual matters at a time and place and in a manner acceptable to the Secretary if the information is not available elsewhere or is not obtainable by other means.
(c) Nothing in this section prohibits the United States from calling the employee or member as an expert witness to testify on its behalf. Further, nothing in this section prohibits the employee or member from being called as a fact witness in any case in which the United States is a party. If the employee or member is called as an expert or fact witness, the applicable Federal Rules of Civil Procedure govern discovery. If the employee or member is called as a witness, the report of a marine casualty investigation conducted under section 6301 of this title shall not be admissible, as provided in subsections (a) and (b), and shall not be considered the report of an expert under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
(d) The information referred to in subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section shall not be considered an admission of liability by the United States or by any person referred to in those conclusions and statements.

Part E - Merchant Seamen Licenses, Certificates, and Documents

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 71 - LICENSES AND CERTIFICATES OF REGISTRY

46 USC 7101 - Issuing and classifying licenses and certificates of registry

(a) Licenses and certificates of registry are established for individuals who are required to hold licenses or certificates under this subtitle.
(b) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the Secretary
(1) issues the licenses and certificates of registry; and
(2) may classify the licenses and certificates of registry as provided in subsections (c) and (f) of this section, based on
(A) the tonnage, means of propulsion, and horsepower of machine-propelled vessels;
(B) the waters on which vessels are to be operated; or
(C) other reasonable standards.
(c) The Secretary may issue licenses in the following classes to applicants found qualified as to age, character, habits of life, experience, professional qualifications, and physical fitness:
(1) masters, mates, and engineers.
(2) pilots.
(3) operators.
(4) radio officers.
(d) In classifying individuals under subsection (c)(1) of this section, the Secretary shall establish, when possible, suitable career patterns and service and other qualifying requirements appropriate to the particular service or industry in which the individuals are engaged.
(e) An individual may be issued a license under subsection (c)(2) of this section only if the applicant
(1) is at least 21 years of age;
(2) is of sound health and has no physical limitations that would hinder or prevent the performance of a pilots duties;
(3) has a thorough physical examination each year while holding the license, except that this requirement does not apply to an individual who will serve as a pilot only on a vessel of less than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title;
(4) demonstrates, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that the applicant has the requisite general knowledge and skill to hold the license;
(5) demonstrates proficiency in the use of electronic aids to navigation;
(6) maintains adequate knowledge of the waters to be navigated and knowledge of regulations for the prevention of collisions in those waters;
(7) has sufficient experience, as decided by the Secretary, to evidence ability to handle any vessel of the type and size which the applicant may be authorized to pilot; and
(8) meets any other requirement the Secretary considers reasonable and necessary.
(f) The Secretary may issue certificates of registry in the following classes to applicants found qualified as to character, knowledge, skill, and experience:
(1) pursers.
(2) medical doctors.
(3) professional nurses.
(g) The Secretary may not issue a license or certificate of registry under this section unless an individual applying for the license or certificate makes available to the Secretary, under section 206(b)(7) of the National Driver Register Act of 1982 (23 U.S.C. 401 note ), any information contained in the National Driver Register related to an offense described in section 205(a)(3)(A) or (B) of that Act committed by the individual.
(h) The Secretary may review the criminal record of an individual who applies for a license or certificate of registry under this section.
(i) The Secretary shall require the testing of an individual who applies for issuance or renewal of a license or certificate of registry under this chapter for use of a dangerous drug in violation of law or Federal regulation.

46 USC 7102 - Citizenship

Licenses and certificates of registry for individuals on documented vessels may be issued only to citizens of the United States.

46 USC 7103 - Licenses for radio officers

(a) A license as radio officer may be issued only to an applicant who has a first-class or second-class radiotelegraph operator license issued by the Federal Communications Commission.
(b) Except as provided in section 7318 of this title, this part does not affect the status of radiotelegraph operators serving on board vessels operating only on the Great Lakes.

46 USC 7104 - Certificates for medical doctors and nurses

A certificate of registry as a medical doctor or professional nurse may be issued only to an applicant who has a license as a medical doctor or registered nurse, respectively, issued by a State.

46 USC 7105 - Oaths

An applicant for a license or certificate of registry shall take, before the issuance of the license or certificate, an oath before a designated official, without concealment or reservation, that the applicant will perform faithfully and honestly, according to the best skill and judgment of the applicant, all the duties required by law.

46 USC 7106 - Duration of licenses

A license issued under this part is valid for 5 years and may be renewed for additional 5-year periods. However, the validity of a license issued to a radio officer is conditioned on the continuous possession by the holder of a first-class or second-class radiotelegraph operator license issued by the Federal Communications Commission.

46 USC 7107 - Duration of certificates of registry

A certificate of registry issued under this part is valid for 5 years and may be renewed for additional 5-year periods. However, the validity of a certificate issued to a medical doctor or professional nurse is conditioned on the continuous possession by the holder of a license as a medical doctor or registered nurse, respectively, issued by a State.

46 USC 7108 - Termination of licenses and certificates of registry

When the holder of a license or certificate of registry, the duration of which is conditioned under section 7106 or 7107 of this title, fails to hold the license required as a condition, the license or certificate of registry issued under this part is terminated.

46 USC 7109 - Review of criminal records

The Secretary may review the criminal record of each holder of a license or certificate of registry issued under this part who applies for renewal of that license or certificate of registry.

46 USC 7110 - Exhibiting licenses

Each holder of a license issued under this part shall display, within 48 hours after employment on a vessel for which that license is required, the license in a conspicuous place on the vessel.

46 USC 7111 - Oral examinations for licenses

An individual may take an oral examination for a license to serve on a fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel not required to be inspected under part B of this subtitle.

46 USC 7112 - Licenses of masters or mates as pilots

A master or mate licensed under this part who also qualifies as a pilot is not required to hold 2 licenses. Instead, the qualification of the master or mate as pilot shall be endorsed on the masters or mates license.

46 USC 7113 - Exemption from draft

A licensed master, mate, pilot, or engineer of a vessel inspected under part B of this subtitle, propelled by machinery or carrying hazardous liquid cargoes in bulk, is not liable to draft in time of war, except for performing duties authorized by the license. When performing those duties in the service of the United States Government, the master, mate, pilot, or engineer is entitled to the highest rate of wages paid in the merchant marine of the United States for similar services. If killed or wounded when performing those duties, the master, mate, pilot, or engineer, or the heirs or legal representatives of the master, mate, pilot, or engineer, are entitled to all the privileges under the pension laws of the United States provided to members of the Armed Forces.

46 USC 7114 - Fees

The Secretary may prescribe by regulation reasonable fees for the inspection of and the issuance of a certificate, license, or permit related to small passenger vessels and sailing school vessels.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 73 - MERCHANT MARINERS DOCUMENTS

46 USC 7301 - General

(a) In this chapter
(1) service on deck means service in the deck department in work related to the work usually performed on board vessels by able seamen and may include service on fishing, fish processing, fish tender vessels and on public vessels of the United States;
(2) 360 days is equal to one years service; and
(3) a day is equal to 8 hours of labor or duty.
(b) The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter.

46 USC 7302 - Issuing merchant mariners documents and continuous discharge books

(a) The Secretary shall issue a merchant mariners document to an individual required to have that document under part F of this subtitle if the individual satisfies the requirements of this part. The document serves as a certificate of identification and as a certificate of service, specifying each rating in which the holder is qualified to serve on board vessels on which that document is required under part F.
(b) The Secretary also may issue a continuous discharge book to an individual issued a merchant mariners document if the individual requests.
(c) The Secretary may not issue a merchant mariners document under this chapter unless the individual applying for the document makes available to the Secretary, under section 30305 (b)(5) of title 49, any information contained in the National Driver Register related to an offense described in section 30304 (a)(3)(A) or (B) of title 49 committed by the individual.
(d) The Secretary may review the criminal record of an individual who applies for a merchant mariners document under this section.
(e) The Secretary shall require the testing of an individual applying for issuance or renewal of a merchant mariners document under this chapter for the use of a dangerous drug in violation of law or Federal regulation.
(f) Except as provided in subsection (g), a merchant mariners document issued under this chapter is valid for 5 years and may be renewed for additional 5-year periods.
(g) 
(1) The Secretary may, pending receipt and review of information required under subsections (c) and (d), immediately issue an interim merchant mariners document valid for a period not to exceed 120 days, to
(A) an individual to be employed as gaming personnel, entertainment personnel, wait staff, or other service personnel on board a passenger vessel not engaged in foreign service, with no duties, including emergency duties, related to the navigation of the vessel or the safety of the vessel, its crew, cargo or passengers; or
(B) an individual seeking renewal of, or qualifying for a supplemental endorsement to, a valid merchant mariners document issued under this section.
(2) No more than one interim document may be issued to an individual under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection.

46 USC 7303 - Possession and description of merchant mariners documents

A merchant mariners document shall be retained by the seaman to whom issued. The document shall contain the signature, notations of nationality, age, and physical description, the photograph, and the home address of the seaman. In addition, the document shall specify the rate or ratings in which the seaman is qualified to serve.

46 USC 7304 - Citizenship notation on merchant mariners documents

An individual applying for a merchant mariners document shall provide satisfactory proof that the individual is a citizen of the United States before that notation is made on the document.

46 USC 7305 - Oaths for holders of merchant mariners documents

An applicant for a merchant mariners document shall take, before issuance of the document, an oath that the applicant will perform faithfully and honestly all the duties required by law, and will carry out the lawful orders of superior officers.

46 USC 7306 - General requirements and classifications for able seamen

(a) To qualify for an endorsement as able seaman authorized by this section, an applicant must provide satisfactory proof that the applicant
(1) is at least 18 years of age;
(2) has the service required by the applicable section of this part;
(3) is qualified professionally as demonstrated by an applicable examination or educational requirements; and
(4) is qualified as to sight, hearing, and physical condition to perform the seamans duties.
(b) The classifications authorized for endorsement as able seaman are the following:
(1) able seamanunlimited.
(2) able seamanlimited.
(3) able seamanspecial.
(4) able seamanoffshore supply vessels.
(5) able seamansail.
(6) able seamanfishing industry.

46 USC 7307 - Able seamen - unlimited

The required service for the endorsement of able seamanunlimited, qualified for unlimited service on a vessel on any waters, is at least 3 years service on deck on board vessels operating at sea or on the Great Lakes.

46 USC 7308 - Able seamen - limited

The required service for the endorsement of able seamanlimited, qualified for limited service on a vessel on any waters, is at least 18 months service on deck on board vessels of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title operating on the oceans or navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes).

46 USC 7309 - Able seamen - special

The required service for the endorsement of able seamanspecial, qualified for special service on a vessel on any waters, is at least 12 months service on deck on board vessels operating on the oceans or the navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes).

46 USC 7310 - Able seamen - offshore supply vessels

For service on a vessel of less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title engaged in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources, an individual may be rated as able seamanoffshore supply vessels if the individual has at least 6 months service on deck on board vessels operating on the oceans or the navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes).

46 USC 7311 - Able seamen - sail

For service on a sailing school vessel on any waters, an individual may be rated as able seamansail if the individual has at least 6 months service on deck on sailing school vessels, oceanographic research vessels powered primarily by sail, or equivalent sailing vessels operating on the oceans or navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes).

46 USC 7311a - Able seamen - fishing industry

For service on a fish processing vessel, an individual may be rated as able seamanfishing industry if the individual has at least 6 months service on deck on board vessels operating on the oceans or the navigable waters of the United States (including the Great Lakes).

46 USC 7312 - Scale of employment

(a) Individuals qualified as able seamenunlimited under section 7307 of this title may constitute all of the able seamen required on a vessel.
(b) Individuals qualified as able seamenlimited under section 7308 of this title may constitute all of the able seamen required on a vessel of less than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title or on a vessel operating on the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River as far east as Sept Iles. Individuals qualified as able seamenlimited may constitute not more than 50 percent of the number of able seamen required on board other vessels.
(c) Individuals qualified as able seamenspecial under section 7309 of this title may constitute
(1) all of the able seamen required on a vessel of not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title or on a seagoing barge or towing vessel; and
(2) not more than 50 percent of the number of able seamen required on board other vessels.
(d) Individuals qualified as able seamenoffshore supply vessels under section 7310 of this title may constitute all of the able seamen required on board a vessel of less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title engaged in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources.
(e) When the service of able seamenlimited or able seamenspecial is authorized for only a part of the required number of able seamen on board a vessel, the combined percentage of those individuals so qualified may not be greater than 50 percent of the required number.
(f) Individuals qualified as able seamenfishing industry under section 7311a of this title may constitute
(1) all of the able seamen required on a fish processing vessel entered into service before January 1, 1988, and of more than 1,600 gross tons but not more than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; and
(2) all of the able seamen required on a fish processing vessel entered into service after December 31, 1987, and having more than 16 individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products but of not more than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title.

46 USC 7313 - General requirements for members of engine departments

(a) Classes of endorsement as qualified members of the engine department on vessels of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title (except vessels operating on rivers or lakes (except the Great Lakes)) may be prescribed by regulation.
(b) The ratings of wiper and coal passer are entry ratings and are not ratings as qualified members of the engine department.
(c) An applicant for an endorsement as qualified member of the engine department must provide satisfactory proof that the applicant
(1) has the service required by section 7314 of this title;
(2) is qualified professionally as demonstrated by an applicable examination; and
(3) is qualified as to sight, hearing, and physical condition to perform the members duties.

46 USC 7314 - Service requirements for qualified members of engine departments

To qualify for an endorsement as qualified member of the engine department, an applicant must provide proof that the applicant has 6 months service in the related entry rating as described in section 7313 (b) of this title.

46 USC 7315 - Training

(a) Graduation from a nautical school vessel approved under law and regulation may be substituted for the service requirements under section 7307 or 7314 of this title.
(b) The satisfactory completion of other courses of instruction approved by the Secretary may be substituted for not more than one-third of the required service on deck at sea under sections 7307–7311 of this title.
(c) The satisfactory completion of other courses of instruction approved by the Secretary may be substituted for not more than one-half of the required service at sea under section 7314 of this title.

46 USC 7316 - Lifeboatmen

To qualify for an endorsement as lifeboatman, an applicant must provide satisfactory proof that the applicant
(1) has the service or training required by regulation;
(2) is qualified professionally as demonstrated by examination; and
(3) is qualified professionally by actual demonstration.

46 USC 7317 - Tankermen

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe procedures, standards, and qualifications for the issuance of certificates or endorsements as tankerman, stating the types of oil or hazardous material that can be handled with safety to the vessel and the marine environment.
(b) An endorsement as tankerman shall indicate the grades or types of cargo the holder is qualified and authorized to handle with safety on board vessels.

46 USC 7318 - Radiotelegraph operators on Great Lakes

(a) A radiotelegraph operator on the Great Lakes only shall have a first-class or second-class radiotelegraph operators license issued by the Federal Communications Commission.
(b) An endorsement as radiotelegraph operator on the Great Lakes only ends if the holder ceases to hold the license issued by the Commission.

46 USC 7319 - Records of merchant mariners documents

The Secretary shall maintain records on each merchant mariners document issued, including the name and address of the seaman to whom issued and the next of kin of the seaman.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 75 - GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR LICENSING, CERTIFICATION, AND DOCUMENTATION

46 USC 7501 - Duplicates

(a) If a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document issued under this part is lost as a result of a marine casualty, the holder shall be supplied with a duplicate without cost.
(b) For any other loss, the seaman may obtain a duplicate on payment of reasonable costs prescribed by regulation by the Secretary.

46 USC 7502 - Records

The Secretary shall maintain computerized records on the issuances, denials, suspensions, and revocations of licenses, certificates of registry, merchant mariners documents, and endorsements on those licenses, certificates, and documents.

46 USC 7503 - Dangerous drugs as grounds for denial

[(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–380, title IV, § 4103(a)(2)(B), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 511.]
(b) A license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document authorized to be issued under this part may be denied to an individual who
(1) within 10 years before applying for the license, certificate, or document, has been convicted of violating a dangerous drug law of the United States or of a State; or
(2) when applying, has ever been a user of, or addicted to, a dangerous drug unless the individual provides satisfactory proof that the individual is cured.

46 USC 7504 - Travel and expense reimbursement

When a requirement to qualify for the issuance of, or endorsement on, a certificate, license, or document under this part is administered at a place at the request of an applicant or an applicants representative, the applicant or representative may reimburse the Secretary for the travel and subsistence expenses incurred by the personnel assigned to perform the administration of the requirement. Amounts received as reimbursement under this section shall be credited to the appropriation for operating expenses of the Coast Guard.

46 USC 7505 - Review of information in National Driver Register

The Secretary shall make information received from the National Driver Register under section 206(b)(7) of the National Driver Register Act of 1982 (23 U.S.C. 401 note ) available to an individual for review and written comment before denying, suspending, revoking, or taking any other action relating to a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document authorized to be issued for that individual under this part, based on that information.

46 USC 7506 - Convention tonnage for licenses, certificates, and documents

Notwithstanding any provision of section 14302 (c) or 14305 of this title, the Secretary may
(1) evaluate the service of an individual who is applying for a license, a certificate of registry, or a merchant mariners document by using the tonnage as measured under chapter 143 of this title for the vessels on which that service was acquired, and
(2) issue the license, certificate, or document based on that service.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 77 - SUSPENSION AND REVOCATION

46 USC 7701 - General

(a) The purpose of suspension and revocation proceedings is to promote safety at sea.
(b) Licenses, certificates of registry, and merchant mariners documents may be suspended or revoked for acts described in section 7703 of this title.
(c) When a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document has been revoked under this chapter, the former holder may be issued a new license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document only after
(1) the Secretary decides, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, that the issuance is compatible with the requirement of good discipline and safety at sea; and
(2) the former holder provides satisfactory proof that the bases for revocation are no longer valid.
(d) The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter.

46 USC 7702 - Administrative procedure

(a) Sections 551–559 of title 5 apply to each hearing under this chapter about suspending or revoking a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document.
(b) The individual whose license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document has been suspended or revoked under this chapter may appeal, within 30 days, the suspension or revocation to the Secretary.
(c) 
(1) The Secretary shall request a holder of a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document to make available to the Secretary, under section 206(b)(4) of the National Driver Register Act of 1982 (23 U.S.C. 401 note ),[1] all information contained in the National Driver Register related to an offense described in section 205(a)(3)(A) or (B) of that Act committed by the individual.
(2) The Secretary shall require the testing of the holder of a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document for use of alcohol and dangerous drugs in violation of law or Federal regulation. The testing may include preemployment (with respect to dangerous drugs only), periodic, random, and reasonable cause testing, and shall include post-accident testing.
(d) 
(1) The Secretary may temporarily, for not more than 45 days, suspend and take possession of the license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document held by an individual if
(A) that individual performs a safety sensitive function on a vessel, as determined by the Secretary; and
(B) there is probable cause to believe that the individual
(i) has, while acting under the authority of that license, certificate, or document, performed the safety sensitive function in violation of law or Federal regulation regarding use of alcohol or a dangerous drug;
(ii) has been convicted of an offense that would prevent the issuance or renewal of the license, certificate, or document;
(iii) within the 3-year period preceding the initiation of a suspension proceeding, has been convicted of an offense described in section 30304 (a)(3)(A) or (B) of title 49; or
(iv) is a security risk that poses a threat to the safety or security of a vessel or a public or commercial structure located within or adjacent to the marine environment.
(2) If a license, certificate, or document is temporarily suspended under this section, an expedited hearing under subsection (a) of this section shall be held within 30 days after the temporary suspension.
[1] See References in Text note below.

46 USC 7703 - Bases for suspension or revocation

A license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document issued by the Secretary may be suspended or revoked if the holder
(1) when acting under the authority of that license, certificate, or document
(A) has violated or fails to comply with this subtitle, a regulation prescribed under this subtitle, or any other law or regulation intended to promote marine safety or to protect navigable waters; or
(B) has committed an act of misconduct or negligence;
(2) is convicted of an offense that would prevent the issuance or renewal of a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document;
(3) within the 3-year period preceding the initiation of the suspension or revocation proceeding is convicted of an offense described in section 30304 (a)(3)(A) or (B) of title 49;
(4) has committed an act of incompetence relating to the operation of a vessel; or
(5) is a security risk that poses a threat to the safety or security of a vessel or a public or commercial structure located within or adjacent to the marine environment.

46 USC 7704 - Dangerous drugs as grounds for revocation

[(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–380, title IV, § 4103(a)(2)(B), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 511.]
(b) If it is shown at a hearing under this chapter that a holder of a license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document issued under this part, within 10 years before the beginning of the proceedings, has been convicted of violating a dangerous drug law of the United States or of a State, the license, certificate, or document shall be suspended or revoked.
(c) If it is shown that a holder has been a user of, or addicted to, a dangerous drug, the license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document shall be revoked unless the holder provides satisfactory proof that the holder is cured.

46 USC 7705 - Subpenas and oaths

(a) An official designated to investigate or preside at a hearing on matters that are grounds for suspension or revocation of licenses, certificates of registry, and merchant mariners documents may administer oaths and issue subpenas to compel the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of records or other evidence during investigations and at hearings.
(b) The jurisdictional limits of a subpena issued under this section are the same as, and are enforceable in the same manner as, subpenas issued under chapter 63 of this title.

46 USC 7706 - Drug testing reporting

(a) Release of Drug Test Results to Coast Guard.— 
Not later than 2 weeks after receiving from a Medical Review Officer a report of a verified positive drug test or verified test violation by a civilian employee of a Federal agency, an officer in the Public Health Services, or an officer in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps, who is employed in any capacity on board a vessel operated by the agency, the head of the agency shall release to the Commandant of the Coast Guard the report.
(b) Standards, Procedures, and Regulations.— 
The head of a Federal agency shall carry out a release under subsection (a) in accordance with the standards, procedures, and regulations applicable to the disclosure and reporting to the Coast Guard of drug tests results and drug test records of individuals employed on vessels documented under the laws of the United States.
(c) Waiver.— 
Notwithstanding section 503(e) of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1987 (5 U.S.C. 7301 note ), the report of a drug test of an employee may be released under this section without the prior written consent of the employee.

Part F - Manning of Vessels

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 81 - GENERAL

46 USC 8101 - Complement of inspected vessels

(a) The certificate of inspection issued to a vessel under part B of this subtitle shall state the complement of licensed individuals and crew (including lifeboatmen) considered by the Secretary to be necessary for safe operation. A manning requirement imposed on
(1) a sailing school vessel shall consider the participation of sailing school instructors and sailing school students in the operation of that vessel;
(2) a mobile offshore drilling unit shall consider the specialized nature of the unit; and
(3) a tank vessel shall consider the navigation, cargo handling, and maintenance functions of that vessel for protection of life, property, and the environment.
(b) The Secretary may modify the complement, by endorsement on the certificate, for reasons of changed conditions or employment.
(c) A requirement made under this section by an authorized official may be appealed to the Secretary under prescribed regulations.
(d) A vessel to which this section applies may not be operated without having in its service the complement required in the certificate of inspection.
(e) When a vessel is deprived of the service of a member of its complement without the consent, fault, or collusion of the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel, the master shall engage, if obtainable, a number of members equal to the number of those of whose services the master has been deprived. The replacements must be of the same or a higher grade or rating than those whose places they fill. If the master finds the vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage, and replacements are not available to fill all the vacancies, the vessel may proceed on its voyage. Within 12 hours after the vessel arrives at its destination, the master shall report in writing to the Secretary the cause of each deficiency in the complement. A master failing to make the report is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $1,000 for each deficiency.
(f) The owner, charterer, or managing operator of a vessel not manned as required by this section is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $10,000.
(g) A person may not employ an individual as, and an individual may not serve as, a master, mate, engineer, radio officer, or pilot of a vessel to which this part applies or which is subject to inspection under chapter 33 of this title if the individual is not licensed by the Secretary. A person (including an individual) violating this subsection is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate offense.
(h) The owner, charterer, or managing operator of a freight vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, a small passenger vessel, or a sailing school vessel not manned as required by this section is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $1,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(i) When the 2 next most senior licensed officers on a vessel reasonably believe that the master or individual in charge of the vessel is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug and is incapable of commanding the vessel, the next most senior master, mate, or operator licensed under section 7101 (c)(1) or (3) of this title shall
(1) temporarily relieve the master or individual in charge;
(2) temporarily take command of the vessel;
(3) in the case of a vessel required to have a log under chapter 113 of this title, immediately enter the details of the incident in the log; and
(4) report those details to the Secretary
(A) by the most expeditious means available; and
(B) in written form transmitted within 12 hours after the vessel arrives at its next port.

46 USC 8102 - Watchmen

(a) The owner, charterer, or managing operator of a vessel carrying passengers during the nighttime shall keep a suitable number of watchmen in the vicinity of the cabins or staterooms and on each deck to guard against and give alarm in case of a fire or other danger. An owner, charterer, or managing operator failing to provide watchmen required by this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $1,000.
(b) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a fish processing vessel of more than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title shall keep a suitable number of watchmen trained in firefighting on board when hotwork is being done to guard against and give alarm in case of a fire.

46 USC 8103 - Citizenship and Navy Reserve requirements

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this title, only a citizen of the United States may serve as master, chief engineer, radio officer, or officer in charge of a deck watch or engineering watch on a documented vessel.
(b) 
(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, on a documented vessel
(A) each unlicensed seaman must be
(i) a citizen of the United States;
(ii) an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; or
(iii) a foreign national who is enrolled in the United States Merchant Marine Academy.[1]
(B) not more than 25 percent of the total number of unlicensed seamen on the vessel may be aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence.
(2) Paragraph (1) of this subsection does not apply to
(A) a yacht;
(B) a fishing vessel fishing exclusively for highly migratory species (as that term is defined in section 3 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802)); and
(C) a fishing vessel fishing outside of the exclusive economic zone.
(3) The Secretary may waive a citizenship requirement under this section, other than a requirement that applies to the master of a documented vessel, with respect to
(A) an offshore supply vessel or other similarly engaged vessel of less than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title that operates from a foreign port;
(B) a mobile offshore drilling unit or other vessel engaged in support of exploration, exploitation, or production of offshore mineral energy resources operating beyond the water above the outer Continental Shelf (as that term is defined in section 2(a) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331 (a)); and
(C) any other vessel if the Secretary determines, after an investigation, that qualified seamen who are citizens of the United States are not available.
(c) On each departure of a vessel (except a passenger vessel) for which a construction or operating differential subsidy has been granted, all of the seamen of the vessel must be citizens of the United States.
(d) 
(1) On each departure of a passenger vessel for which a construction or operating differential subsidy has been granted, at least 90 percent of the entire complement (including licensed individuals) must be citizens of the United States.
(2) An individual not required by this subsection to be a citizen of the United States may be engaged only if the individual has a declaration of intention to become a citizen of the United States or other evidence of admission to the United States for permanent residence. An alien may be employed only in the stewards department of the passenger vessel.
(e) If a documented vessel is deprived for any reason of the services of an individual (except the master and the radio officer) when on a foreign voyage and a vacancy consequently occurs, until the vessels return to a port at which in the most expeditious manner a replacement who is a citizen of the United States can be obtained, an individual not a citizen of the United States may serve in
(1) the vacancy; or
(2) a vacancy resulting from the promotion of another individual to fill the original vacancy.
(f) A person employing an individual in violation of this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500 for each individual so employed.
(g) A deck or engineer officer employed on a vessel on which an operating differential subsidy is paid, or employed on a vessel (except a vessel of the Coast Guard or Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation) owned or operated by the Department of Transportation or by a corporation organized or controlled by the Department, if eligible, shall be a member of the Navy Reserve.
(h) The President may
(1) suspend any part of this section during a proclaimed national emergency; and
(2) when the needs of commerce require, suspend as far and for a period the President considers desirable, subsection (a) of this section for crews of vessels of the United States documented for foreign trade.
(i) 
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (3) of this subsection, each unlicensed seaman on a fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel that is engaged in the fisheries in the navigable waters of the United States or the exclusive economic zone must be
(A) a citizen of the United States;
(B) an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence;
(C) any other alien allowed to be employed under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.); or
(D) an alien allowed to be employed under the immigration laws of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands if the vessel is permanently stationed at a port within the Commonwealth and the vessel is engaged in the fisheries within the exclusive economic zone surrounding the Commonwealth or another United States territory or possession.
(2) Not more than 25 percent of the unlicensed seamen on a vessel subject to paragraph (1) of this subsection may be aliens referred to in clause (C) of that paragraph.
(3) This subsection does not apply to a fishing vessel fishing exclusively for highly migratory species (as that term is defined in section 3 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802)).
(j) Riding Gang Member.— 
This section does not apply to an individual who is a riding gang member.
(k) Crew Requirements for Large Passenger Vessels.— 

(1) Citizenship and nationality.— 
Each unlicensed seaman on a large passenger vessel shall be
(A) a citizen of the United States;
(B) an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence;
(C) an alien allowed to be employed in the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.), including an alien crewman described in section 101(a)(15)(D)(i) of that Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(15)(D)(i)), who meets the requirements of paragraph (3)(A) of this subsection; or
(D) a foreign national who is enrolled in the United States Merchant Marine Academy.
(2) Percentage limitation for alien seamen.— 
Not more than 25 percent of the unlicensed seamen on a vessel described in paragraph (1) of this subsection may be aliens referred to in subparagraph (B) or (C) of that paragraph.
(3) Special rules for certain unlicensed seamen.— 

(A) Qualifications.— 
An unlicensed seaman described in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection
(i) shall have been employed, for a period of not less than 1 year, on a passenger vessel under the same common ownership or control as the vessel described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, as certified by the owner or managing operator of such vessel to the Secretary;
(ii) shall have no record of material disciplinary actions during such employment, as verified in writing by the owner or managing operator of such vessel to the Secretary;
(iii) shall have successfully completed a United States Government security check of the relevant domestic and international databases, as appropriate, or any other national security-related information or database;
(iv) shall have successfully undergone an employer background check
(I) for which the owner or managing operator provides a signed report to the Secretary that describes the background checks undertaken that are reasonably and legally available to the owner or managing operator including personnel file information obtained from such seaman and from databases available to the public with respect to the seaman;
(II) that consisted of a search of all information reasonably available to the owner or managing operator in the seamans country of citizenship and any other country in which the seaman receives employment referrals, or resides;
(III) that is kept on the vessel and available for inspection by the Secretary; and
(IV) the information derived from which is made available to the Secretary upon request; and
(v) may not be a citizen or temporary or permanent resident of a country designated by the United States as a sponsor of terrorism or any other country that the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the heads of other appropriate United States agencies, determines to be a security threat to the United States.
(B) Restrictions.— 
An unlicensed seaman described in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection
(i) may be employed only in the stewards department of the vessel; and
(ii) may not perform watchstanding, automated engine room duty watch, or vessel navigation functions.
(C) Status, documentation, and employment.— 
An unlicensed seaman described in subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (1) of this subsection
(i) is deemed to meet the nationality requirements necessary to qualify for a merchant mariners document notwithstanding the requirements of part 12 of title 46, Code of Federal Regulations;
(ii) is deemed to meet the proof-of-identity requirements necessary to qualify for a merchant mariners document, as prescribed under regulations promulgated by the Secretary, if the seaman possesses
(I) an unexpired passport issued by the government of the country of which the seaman is a citizen or subject; and
(II) an unexpired visa issued to the seaman, as described in paragraph (1)(C);
(iii) shall, if eligible, be issued a merchant mariners document with an appropriate annotation reflecting the restrictions of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph; and
(iv) may be employed for a period of service on board not to exceed 36 months in the aggregate as a nonimmigrant crewman described in section 101(a)(15)(D)(i) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 (a)(15)(D)(i)) on vessels engaged in domestic voyages notwithstanding the departure requirements and time limitations of such section and the regulations and rules promulgated thereunder.
(4) Merchant mariner’s document requirements not affected.— 
This subsection shall not be construed to affect any requirement under Federal law that an individual must hold a merchant mariners document.
(5) Definitions.— 
In this subsection:
(A) Steward’s department.— 
The term stewards department means the department that includes entertainment personnel and all service personnel, including wait staff, housekeeping staff, and galley workers, as defined in the vessel security plan approved by the Secretary pursuant to section 70103 (c) of this title.
(B) Large passenger vessel.— 
The term large passenger vessel means a vessel of more than 70,000 gross tons, as measured under section 14302 of this title, with capacity for at least 2,000 passengers and documented with a coastwise endorsement under chapter 121 of this title.
[1] So in original. The period probably should be “; and”.

46 USC 8104 - Watches

(a) An owner, charterer, managing operator, master, individual in charge, or other person having authority may permit an officer to take charge of the deck watch on a vessel when leaving or immediately after leaving port only if the officer has been off duty for at least 6 hours within the 12 hours immediately before the time of leaving.
(b) On an oceangoing or coastwise vessel of not more than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title (except a fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel), a licensed individual may not be required to work more than 9 of 24 hours when in port, including the date of arrival, or more than 12 of 24 hours at sea, except in an emergency when life or property are endangered.
(c) On a towing vessel (except a towing vessel operated only for fishing, fish processing, fish tender, or engaged in salvage operations) operating on the Great Lakes, harbors of the Great Lakes, and connecting or tributary waters between Gary, Indiana, Duluth, Minnesota, Niagara Falls, New York, and Ogdensburg, New York, a licensed individual or seaman in the deck or engine department may not be required to work more than 8 hours in one day or permitted to work more than 15 hours in any 24-hour period, or more than 36 hours in any 72-hour period, except in an emergency when life or property are endangered.
(d) On a merchant vessel of more than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title (except a vessel only operating on rivers, harbors, lakes (except the Great Lakes), bays, sounds, bayous, and canals, a fishing, fish tender, or whaling vessel, a fish processing vessel of not more than 5,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, yacht, or vessel engaged in salvage operations), the licensed individuals, sailors, coal passers, firemen, oilers, and water tenders shall be divided, when at sea, into at least 3 watches, and shall be kept on duty successively to perform ordinary work incident to the operation and management of the vessel. The requirement of this subsection applies to radio officers only when at least 3 radio officers are employed. A licensed individual or seaman in the deck or engine department may not be required to work more than 8 hours in one day.
(e) On a vessel designated by subsection (d) of this section
(1) a seaman may not be
(A) engaged to work alternately in the deck and engine departments; or
(B) required to work in the engine department if engaged for deck department duty or required to work in the deck department if engaged for engine department duty;
(2) a seaman may not be required to do unnecessary work on Sundays, New Years Day, July 4th, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, or Christmas Day, when the vessel is in a safe harbor, but this clause does not prevent dispatch of a vessel on a voyage; and
(3) when the vessel is in a safe harbor, 8 hours (including anchor watch) is a days work.
(f) Subsections (d) and (e) of this section do not limit the authority of the master or other officer or the obedience of the seamen when, in the judgment of the master or other officer, any part of the crew is needed for
(1) maneuvering, shifting the berth of, mooring, or unmooring, the vessel;
(2) performing work necessary for the safety of the vessel, or the vessels passengers, crew, or cargo;
(3) saving life on board another vessel in jeopardy; or
(4) performing fire, lifeboat, or other drills in port or at sea.
(g) On a towing vessel, an offshore supply vessel, or a barge to which this section applies, that is engaged on a voyage of less than 600 miles, the licensed individuals and crewmembers (except the coal passers, firemen, oilers, and water tenders) may be divided, when at sea, into at least 2 watches.
(h) On a vessel to which section 8904 of this title applies, an individual licensed to operate a towing vessel may not work for more than 12 hours in a consecutive 24-hour period except in an emergency.
(i) A person violating subsection (a) or (b) of this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $10,000.
(j) The owner, charterer, or managing operator of a vessel on which a violation of subsection (c), (d), (e), or (h) of this section occurs is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $10,000. The seaman is entitled to discharge from the vessel and receipt of wages earned.
(k) On a fish processing vessel subject to inspection under part B of this subtitle, the licensed individuals and deck crew shall be divided, when at sea, into at least 3 watches.
(l) Except as provided in subsection (k) of this section, on a fish processing vessel, the licensed individuals and deck crew shall be divided, when at sea, into at least 2 watches if the vessel
(1) entered into service before January 1, 1988, and is more than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; or
(2) entered into service after December 31, 1987, and has more than 16 individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products.
(m) This section does not apply to a fish processing vessel
(1) entered into service before January 1, 1988, and not more than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; or
(2) entered into service after December 31, 1987, and having not more than 16 individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products.
(n) On a tanker, a licensed individual or seaman may not be permitted to work more than 15 hours in any 24-hour period, or more than 36 hours in any 72-hour period, except in an emergency or a drill. In this subsection, work includes any administrative duties associated with the vessel whether performed on board the vessel or onshore.
(o) 
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, on a fish tender vessel of not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or is less than 2,500 gross tons as measured under section 14302 of this title engaged in the Aleutian trade, the licensed individuals and crewmembers shall be divided, when at sea, into at least 3 watches.
(2) On a fish tender vessel of not more than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or is less than 2,500 gross tons as measured under section 14302 of this title engaged in the Aleutian trade, the licensed individuals and crewmembers shall be divided, when at sea, into at least 2 watches, if the vessel
(A) before September 8, 1990, operated in that trade; or
(B) 
(i) before September 8, 1990, was purchased to be used in that trade; and
(ii) before June 1, 1992, entered into service in that trade.
(p) The Secretary may prescribe the watchstanding and work hours requirements for an oil spill response vessel.

46 USC 8105 - Fishing vessel exemption

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, neither the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, nor any amendment to such convention, shall apply to a fishing vessel, including a fishing vessel used as a fish tender vessel.

46 USC 8106 - Riding gangs

(a) In General.— 
The owner or managing operator of a freight vessel of the United States on voyages covered by the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (32 UST 47m) shall
(1) ensure that
(A) subject to subsection (d), each riding gang member on the vessel
(i) is a United States citizen or an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence; or
(ii) possesses a United States nonimmigrant visa for individuals desiring to enter the United States temporarily for business, employment-related and personal identifying information, and any other documentation required by the Secretary;
(B) all required documentation for such member is kept on the vessel and available for inspection by the Secretary; and
(C) each riding gang member is identified on the vessels crew list;
(2) ensure that
(A) the owner or managing operator attests in a certificate that the background of each riding gang member has been examined and found to be free of any credible information indicating a material risk to the security of the vessel, the vessels cargo, the ports the vessel visits, or other individuals onboard the vessel;
(B) the background check consisted of a search of all information reasonably available to the owner or managing operator in the riding gang members country of citizenship and any other country in which the riding gang member works, receives employment referrals, or resides;
(C) the certificate required under subparagraph (A) is kept on the vessel and available for inspection by the Secretary; and
(D) the information derived from any such background check is made available to the Secretary upon request;
(3) ensure that each riding gang member, while on board the vessel, is subject to the same random chemical testing and reporting regimes as crew members;
(4) ensure that each such riding gang member receives basic safety familiarization and basic safety training approved by the Coast Guard as satisfying the requirements for such training under the International Convention of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978;
(5) prevent from boarding the vessel, or cause the removal from the vessel at the first available port, and disqualify from future service on board any other vessel owned or operated by that owner or operator, any riding gang member
(A) who has been convicted in any jurisdiction of an offense described in paragraph (2) or (3) of section 7703;
(B) whose license, certificate of registry, or merchant mariners document has been suspended or revoked under section 7704; or
(C) who otherwise constitutes a threat to the safety of the vessel;
(6) ensure and certify to the Secretary that the sum of
(A) the number of riding gang members on board a freight vessel, and
(B) the number of individuals in addition to crew permitted under section 3304,

does not exceed 12;

(7) ensure that every riding gang member is employed on board the vessel under conditions that meet or exceed the minimum international standards of all applicable international labor conventions to which the United States is a party, including all of the merchant seamen protection and relief provided under United States law; and
(8) ensure that each riding gang member
(A) is supervised by an individual who holds a license issued under chapter 71; and
(B) only performs work in conjunction with individuals who hold merchant mariners documents issued under chapter 73 and who are part of the vessels crew.
(b) Permitted Work.— 
Subject to subsection (f), a riding gang member on board a vessel to which subsection (a) applies who is neither a United States citizen nor an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence may not perform any work on board the vessel other than
(1) work in preparation of a vessel entering a shipyard located outside of the United States;
(2) completion of the residual repairs after departing a shipyard located outside of the United States; or
(3) technical in-voyage repairs, in excess of any repairs that can be performed by the vessels crew, in order to advance the vessels useful life without having to actually enter a shipyard.
(c) Workday Limit.— 

(1) In general.— 
The maximum number of days in any calendar year that the owner or operator of a vessel to which subsection (a) applies may employ on board riding gang members who are neither United States citizens nor aliens lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence for work on board that vessel is 60 days. If the vessel is at sea on the 60th day, each riding gang member shall be discharged from the vessel at the next port of call reached by the vessel after the date on which the 60-workday limit is reached.
(2) Calculation.— 
For the purpose of calculating the 60-workday limit under this subsection, each day worked by a riding gang member who is neither a United States citizen nor an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence shall be counted against the limitation.
(d) Exceptions for Warranty Work.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subsections (b), (c), (e), and (f) do not apply to a riding gang member employed exclusively to perform, and who performs only, work that is
(A) customarily performed by original equipment manufacturers technical representatives;
(B) required by a manufacturers warranty on specific machinery and equipment; or
(C) required by a contractual guarantee or warranty on actual repairs performed in a shipyard located outside of the United States.
(2) Citizenship requirement.— 
Subsection (a)(1)(A) applies only to a riding gang member described in paragraph (1) who is on the vessel when it calls at a United States port.
(e) Recordkeeping.— 
In addition to the requirements of subsection (a), the owner or managing operator of a vessel to which subsection (a) applies shall ensure that all information necessary to ensure compliance with this section, as determined by the Secretary, is entered into the vessels official logbook required by chapter 113.
(f) Failure to Employ Qualified Available U.S. Citizens or Residents.
(1) In general.— 
The owner or operator of a vessel to which subsection (a) applies may not employ a riding gang member who is neither a United States citizen nor an alien lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence to perform work described in subsection (b) unless the owner or operator determines, in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary to carry out section 8103 (b)(3)(C), that there is not a sufficient number of United States citizens or individuals lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence who are qualified and available for the work for which the riding gang member is to be employed.
(2) Civil penalty.— 
A violation of paragraph (1) is punishable by a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 for each day during which the violation continues.
(3) Continuing violations.— 
The maximum amount of a civil penalty for a violation under this subsection shall not exceed
(A) $50,000 if the violation occurs in fiscal year 2006;
(B) $75,000 if the violation occurs in fiscal year 2007; and
(C) $100,000 if the violation occurs after fiscal year 2007.
(4) Determination of amount.— 
In determining the amount of the penalty, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation committed and, with respect to the violator, the degree of culpability, the history of prior offenses, the ability to pay, and such other matters as justice may require.
(5) Compromise, modification, and remittal.— 
The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit, with or without conditions, any civil penalty imposed under this section.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 83 - MASTERS AND OFFICERS

46 USC 8301 - Minimum number of licensed individuals

(a) Except as provided in chapter 89 of this title and except for a vessel operating only on rivers, harbors, lakes (except the Great Lakes), bays, sounds, bayous, and canals, a vessel subject to inspection under chapter 33 of this title shall engage a minimum of licensed individuals as follows:
(1) Each of those vessels propelled by machinery or carrying passengers shall have a licensed master.
(2) A vessel of at least 1,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title and propelled by machinery shall have 3 licensed mates, except
(A) in the case of a vessel other than a mobile offshore drilling unit, if on a voyage of less than 400 miles from port of departure to port of final destination, the vessel shall have 2 licensed mates; and
(B) in the case of a mobile offshore drilling unit, the vessel shall have licensed individuals as provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary under section 8101 of this title.
(3) A vessel of at least 200 gross tons but less than 1,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title and propelled by machinery shall have 2 licensed mates.
(4) A vessel of at least 100 gross tons but less than 200 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title and propelled by machinery shall have one licensed mate. However, if the vessel is on a voyage of more than 24 hours, it shall have 2 licensed mates.
(5) A freight vessel or a passenger vessel of at least 300 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title and propelled by machinery shall have a licensed engineer.
(b) An offshore supply vessel on a voyage of less than 600 miles shall have a licensed mate. However, if the vessel is on a voyage of at least 600 miles, the vessel shall have 2 licensed mates. An offshore supply vessel of more than 200 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title may not be operated without a licensed engineer.
(c) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel, a mobile offshore drilling unit when on location, or a yacht.
(d) The Secretary may
(1) suspend any part of this chapter during a national emergency proclaimed by the President; and
(2) increase the number of licensed individuals on a vessel to which this chapter applies if, in the Secretarys judgment, the vessel is not sufficiently manned for safe operation.
(e) The Secretary may prescribe the minimum number of licensed individuals for an oil spill response vessel.

46 USC 8302 - Staff department

(a) This section applies to a vessel of the United States except
(1) a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht;
(2) a vessel operated only on bays, sounds, inland waters, and lakes (except the Great Lakes); and
(3) a vessel ferrying passengers and cars on the Great Lakes.
(b) The staff department on a vessel is a separate and independent department. It consists of individuals registered under section 7101 of this title, clerks, and individuals assigned to the senior registered medical doctor.
(c) The staff department is composed of a medical division and a pursers division. The officer in charge of each division is responsible only to the master. The senior registered medical doctor is in charge of the medical division. The senior registered purser is in charge of the pursers division.
(d) The officer in charge of the pursers division of the staff department on an oceangoing passenger vessel licensed to carry more than 100 passengers shall be a registered chief purser. When more than 3 persons are employed in the pursers division of that vessel, there also shall be at least one registered senior assistant purser and one registered junior assistant purser.
(e) A person may not employ an individual to serve in, and an individual may not serve in, a grade of staff officer on a vessel, when that staff officer is required by this section to be registered, if the individual does not have a certificate of registry as staff officer in that grade. A person (including an individual) violating this subsection is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $100. However, if a registered staff officer is not available at the time of sailing, the vessel may sail with an unregistered staff officer or without a staff officer.
(f) A staff officer may not be included in a vessels certificate of inspection.
(g) A registered staff officer serving under this section who is a member of the Navy Reserve may wear on the officers uniform special distinguishing insignia prescribed by the Secretary of the Navy.
(h) The uniform stripes, decoration, or other insignia worn by a staff officer shall be of gold braid or woven gold or silver material. A crewmember (except a staff officer) may not wear any uniform with a staff officers identifying insignia.

46 USC 8303 - Service under licenses issued without examination

An individual issued a license without examination before October 29, 1941, to serve as master, mate, or engineer on a vessel not subject to inspection under part B of this subtitle, may not serve under authority of that license on a vessel that is subject to inspection under part B.

46 USC 8304 - Implementing the Officers Competency Certificates Convention, 1936

(a) In this section, high seas means waters seaward of the Boundary Line.
(b) The Officers Competency Certificates Convention, 1936 (International Labor Organization Draft Convention Numbered 53, on the minimum requirement of professional capacity for masters and officers on board merchant vessels), as ratified by the President on September 1, 1938, with understandings appended, and this section apply to a documented vessel operating on the high seas except
(1) a public vessel;
(2) a wooden vessel of primitive build, such as a dhow or junk;
(3) a barge; and
(4) a vessel of less than 200 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title.
(c) A person may not engage or employ an individual to serve as, and an individual may not serve as, a master, mate, or engineer on a vessel to which this section applies, if the individual does not have a license issued under section 7101 of this title authorizing service in the capacity in which the individual is to be engaged or employed.
(d) A person (including an individual) violating this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $100.
(e) A license issued to an individual to whom this section applies is a certificate of competency.
(f) A designated official may detain a vessel to which this section applies (by written order served on the owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of the vessel) when there is reason to believe that the vessel is about to proceed from a port of the United States to the high seas in violation of this section or a provision of the convention described in subsection (b) of this section. The vessel may be detained until the vessel complies with this section. Clearance may not be granted to a vessel ordered detained under this section.
(g) A foreign vessel to which the convention described in subsection (b) of this section applies, on the navigable waters of the United States, is subject to detention under subsection (f) of this section, and to an examination that may be necessary to decide if there is compliance with the convention.
(h) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel detained under subsection (f) or (g) of this section may appeal the order within 5 days as provided by regulation.
(i) An officer or employee of the Customs Service may be designated to enforce this section.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 85 - PILOTS

46 USC 8501 - State regulation of pilots

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this subtitle, pilots in the bays, rivers, harbors, and ports of the United States shall be regulated only in conformity with the laws of the States.
(b) The master of a vessel entering or leaving a port on waters that are a boundary between 2 States, and that is required to have a pilot under this section, may employ a pilot licensed or authorized by the laws of either of the 2 States.
(c) A State may not adopt a regulation or provision that discriminates in the rate of pilotage or half-pilotage between vessels sailing between the ports of one State and vessels sailing between the ports of different States, or against vessels because of their means of propulsion, or against public vessels of the United States.
(d) A State may not adopt a regulation or provision that requires a coastwise vessel to take a pilot licensed or authorized by the laws of a State if the vessel
(1) is propelled by machinery and subject to inspection under part B of this subtitle; or
(2) is subject to inspection under chapter 37 of this title.
(e) Any regulation or provision violating this section is void.

46 USC 8502 - Federal pilots required

(a) Except as provided in subsections (g) and (i) of this section, a coastwise seagoing vessel shall be under the direction and control of a pilot licensed under section 7101 of this title if the vessel is
(1) not sailing on register;
(2) underway;
(3) not beyond 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured; and
(4) 
(A) propelled by machinery and subject to inspection under part B of this subtitle; or
(B) subject to inspection under chapter 37 of this title.
(b) The fees charged for pilotage by pilots required under this section may not be more than the customary or legally established rates in the States in which the pilotage is performed.
(c) A State or political subdivision of a State may not impose on a pilot licensed under this subtitle an obligation to procure a State or other license, or adopt any other regulation that will impede the pilot in the performance of the pilots duties under the laws of the United States.
(d) A State or political subdivision of a State may not levy pilot charges on a vessel lawfully piloted by a pilot required under this section.
(e) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel operated in violation of this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $10,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(f) An individual serving as a pilot without having a license required by this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $10,000.
(g) 
(1) The Secretary shall designate by regulation the areas of the approaches to and waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, if any, on which a vessel subject to this section is not required to be under the direction and control of a pilot licensed under section 7101 of this title.
(2) In any area of Prince William Sound, Alaska, where a vessel subject to this section is required to be under the direction and control of a pilot licensed under section 7101 of this title, the pilot may not be a member of the crew of that vessel and shall be a pilot licensed by the State of Alaska who is operating under a Federal license, when the vessel is navigating waters between 6049 North latitude and the Port of Valdez, Alaska.
(h) The Secretary shall designate waters on which tankers over 1,600 gross tons subject to this section shall have on the bridge a master or mate licensed to direct and control the vessel under section 7101 (c)(1) of this title who is separate and distinct from the pilot required under subsection (a) of this section.
(i) 
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), a dredge to which this section would otherwise apply is exempt from the requirements of this section.
(2) If the Secretary determines, after notice and comment, that the exemption under paragraph (1) creates a hazard to navigational safety in a specified area, the Secretary may require that a dredge exempted by paragraph (1) which is operating in that area shall comply with this section.

46 USC 8503 - Federal pilots authorized

(a) The Secretary may require a pilot licensed under section 7101 of this title on a self-propelled vessel when a pilot is not required by State law and the vessel is
(1) engaged in foreign commerce; and
(2) operating
(A) in internal waters of the United States; or
(B) within 3 nautical miles from the baselines from which the territorial sea of the United States is measured.
(b) A requirement prescribed under subsection (a) of this section is terminated when the State having jurisdiction over the area involved
(1) establishes a requirement for a State licensed pilot; and
(2) notifies the Secretary of that fact.
(c) For the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the Secretary may not delegate the authority under this section to an agency except the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.
(d) A person violating this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate violation. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(e) A person that knowingly violates this section or a regulation prescribed under this section commits a class D felony.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 87 - UNLICENSED PERSONNEL

46 USC 8701 - Merchant mariners documents required

(a) This section applies to a merchant vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title except
(1) a vessel operating only on rivers and lakes (except the Great Lakes);
(2) a barge (except a seagoing barge or a barge to which chapter 37 of this title applies);
(3) a fishing, fish tender, or whaling vessel or a yacht;
(4) a sailing school vessel with respect to sailing school instructors and sailing school students;
(5) an oceanographic research vessel with respect to scientific personnel;
(6) a fish processing vessel entered into service before January 1, 1988, and not more than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title or entered into service after December 31, 1987, and having not more than 16 individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products;
(7) a fish processing vessel (except a vessel to which clause (6) of this subsection applies) with respect to individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products or in a support position not related to navigation;
(8) a mobile offshore drilling unit with respect to individuals, other than crew members required by the certificate of inspection, engaged on board the unit for the sole purpose of carrying out the industrial business or function of the unit;
(9) a passenger vessel not engaged in a foreign voyage with respect to individuals on board employed for a period of not more than 30 service days within a 12 month period as entertainment personnel, with no duties, including emergency duties, related to the navigation of the vessel or the safety of the vessel, its crew, cargo or passengers; and
(10) the Secretary may prescribe the individuals required to hold a merchant mariners document serving onboard an oil spill response vessel.
(b) A person may not engage or employ an individual, and an individual may not serve, on board a vessel to which this section applies if the individual does not have a merchant mariners document issued to the individual under section 7302 of this title. Except for an individual required to be licensed or registered under this part, the document must authorize service in the capacity for which the holder of the document is engaged or employed.
(c) On a vessel to which section 10306 or 10503 of this title does not apply, an individual required by this section to hold a merchant mariners document must exhibit it to the master of the vessel before the individual may be employed.
(d) A person (including an individual) violating this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500.

46 USC 8702 - Certain crew requirements

(a) This section applies to a vessel of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title except
(1) a vessel operating only on rivers and lakes (except the Great Lakes);
(2) a barge (except a seagoing barge or a barge to which chapter 37 of this title applies);
(3) a fishing, fish tender, or whaling vessel (except a fish tender vessel engaged in the Aleutian trade) or a yacht;
(4) a sailing school vessel with respect to sailing school instructors and sailing school students;
(5) an oceanographic research vessel with respect to scientific personnel;
(6) a fish processing vessel entered into service before January 1, 1988, and not more than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title or entered into service after December 31, 1987, and having not more than 16 individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products; and
(7) a fish processing vessel (except a vessel to which clause (6) of this subsection applies) with respect to individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products or in a support position not related to navigation.
(b) A vessel may operate only if at least
(1) 75 percent of the crew in each department on board is able to understand any order spoken by the officers, and
(2) 65 percent of the deck crew (excluding licensed individuals) have merchant mariners documents endorsed for a rating of at least able seaman, except that this percentage may be reduced to 50 percent
(i) on a vessel permitted under section 8104 of this title to maintain a 2-watch system; or
(ii) on a fish tender vessel engaged in the Aleutian trade.
(c) An able seaman is not required on a towing vessel operating on bays and sounds connected directly with the seas.
(d) An individual having a rating of less than able seaman may not be permitted at the wheel in ports, harbors, and other waters subject to congested vessel traffic, or under conditions of reduced visibility, adverse weather, or other hazardous circumstances.
(e) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel operated in violation of this section or a regulation prescribed under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $10,000.

46 USC 8703 - Tankermen on tank vessels

(a) A vessel of the United States to which chapter 37 of this title applies, that has on board oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or cargo residue, shall have a specified number of the crew certified as tankermen as required by the Secretary. This requirement shall be noted on the certificate of inspection issued to the vessel.
[(b) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–557, § 18, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2869.]
(c) A vessel to which section 3702 (b) of this title applies shall have on board as a crewmember in charge of the transfer operation an individual certified as a tankerman (qualified for the grade of fuel transferred), unless a master, mate, pilot, engineer, or operator licensed under section 7101 of this title is present in charge of the transfer. If the vessel does not have that individual on board, chapter 37 of this title applies to the vessel.

46 USC 8704 - Alien deemed to be employed in the United States

An alien is deemed to be employed in the United States for purposes of section 274A of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1324a) if the alien is an unlicensed individual employed on a fishing, fish processing, or fish tender vessel that
(1) is a vessel of the United States engaged in the fisheries in the navigable waters of the United States or the exclusive economic zone; and
(2) is not engaged in fishing exclusively for highly migratory species (as that term is defined in section 3 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802).

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 89 - SMALL VESSEL MANNING

46 USC 8901 - Freight vessels

A freight vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title shall be operated by an individual licensed by the Secretary to operate that type of vessel in the particular geographic area, under prescribed regulations.

46 USC 8902 - Small passenger vessels

A small passenger vessel shall be operated by an individual licensed by the Secretary to operate that type of vessel in the particular geographic area, under prescribed regulations.

46 USC 8903 - Self-propelled, uninspected passenger vessels

A self-propelled, uninspected passenger vessel shall be operated by an individual licensed by the Secretary to operate that type of vessel, under prescribed regulations.

46 USC 8904 - Towing vessels

(a) A towing vessel that is at least 26 feet in length measured from end to end over the deck (excluding sheer), shall be operated by an individual licensed by the Secretary to operate that type of vessel in the particular geographic area, under prescribed regulations.
(b) A vessel that tows a disabled vessel for consideration shall be operated by an individual licensed by the Secretary to operate that type of vessel in the particular geographic area, under prescribed regulations.
(c) The Secretary may prescribe by regulation requirements for maximum hours of service (including recording and recordkeeping of that service) of individuals engaged on a towing vessel that is at least 26 feet in length measured from end to end over the deck (excluding the sheer).

46 USC 8905 - Exemptions

(a) Section 8903 of this title applies to a recreational vessel operated in dealer demonstrations only if the Secretary decides that the application of section 8903 is necessary for recreational vessel safety under section 4302 (d) of this title.
(b) Section 8904 of this title does not apply to a vessel of less than 200 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title engaged in the offshore mineral and oil industry if the vessel has offshore mineral and oil industry sites or equipment as its ultimate destination or place of departure.
(c) Section 8904 of this title does not apply to an oil spill response vessel while engaged in oil spill response or training activities.

46 USC 8906 - Penalty

An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel operated in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 91 - TANK VESSEL MANNING STANDARDS

46 USC 9101 - Standards for foreign tank vessels

(a) 
(1) The Secretary shall evaluate the manning, training, qualification, and watchkeeping standards of a foreign country that issues documentation for any vessel to which chapter 37 of this title applies
(A) on a periodic basis; and
(B) when the vessel is involved in a marine casualty required to be reported under section 6101 (a)(4) or (5) of this title.
(2) After each evaluation made under paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Secretary shall determine whether
(A) the foreign country has standards for licensing and certification of seamen that are at least equivalent to United States law or international standards accepted by the United States; and
(B) those standards are being enforced.
(3) If the Secretary determines under this subsection that a country has failed to maintain or enforce standards at least equivalent to United States law or international standards accepted by the United States, the Secretary shall prohibit vessels issued documentation by that country from entering the United States until the Secretary determines those standards have been established and are being enforced.
(4) The Secretary may allow provisional entry of a vessel prohibited from entering the United States under paragraph (3) of this subsection if
(A) the owner or operator of the vessel establishes, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, that the vessel is not unsafe or a threat to the marine environment; or
(B) the entry is necessary for the safety of the vessel or individuals on the vessel.
(b) A foreign vessel to which chapter 37 of this title applies that has on board oil or hazardous material in bulk as cargo or cargo residue shall have a specified number of personnel certified as tankerman or equivalent, as required by the Secretary, when the vessel transfers oil or hazardous material in a port or place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. The requirement of this subsection shall be noted in applicable terminal operating procedures. A transfer operation may take place only if the crewmember in charge is capable of clearly understanding instructions in English.

46 USC 9102 - Standards for tank vessels of the United States

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe standards for the manning of each vessel of the United States to which chapter 37 of this title applies, related to the duties, qualifications, and training of the officers and crew of the vessel, including standards related to
(1) instruction in vessel and cargo handling and vessel navigation under normal operating conditions in coastal and confined waters and on the high seas;
(2) instruction in vessel and cargo handling and vessel navigation in emergency situations and under marine casualty or potential casualty conditions;
(3) qualifications for licenses by specific type and size of vessels;
(4) qualifications for licenses by use of simulators for the practice or demonstration of marine-oriented skills;
(5) minimum health and physical fitness criteria for various grades of licenses and certificates;
(6) periodic retraining and special training for upgrading positions, changing vessel type or size, or assuming new responsibilities;
(7) decisions about licenses and certificates, conditions of licensing or certification, and periods of licensing or certification by reference to experience, amount of training completed, and regular performance testing; and
(8) instruction in vessel maintenance functions.
(b) The Secretary shall waive the application of criteria required by subsection (a)(5) of this section for an individual having a license or certificate (including a renewal of the license or certificate) in effect on October 17, 1978. When the waiver is granted, the Secretary may prescribe conditions for the license or certificate and its renewal, as the Secretary decides are reasonable and necessary for the safety of a vessel on which the individual may be employed.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 93 - GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE

46 USC 9301 - Definitions

In this chapter
(1) Canadian registered pilot means an individual (except a regular crewmember of a vessel) who is registered by Canada on the same basis as an individual registered under section 9303 of this title.
(2) Great Lakes means Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, their connecting and tributary waters, the Saint Lawrence River as far east as Saint Regis, and adjacent port areas.
(3) United States registered pilot means an individual (except a regular crewmember of a vessel) who is registered under section 9303 of this title.

46 USC 9302 - Great Lakes pilots required

(a) 
(1) Except as provided in subsections (d), (e), and (f) of this section, each vessel of the United States operating on register and each foreign vessel shall engage a United States or Canadian registered pilot for the route being navigated who shall
(A) in waters of the Great Lakes designated by the President, direct the navigation of the vessel subject to the customary authority of the master; and
(B) in waters of the Great Lakes not designated by the President, be on board and available to direct the navigation of the vessel at the discretion of and subject to the customary authority of the master.
(2) The President shall make water designations under this subsection with regard to the public interest, the effective use of navigable waters, marine safety, and the foreign relations of the United States.
(b) A member of the complement of a vessel of the United States operating on register or of a vessel of Canada may serve as the pilot required on waters not designated by the President if the member is licensed under section 7101 of this title, or under equivalent provisions of Canadian law, to direct the navigation of the vessel on the waters being navigated.
(c) The authority extended under subsections (a) and (b) of this section to a Canadian registered pilot or other Canadian licensed officer to serve on certain vessels in United States waters of the Great Lakes shall continue as long as Canada extends reciprocity to United States registered pilots and other individuals licensed by the United States for pilotage service in Canadian waters of the Great Lakes.
(d) A vessel may be operated on the United States waters of the Great Lakes without a United States or Canadian registered pilot when
(1) the Secretary notifies the master that a registered pilot is not available; or
(2) the vessel or its cargo is in distress or jeopardy.
(e) A Canadian vessel regularly operating on the Great Lakes or between ports on the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River, with only an occasional voyage to ports in the maritime provinces of Canada in the Canadian coastal trade, is exempt from subsection (a) of this section as long as Canada permits enrolled vessels of the United States to be operated on Canadian waters of the Great Lakes under the direction of individuals licensed under section 7101 of this title.
(f) A documented vessel regularly operating on the Great Lakes or between ports on the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River is exempt from the requirements of subsection (a) of this section.

46 USC 9303 - United States registered pilot service

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation standards of competency to be met by each applicant for registration under this chapter. An applicant must
(1) have a license as master, mate, or pilot issued under section 7101 of this title;
(2) have acquired at least 24 months licensed service or equivalent experience on vessels or integrated towing vessels and tows of at least 4,000 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title, operating on the Great Lakes or oceans, with a minimum of 6 months of that service or experience having been on the Great Lakes; and
(3) agree that, if appointed as a United States registered pilot, the applicant will be available for service when required.
(b) The Secretary shall issue to each registered pilot under this chapter a certificate of registration describing the areas within which the pilot may serve. The pilot shall carry the certificate when in the service of a vessel.
(c) The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation the duration of validity of registration.
(d) The Secretary may prescribe by regulation the conditions for service by United States registered pilots, including availability for service.
(e) Subject to sections 551–559 of title 5, the Secretary may suspend or revoke a certificate of registration issued under this section if the holder fails to comply with a regulation prescribed under this chapter. Suspension or revocation of the holders license under chapter 77 of this title includes the holders certificate of registration.
(f) The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation rates and charges for pilotage services, giving consideration to the public interest and the costs of providing the services. The Secretary shall establish new pilotage rates by March 1 of each year. The Secretary shall establish base pilotage rates by a full ratemaking at least once every 5 years and shall conduct annual reviews of such base pilotage rates, and make adjustments to such base rates, in each intervening year.
(g) The Secretary shall ensure that a sufficient number of individuals are assigned to carrying out subsection (f).

46 USC 9304 - Pilotage pools

(a) The Secretary may authorize the formation of a pool by a voluntary association of United States registered pilots to provide for efficient dispatching of vessels and rendering of pilotage services.
(b) For pilotage pools, the Secretary may
(1) limit the number of the pools;
(2) prescribe regulations for their operation and administration;
(3) prescribe a uniform system of accounts;
(4) perform audits and inspections; and
(5) require coordination on a reciprocal basis with similar pool arrangements authorized by the appropriate agency of Canada.

46 USC 9305 - Agreements with Canada

To provide for a coordinated system of pilotage service on the Great Lakes, the Secretary, subject to the concurrence of the Secretary of State, may make agreements with the appropriate agency of Canada to
(1) fix the number of pilots to be registered in each country;
(2) provide for participation on an equitable basis;
(3) prescribe joint or identical rates and charges;
(4) coordinate pool operations; and
(5) establish conditions for services by registered pilots.

46 USC 9306 - State regulation prohibited

A State or political subdivision of a State may not regulate or impose any requirement on pilotage on the Great Lakes.

46 USC 9307 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

(a) The Secretary shall establish a Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee. The Committee
(1) may review proposed Great Lakes pilotage regulations and policies and make recommendations to the Secretary that the Committee considers appropriate;
(2) may advise, consult with, report to, and make recommendations to the Secretary on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage;
(3) may make available to the Congress recommendations that the Committee makes to the Secretary; and
(4) shall meet at the call of
(A) the Secretary, who shall call such a meeting at least once during each calendar year; or
(B) a majority of the Committee.
(b) 
(1) The Committee shall consist of seven members appointed by the Secretary in accordance with this subsection, each of whom has at least 5 years practical experience in maritime operations. The term of each member is for a period of not more than 5 years, specified by the Secretary. Before filling a position on the Committee, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register soliciting nominations for membership on the Committee.
(2) The membership of the Committee shall include
(A) the President of each of the 3 Great Lakes pilotage districts, or the Presidents representative;
(B) one member representing the interests of vessel operators that contract for Great Lakes pilotage services;
(C) one member representing the interests of Great Lakes ports;
(D) one member representing the interests of shippers whose cargoes are transported through Great Lakes ports; and
(E) a member with a background in finance or accounting, who
(i) must have been recommended to the Secretary by a unanimous vote of the other members of the Committee, and
(ii) may be appointed without regard to requirement in paragraph (1) that each member have 5 years of practical experience in maritime operations.
(c) 
(1) The Committee shall elect one of its members as the Chairman and one of its members as the Vice Chairman. The Vice Chairman shall act as Chairman in the absence or incapacity of the Chairman, or in the event of a vacancy in the office of the Chairman.
(2) The Secretary shall, and any other interested agency may, designate a representative to participate as an observer with the Committee. The Secretarys designated representative shall act as the executive secretary of the Committee and shall perform the duties set forth in section 10(c) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.).
(d) 
(1) The Secretary shall, whenever practicable, consult with the Committee before taking any significant action relating to Great Lakes pilotage.
(2) The Secretary shall consider the information, advice, and recommendations of the Committee in formulating policy regarding matters affecting Great Lakes pilotage.
(3) Any recommendations to the Secretary under subsection (a)(2) must have been approved by at least all but one of the members then serving on the committee.
(e) 
(1) A member of the Committee, when attending meetings of the Committee or when otherwise engaged in the business of the Committee, is entitled to receive
(A) compensation at a rate fixed by the Secretary, not exceeding the daily equivalent of the current rate of basic pay in effect for GS18 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5 including travel time; and
(B) travel or transportation expenses under section 5703 of title 5, United States Code.
(2) A member of the Committee shall not be considered to be an officer or employee of the United States for any purpose based on their receipt of any payment under this subsection.
(f) 
(1) The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) applies to the Committee, except that the Committee terminates on September 30, 2010.
(2) 2 years before the termination date set forth in paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Committee shall submit to the Congress its recommendation regarding whether the Committee should be renewed and continued beyond the termination date.

46 USC 9308 - Penalties

(a) An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or individual in charge of a vessel knowingly allowing the vessel to be operated in violation of section 9302 of this title is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of no more than $10,000 for each day during which the vessel is in violation. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(b) An individual who directs the navigation of a vessel in violation of section 9302 of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of no more than $10,000 for each day during which the violation occurs.
(c) A person violating a regulation prescribed under section 9303 of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of no more than $10,000.

Part G - Merchant Seamen Protection and Relief

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 101 - GENERAL

46 USC 10101 - Definitions

In this part
(1) master means the individual having command of a vessel.
(2) owner means the person to whom the vessel belongs.
(3) seaman means an individual (except scientific personnel, a sailing school instructor, or a sailing school student) engaged or employed in any capacity on board a vessel.
(4) fishing vessel includes
(A) a fish tender vessel; or
(B) a fish processing vessel entered into service before January 1, 1988, and not more than 1,600 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title or entered into service after December 31, 1987, and having not more than 16 individuals on board primarily employed in the preparation of fish or fish products.

46 USC 10102 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103206, title IV, 422(c)(1), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2439]

Section, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 560, related to designations and duties of shipping commissioners.

46 USC 10103 - Reports

(a) A master of a vessel to which section 8701 (a) of this title applies, who engages or discharges a seaman, shall submit reports to the vessel owner in the form, content, and manner of filing as prescribed by regulation, to ensure compliance with laws related to manning and the engagement and discharge of seamen.
(b) This section does not apply to a ferry or towing vessel operated in connection with a ferry operation, employed only in trades other than with foreign ports, lakes, bays, sounds, bayous, canals, or harbors.

46 USC 10104 - Requirement to report sexual offenses

(a) A master or other individual in charge of a documented vessel shall report to the Secretary a complaint of a sexual offense prohibited under chapter 109A of title 18, United States Code.
(b) A master or other individual in charge of a documented vessel who knowingly fails to report in compliance with this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 103 - FOREIGN AND INTERCOASTAL VOYAGES

46 USC 10301 - Application

(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided, this chapter applies to a vessel of the United States
(1) on a voyage between a port in the United States and a port in a foreign country (except a port in Canada, Mexico, or the West Indies); or
(2) of at least 75 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title on a voyage between a port of the United States on the Atlantic Ocean and a port of the United States on the Pacific Ocean.
(b) This chapter does not apply to a vessel on which the seamen are entitled by custom or agreement to share in the profit or result of a voyage or to riding gang members.
(c) Unless otherwise provided, this chapter does not apply to a foreign vessel.

46 USC 10302 - Shipping articles agreements

(a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, master, or individual in charge shall make a shipping agreement in writing with each seaman before the seaman commences employment.
(b) The agreement shall contain the following:
(1) the nature, and, as far as practicable, the duration of the intended voyage, and the port or country in which the voyage is to end.
(2) the number and description of the crew and the capacity in which each seaman is to be engaged.
(3) the time at which each seaman is to be on board to begin work.
(4) the amount of wages each seaman is to receive.
(5) regulations about conduct on board, and information on fines, short allowance of provisions, and other punishment for misconduct provided by law.
(6) a scale of the provisions that are to be provided each seaman.
(7) any stipulation in reference to advances and allotments of wages.
(8) other matters not contrary to law.
(c) Each shipping agreement must be signed by the master or individual in charge or a representative of the owner, charterer, or managing operator, and by each seaman employed.
(d) The owner, charterer, managing operator, master, or individual in charge shall maintain the shipping agreement and make the shipping agreement available to the seaman.

46 USC 10303 - Provisions

(a) A seaman shall be served at least 3 meals a day that total at least 3,100 calories, including adequate water and adequate protein, vitamins, and minerals in accordance with the United States Recommended Daily Allowances.
(b) The text of subsection (a) of this section shall be included in the agreement required by section 10302 of this title. A copy of the text also shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the galley and forecastle of each vessel.
(c) This section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

46 USC 10304 - Form of agreement

The form of the agreement required by section 10302 of this title shall be in substance as follows: United States of America (Date and place of first signature of agreement): It is agreed between the master and seamen of the , of which is at present master, or whoever shall go for master, now bound from the port of to (here the voyage is to be described, and the places named at which the vessel is to touch, or if that cannot be done, the general nature and probable length of the voyage is to be stated). The seamen agree to conduct themselves in an orderly, faithful, honest, and sober manner, and to be at all times diligent in their respective duties, and to be obedient to the lawful commands of the master, or of an individual who lawfully succeeds the master, and of their superior officers in everything related to the vessel, and the stores and cargo of the vessel, whether on board, in boats, or on shore. In consideration of this service by the seamen to be performed, the master agrees to pay the crew, as wages, the amounts beside their names respectively expressed, and to supply them with provisions according to the annexed scale. It is agreed that any embezzlement, or willful or negligent destruction of any part of the vessels cargo or stores, shall be made good to the owner out of the wages of the person guilty of the embezzlement or destruction. If an individual holds himself or herself out as qualified for a duty which the individual proves incompetent to perform, the individuals wages shall be reduced in proportion to the incompetency. It also is agreed that if a seaman considers himself or herself to be aggrieved by any breach of this agreement or otherwise, the seaman shall present the complaint to the master or officer in charge of the vessel, in a quiet and orderly manner, who shall take steps that the case requires. It also is agreed that (here any other stipulations may be inserted to which the parties agree, and that are not contrary to law). In witness whereof, the parties have subscribed their names to this agreement, on the dates beside their respective signatures. Signed by , master, on the day of , nineteen hundred and. Signature of seaman Time of service: Birthplace Months Age Days Height: Hospital money Feet Whole wages Inches Wages due Description: Place and time of entry Complexion Time at which seaman is to Hair be on board Wages each month In what capacity Wages each voyage Allotment payable to Advance wages Conduct qualifications Amount of monthly allotment Note.In the place for signature and descriptions of individuals engaged after the first departure of the vessel, the entries are to be made as above, except that the signature of the consul or vice consul, customs officer, or witness before whom the individual is engaged, is to be entered.

46 USC 10305 - Manner of signing agreement

The agreement required by section 10302 of this title shall be signed
(1) first by the master and dated at that time, after which each seaman shall sign; and
(2) in the presence of the master or individual in charge.

46 USC 10306 - Exhibiting merchant mariners documents

Before signing the agreement required by section 10302 of this title, each individual required by section 8701 of this title to have a merchant mariners document shall exhibit to the master or individual in charge a document issued to the individual, appropriately endorsed for the capacity in which the individual is to serve.

46 USC 10307 - Posting agreements

At the beginning of a voyage, the master shall have a legible copy of the agreement required by section 10302 of this title, omitting signatures, exhibited in a part of the vessel accessible to the crew.

46 USC 10308 - Foreign engagements

When a seaman is engaged outside the United States, the agreement required by section 10302 of this title shall be signed in the presence of a consular officer. If a consular officer is not available at the port of engagement, the seaman may be engaged, and the agreement shall be signed in the next port at which a consular officer is available.

46 USC 10309 - Engaging seamen to replace those lost by desertion or casualty

(a) If a desertion or casualty results in the loss of at least one seaman, the master shall engage, if obtainable, a number equal to the number of seamen of whose services the master has been deprived. The new seaman must have at least the same grade or rating as the seaman whose place the new seaman fills. The master shall report the loss and replacement to a consular officer at the first port at which the master arrives.
(b) This section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

46 USC 10310 - Discharge

A master shall deliver to a seaman a full and true account of the seamans wages and all deductions at least 48 hours before paying off or discharging the seaman.

46 USC 10311 - Certificates of discharge

(a) On discharging a seaman and paying the seamans wages, the master or individual in charge shall provide the seaman with a certificate of discharge. The form of the certificate shall be prescribed by regulation. It shall contain
(1) the name of the seaman;
(2) the citizenship or nationality of the seaman;
(3) the number of the seamans merchant mariners document;
(4) the name and official number of the vessel;
(5) the nature of the voyage (foreign, intercoastal, or coastwise);
(6) the propulsion class of the vessel;
(7) the date and place of engagement;
(8) the date and place of discharge; and
(9) the seamans capacity on the voyage.
(b) The certificate of discharge may not contain a reference about the character or ability of the seaman. The certificate shall be signed by the master and the seaman.
(c) A certificate of discharge may not be issued if the seaman holds a continuous discharge book. The entries shall be made in the discharge book in the same manner as the entries required by subsection (a) of this section.
(d) 
(1) A record of each discharge shall be maintained by the owner, charterer, managing operator, master, or individual in charge in the manner and location prescribed by regulation. The records may not be open for general or public use or inspection.
(2) A duplicate of a record of discharge shall be issued to a seaman at the request of the seaman.
(e) This section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

46 USC 10312 - Settlements on discharge

When discharge and settlement are completed, the master, individual in charge, or owner and each seaman shall sign the agreement required by section 10302 of this title.

46 USC 10313 - Wages

(a) A seamans entitlement to wages and provisions begins when the seaman begins work or when specified in the agreement required by section 10302 of this title for the seaman to begin work or be present on board, whichever is earlier.
(b) Wages are not dependent on the earning of freight by the vessel. When the loss or wreck of the vessel ends the service of a seaman before the end of the period contemplated in the agreement, the seaman is entitled to wages for the period of time actually served. The seaman shall be deemed a destitute seaman under section 11104 of this title. This subsection applies to a fishing or whaling vessel but not a yacht.
(c) When a seaman who has signed an agreement is discharged improperly before the beginning of the voyage or before one months wages are earned, without the seamans consent and without the seamans fault justifying discharge, the seaman is entitled to receive from the master or owner, in addition to wages earned, one months wages as compensation.
(d) A seaman is not entitled to wages for a period during which the seaman
(1) unlawfully failed to work when required, after the time fixed by the agreement for the seaman to begin work; or
(2) lawfully was imprisoned for an offense, unless a court hearing the case otherwise directs.
(e) After the beginning of the voyage, a seaman is entitled to receive from the master, on demand, one-half of the balance of wages earned and unpaid at each port at which the vessel loads or delivers cargo during the voyage. A demand may not be made before the expiration of 5 days from the beginning of the voyage, not more than once in 5 days, and not more than once in the same port on the same entry. If a master does not comply with this subsection, the seaman is released from the agreement and is entitled to payment of all wages earned. Notwithstanding a release signed by a seaman under section 10312 of this title, a court having jurisdiction may set aside, for good cause shown, the release and take action that justice requires. This subsection does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.
(f) At the end of a voyage, the master shall pay each seaman the balance of wages due the seaman within 24 hours after the cargo has been discharged or within 4 days after the seaman is discharged, whichever is earlier. When a seaman is discharged and final payment of wages is delayed for the period permitted by this subsection, the seaman is entitled at the time of discharge to one-third of the wages due the seaman.
(g) When payment is not made as provided under subsection (f) of this section without sufficient cause, the master or owner shall pay to the seaman 2 days wages for each day payment is delayed.
(h) Subsections (f) and (g) of this section do not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.
(i) This section applies to a seaman on a foreign vessel when in a harbor of the United States. The courts are available to the seaman for the enforcement of this section.

46 USC 10314 - Advances

(a) 
(1) A person may not
(A) pay a seaman wages in advance of the time when the seaman has earned the wages;
(B) pay advance wages of the seaman to another person; or
(C) make to another person an order, note, or other evidence of indebtedness of the wages, or pay another person, for the engagement of seamen when payment is deducted or to be deducted from the seamans wage.
(2) A person violating this subsection is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $500. A payment made in violation of this subsection does not relieve the vessel or the master from the duty to pay all wages after they have been earned.
(b) A person demanding or receiving from a seaman or an individual seeking employment as a seaman, remuneration for providing the seaman or individual with employment, is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $500.
(c) This section applies to a foreign vessel when in waters of the United States. An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, or master of a foreign vessel violating this section is liable to the Government for the same penalty as an owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, or master of a vessel of the United States for the same violation.
(d) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, or master of a vessel seeking clearance from a port of the United States shall present the agreement required by section 10302 of this title at the office of clearance. Clearance may be granted to a vessel only if this section has been complied with.
(e) This section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

46 USC 10315 - Allotments

(a) Under prescribed regulations, a seaman may stipulate as follows in the agreement required by section 10302 of this title for an allotment of any part of the wages the seaman may earn:
(1) to the seamans grandparents, parents, spouse, sister, brother, or children;
(2) to an agency designated by the Secretary of the Treasury to handle applications for United States savings bonds, to purchase bonds for the seaman; and
(3) for deposits to be made in an account for savings or investment opened by the seaman and maintained in the seamans name at a savings bank or a savings institution in which the accounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation.
(b) An allotment is valid only if made in writing and signed by and approved by a shipping commissioner. The shipping commissioner shall examine allotments and the parties to them to enforce compliance with the law. Stipulations for allotments made at the beginning of a voyage shall be included in the agreement and shall state the amounts and times of payment and the person to whom payments are to be made.
(c) Only an allotment complying with this section is lawful. A person falsely claiming qualification as an allottee under this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $500.
(d) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, or master of a vessel seeking clearance from a port of the United States shall present the agreement at the office of clearance. Clearance may be granted to a vessel only if this section has been complied with.
(e) This section applies to a foreign vessel when in waters of the United States. An owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, or master of a foreign vessel violating this section is liable to the Government for the same penalty as an owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, or master of a vessel of the United States for the same violation.

46 USC 10316 - Trusts

Sections 10314 and 10315 of this title do not prevent an employer from making deductions from the wages of a seaman, with the written consent of the seaman, if
(1) the deductions are paid into a trust fund established only for the benefit of seamen employed by that employer, and the families and dependents of those seamen (or of those seamen, families, and dependents jointly with other seamen employed by other employers, and the families and dependents of the other seamen); and
(2) the payments are held in trust to provide, from principal or interest, or both, any of the following benefits for those seamen and their families and dependents:
(A) medical or hospital care, or both.
(B) pensions on retirement or death of the seaman.
(C) life insurance.
(D) unemployment benefits.
(E) compensation for illness or injuries resulting from occupational activity.
(F) sickness, accident, and disability compensation.
(G) purchasing insurance to provide any of the benefits specified in this section.

46 USC 10317 - Loss of lien and right to wages

A master or seaman by any agreement other than one provided for in this chapter may not forfeit the masters or seamans lien on the vessel or be deprived of a remedy to which the master or seaman otherwise would be entitled for the recovery of wages. A stipulation in an agreement inconsistent with this chapter, or a stipulation by which a seaman consents to abandon a right to wages if the vessel is lost, or to abandon a right the seaman may have or obtain in the nature of salvage, is void.

46 USC 10318 - Wages on discharge in foreign ports

(a) When a master or seaman applies to a consular officer for the discharge of the seaman, the consular officer shall require the master to pay the seamans wages if it appears that the seaman has carried out the agreement required by section 10302 of this title or otherwise is entitled to be discharged. Then the consular officer shall discharge the seaman. A consular officer shall require the payment of extra wages only as provided in this section or in chapter 109 of this title.
(b) When discharging a seaman, a consular officer who fails to require the payment of the wages due a seaman at the time, and of the extra wages due under subsection (a) of this section, is accountable to the United States Government for the total amount.
(c) A seaman discharged under this section with the consent of the seaman is entitled to wages up to the time of discharge, but not for any additional period.
(d) If the seaman is discharged involuntarily, and it appears that the discharge was not because of neglect of duty, incompetency, or injury incurred on the vessel, the master shall provide the seaman with employment on a vessel agreed to by the seaman or shall provide the seaman with one months extra wages.
(e) Expenses for the maintenance and return of an ill or injured seaman to the United States shall be paid by the Secretary of State. If a seaman is incapacitated by illness or injury and prompt discharge is necessary, but a personal appearance of the master before a consular officer is impracticable, the master may provide transportation to the seaman to the nearest consular officer for discharge.
(f) A deduction from wages of the seaman is permitted only if the deduction appears in the account of the seaman required to be delivered under section 10310 of this title, except for matters arising after delivery of the account, in which case a supplementary account is required. During a voyage, the master shall record in the official logbook the matters about which deductions are to be made with the amounts of the deductions. The entries shall be made as the matters occur. The master shall produce the official logbook at the time of payment of wages, and also before a competent authority on the hearing of any complaint or question about the payment of wages.

46 USC 10319 - Costs of a criminal conviction

In a proceeding about a seamans wages, if it is shown that the seaman was convicted during the voyage of an offense by a competent tribunal and sentenced by the tribunal, the court hearing the case may direct that a part of the wages due the seaman, but not more than $15, be applied to reimburse the master for costs properly incurred in procuring the conviction and sentence.

46 USC 10320 - Records of seamen

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring vessel owners to maintain records of seamen on matters of engagement, discharge, and service. A vessel owner shall make these records available to the seaman and the Coast Guard on request.

46 USC 10321 - General penalty

(a) A person violating any provision of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000.
(b) The vessel is liable in rem for any penalty assessed under this section.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 105 - COASTWISE VOYAGES

46 USC 10501 - Application

(a) Except for a vessel to which chapter 103 of this title applies, this chapter applies to a vessel of at least 50 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title on a voyage between a port in one State and a port in another State (except an adjoining State).
(b) This chapter does not apply to a vessel on which the seamen are entitled by custom or agreement to share in the profit or result of a voyage.
(c) Unless otherwise provided, this chapter does not apply to a foreign vessel.

46 USC 10502 - Shipping articles agreements

(a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, master, or individual in charge shall make a shipping agreement in writing with each seaman before the seaman commences employment.
(b) The agreement shall include the date and hour on which the seaman must be on board to begin the voyage.
(c) The agreement may not contain a provision on the allotment of wages or a scale of provisions.
(d) Each shipping agreement must be signed by the master or individual in charge or a representative of the owner, charterer, or managing operator, and by each seaman employed.
(e) The owner, charterer, managing operator, master, or individual in charge shall maintain the shipping agreement and make the shipping agreement available to the seaman.
(f) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring shipping companies to maintain records of seamen on matters of engagement, discharge, and service. The shipping companies shall make these records available to the seaman and the Coast Guard on request.

46 USC 10503 - Exhibiting merchant mariners documents

Before signing the agreement required by section 10502 of this title, a seaman required by section 8701 of this title to have a merchant mariners document shall exhibit to the master a document issued to the seaman and appropriately endorsed for the capacity in which the seaman is to serve.

46 USC 10504 - Wages

(a) After the beginning of a voyage, a seaman is entitled to receive from the master, on demand, one-half of the balance of wages earned and unpaid at each port at which the vessel loads or delivers cargo during the voyage. A demand may not be made before the expiration of 5 days from the beginning of the voyage, not more than once in 5 days, and not more than once in the same port on the same entry. If a master does not comply with this subsection, the seaman is released from the agreement required by section 10502 of this title and is entitled to payment of all wages earned. Notwithstanding a release signed by a seaman under section 10312 of this title, a court having jurisdiction may set aside, for good cause shown, the release and take action that justice requires. This subsection does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.
(b) The master shall pay a seaman the balance of wages due the seaman within 2 days after the termination of the agreement required by section 10502 of this title or when the seaman is discharged, whichever is earlier.
(c) When payment is not made as provided under subsection (b) of this section without sufficient cause, the master or owner shall pay to the seaman 2 days wages for each day payment is delayed.
(d) Subsections (b) and (c) of this section do not apply to:
(1) a vessel engaged in coastwise commerce.
(2) a yacht.
(3) a fishing vessel.
(4) a whaling vessel.
(e) This section applies to a seaman on a foreign vessel when in harbor of the United States. The courts are available to the seaman for the enforcement of this section.

46 USC 10505 - Advances

(a) 
(1) A person may not
(A) pay a seaman wages in advance of the time when the seaman has earned the wages;
(B) pay advance wages of the seaman to another person; or
(C) make to another person an order, note, or other evidence of indebtedness of the wages, or pay another person, for the engagement of seamen when payment is deducted or to be deducted from the seamans wage.
(2) A person violating this subsection is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. A payment made in violation of this subsection does not relieve the vessel or the master from the duty to pay all wages after they have been earned.
(b) A person demanding or receiving from a seaman or an individual seeking employment as a seaman, remuneration for providing the seaman or individual with employment, is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000.
(c) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, or master of a vessel seeking clearance from a port of the United States shall present the agreement required by section 10502 of this title at the office of clearance. Clearance may be granted to a vessel only if this section has been complied with.
(d) This section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

46 USC 10506 - Trusts

Section 10505 of this title does not prevent an employer from making deductions from the wages of a seaman, with the written consent of the seaman, if
(1) the deductions are paid into a trust fund established only for the benefit of seamen employed by that employer, and the families and dependents of those seamen (or of those seamen, families, and dependents jointly with other seamen employed by other employers, and the families and dependents of the other seamen); and
(2) the payments are held in trust to provide, from principal or interest, or both, any of the following benefits for those seamen and their families and dependents:
(A) medical or hospital care, or both.
(B) pensions on retirement or death of the seaman.
(C) life insurance.
(D) unemployment benefits.
(E) compensation for illness or injuries resulting from occupational activity.
(F) sickness, accident, and disability compensation.
(G) purchasing insurance to provide any of the benefits specified in this section.

46 USC 10507 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103206, title IV, 415(a), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2438]

Section, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 571, related to duties of shipping commissioners.

46 USC 10508 - General penalties

(a) A master who carries a seaman on a voyage without first making the agreement required by section 10502 of this title shall pay to the seaman the highest wage that was paid for a similar voyage within the 3 months before the time of engagement at the port or place at which the seaman was engaged. A seaman who has not signed an agreement is not bound by the applicable regulations, penalties, or forfeitures.
(b) A master engaging a seaman in violation of this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $5,000. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

46 USC 10509 - Penalty for failing to begin voyage

(a) A seaman who fails to be on board at the time contained in the agreement required by section 10502 of this title, without having given 24 hours notice of inability to do so, shall forfeit, for each hours lateness, one-half of one days pay to be deducted from the seamans wages if the lateness is recorded in the official logbook on the date of the violation.
(b) A seaman who does not report at all or subsequently deserts forfeits all wages.
(c) This section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 106 - FISHING VOYAGES

46 USC 10601 - Fishing agreements

(a) Before proceeding on a voyage, the owner, charterer, or managing operator, or a representative thereof, including the master or individual in charge, of a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel shall make a fishing agreement in writing with each seaman employed on board if the vessel is
(1) at least 20 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; and
(2) on a voyage from a port in the United States.
(b) The agreement shall
(1) state the period of effectiveness of the agreement;
(2) include the terms of any wage, share, or other compensation arrangement peculiar to the fishery in which the vessel will be engaged during the period of the agreement; and
(3) include other agreed terms.

46 USC 10602 - Recovery of wages and shares of fish under agreement

(a) When fish caught under an agreement under section 10601 of this title are delivered to the owner of the vessel for processing and are sold, the vessel is liable in rem for the wages and shares of the proceeds of the seamen. An action under this section must be brought within six months after the sale of the fish.
(b) 
(1) In an action under this section, the owner shall produce an accounting of the sale and division of proceeds under the agreement. If the owner fails to produce the accounting, the vessel is liable for the highest value alleged for the shares.
(2) The owner may offset the value of general supplies provided for the voyage and other supplies provided the seaman bringing the action.
(c) This section does not affect a common law right of a seaman to bring an action to recover the seamans share of the fish or proceeds.

46 USC 10603 - Seamans duty to notify employer regarding illness, disability, and injury

(a) A seaman on a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel shall notify the master or individual in charge of the vessel or other agent of the employer regarding any illness, disability, or injury suffered by the seaman when in service to the vessel not later than seven days after the date on which the illness, disability, or injury arose.
(b) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations requiring that each fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, and fish tender vessel shall have on board a placard displayed in a prominent location accessible to the crew describing the seamans duty under subsection (a) of this section.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 107 - EFFECTS OF DECEASED SEAMEN

46 USC 10701 - Application

(a) Except as otherwise specifically provided, this chapter applies to a vessel on a voyage between
(1) a port of the United States and a port in a foreign country (except a port in Canada, Mexico, and the West Indies); and
(2) a port of the United States on the Atlantic Ocean and a port of the United States on the Pacific Ocean.
(b) This chapter does not apply to a vessel on which a seaman by custom or agreement is entitled to share in the profit or result of a voyage.
(c) This chapter does not apply to a foreign vessel.

46 USC 10702 - Duties of masters

(a) When a seaman dies during a voyage, the master shall take charge of the seamans money and property. An entry shall be made in the official logbook, signed by the master, the chief mate, and an unlicensed crewmember containing an inventory of the money and property and a statement of the wages due the seaman, with the total of the deductions to be made.
(b) On compliance with this chapter, the master shall obtain a written certificate of compliance from the consular officer or court clerk. Clearance may be granted to a foreign-bound vessel only when the certificate is received at the office of customs.

46 USC 10703 - Procedures of masters

(a) If the vessel is proceeding to the United States when a seaman dies, the master shall deliver the seamans money, property, and wages when the agreement required by this part is ended, as provided in section 10706 of this title.
(b) If the vessel touches at a foreign port after the death of the seaman, the master shall report to the first available consular officer. The consular officer may require the master to deliver to the officer the money, property, and wages of the seaman. The consular officer shall give the master a receipt for the matters delivered and certify on the agreement the particulars of the delivery. When the agreement ends, the master shall deliver the receipt to a district court of the United States.
(c) If the consular officer does not require the master to deliver the seamans money, property, and wages, the officer shall so certify on the agreement, and the master shall dispose of the money, property, and wages as provided under section 10706 of this title.
(d) A deduction from the account of a deceased seaman is valid only if certified by a proper entry in the official logbook.

46 USC 10704 - Duties of consular officers

When a seaman dies outside the United States leaving money or property not on board a vessel, the consular officer nearest the place at which the money and property is located shall claim and take charge of it.

46 USC 10705 - Disposition of money, property, and wages by consular officers

When money, property, or wages of a deceased seaman comes into possession of a consular officer, the officer may
(1) sell the property and remit the proceeds and other money or wages of the seaman the officer has received, to the district court of the United States for the district in which the voyage begins or ends; or
(2) deliver the money, property, and wages to the district court.

46 USC 10706 - Seamen dying in the United States

When a seaman dies in the United States and is entitled at death to claim money, property, or wages from the master or owner of a vessel on which the seaman served, the master or owner shall deliver the money, property, and wages to a district court of the United States within one week of the seamans death. If the seamans death occurs at sea, such money, property, or wages shall be delivered to a district court or a consular officer within one week of the vessels arrival at the first port call after the seamans death.

46 USC 10707 - Repealed. Pub. L. 103206, title IV, 420(a), Dec. 20, 1993, 107 Stat. 2438]

Section, Pub. L. 98–89, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 573, related to delivery to district court of money, property, and wages of a deceased seaman.

46 USC 10708 - Sale of property

A district court of the United States may direct the sale of any part of the property of a deceased seaman. Proceeds of the sale shall be held as wages of the seaman are held.

46 USC 10709 - Distribution

(a) 
(1) If the money, property, and wages of a seaman, including proceeds from the sale of property, are not more than $1,500 in value, the court, subject to deductions it allows for expenses and at least 60 days after receiving the money, property, and wages, may deliver the money, property, and wages to a claimant proving to be
(A) the seamans surviving spouse or child;
(B) entitled to the money, property, and wages under the seamans will or under a law or at common law; or
(C) entitled to secure probate, or take out letters of administration, although no probate or letters of administration have been issued.
(2) The court is released from further liability for the money, property, and wages distributed under paragraph (1) of this subsection.
(3) Instead of acting under paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection, the court may require probate or letters of administration to be taken out, and then deliver the money, property, and wages to the legal representative of the seaman.
(b) If the money, property, and wages are more than $1,500 in value, the court, subject to deductions for expenses, shall deliver the money, property, and wages to the legal representative of the seaman.

46 USC 10710 - Unclaimed money, property, and wages

(a) When a claim for the money, property, or wages of a deceased seaman held by a district court of the United States has not been substantiated within 6 years after their receipt by the court, the court, if a subsequent claim is made, may allow or refuse the claim.
(b) If, after money, property, and wages have been held by the court for 6 years, it appears to the court that no claim will have to be satisfied, the property shall be sold. The money and wages and the proceeds from the sale shall be deposited in the Treasury trust fund receipt account Unclaimed Moneys of Individuals Whose Whereabouts are Unknown.

46 USC 10711 - Penalties

An owner or master violating this chapter are each liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of 3 times the value of the seamans money, property, and wages involved or, if the value is not determined, of $200.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 109 - PROCEEDINGS ON UNSEAWORTHINESS

46 USC 10901 - Application

This chapter applies to a vessel of the United States except a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

46 USC 10902 - Complaints of unfitness

(a) 
(1) If the chief and second mates or a majority of the crew of a vessel ready to begin a voyage discover, before the vessel leaves harbor, that the vessel is unfit as to crew, hull, equipment, tackle, machinery, apparel, furniture, provisions of food or water, or stores to proceed on the intended voyage and require the unfitness to be inquired into, the master immediately shall apply to the district court of the United States at the place at which the vessel is located, or, if no court is being held at the place at which the vessel is located, to a judge or justice of the peace, for the appointment of surveyors. At least 2 complaining seamen shall accompany the master to the judge or justice of the peace.
(2) A master failing to comply with this subsection is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500.
(b) 
(1) Any 3 seamen of a vessel may complain that the provisions of food or water for the crew are, at any time, of bad quality, unfit for use, or deficient in quantity. The complaint may be made to the Secretary, commanding officer of a United States naval vessel, consular officer, or chief official of the Customs Service.
(2) The Secretary, officer, or official shall examine, or have examined, the provisions of food or water. If the provisions are found to be of bad quality, unfit for use, or deficient in quantity, the person making the findings shall certify to the master of the vessel which provisions are of bad quality, unfit for use, or deficient.
(3) The Secretary, officer, or official to whom the complaint was made shall
(A) make an entry in the official logbook of the vessel on the results of the examination; and
(B) submit a report on the examination to the district court of the United States at which the vessel is to arrive, with the report being admissible into evidence in any legal proceeding.
(4) The master is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $100 each time the master, on receiving the certification referred to in paragraph (2) of this subsection
(A) does not provide other proper provisions of food or water, when available, in place of the provisions certified as of bad quality or unfit for use;
(B) does not obtain sufficient provisions when the certification includes a finding of a deficiency in quantity; or
(C) uses provisions certified to be of bad quality or unfit for use.

46 USC 10903 - Proceedings on examination of vessel

(a) On application made under section 10902 (a) of this title, the judge or justice of the peace shall appoint 3 experienced and skilled marine surveyors to examine the vessel for the defects or insufficiencies complained of. The surveyors have the authority to receive and consider evidence necessary to evaluate the complaint. When the complaint involves provisions of food or water, one of the surveyors shall be a medical officer of the Public Health Service, if available. The surveyors shall make a report in writing, signed by at least 2 of them, stating whether the vessel is fit to proceed to sea or, if not, in what respect it is unfit, making appropriate recommendations about additional seamen, provisions, or stores, or about physical repairs, alterations, or additions necessary to make the vessel fit.
(b) On receiving the report, the judge or justice of the peace shall endorse on the report the judgment of the judge or justice on whether the vessel is fit to proceed on the voyage, and, if not, whether the vessel may proceed to another port at which the deficiencies can be corrected. The master and the crew shall comply with the judgment.
(c) The master shall pay all costs of the survey, report, and judgment. However, if the complaint of the crew appears in the report and judgment to have been without foundation, or if the complaint involved provisions of food or water, without reasonable grounds, the master or owner may deduct the amount of the costs and reasonable damages for the detention of the vessel, as determined by the judge or justice of the peace, from the wages of the complaining seamen.
(d) A master of a vessel violating this section who refuses to pay the costs and wages is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $100 and is liable in damages to each person injured by the refusal.

46 USC 10904 - Refusal to proceed

After a judgment under section 10903 of this title that a vessel is fit to proceed on the intended voyage, or after the order of a judgment to make up deficiencies is complied with, if a seaman does not proceed on the voyage, the unpaid wages of the seaman are forfeited.

46 USC 10905 - Complaints in foreign ports

(a) When a complaint under section 10902 (a) of this title is made in a foreign port, the procedures of this chapter shall be followed, with a consular officer performing the duties of the judge or justice of the peace.
(b) On review of the marine surveyors report, the consular officer may approve and must certify any part of the report with which the officer agrees. If the consular officer dissents from any part of the report, the officer shall certify reasons for dissenting from that part.

46 USC 10906 - Discharge of crew for unsuitability

When a survey is made at a foreign port, the surveyors shall state in the report whether, in their opinion, the vessel had been sent to sea unsuitably provided in any important particular, by neglect or design or through mistake or accident. If by neglect or design, and the consular officer approves the finding, the officer shall discharge a seaman requesting discharge and shall require the master to pay one months wages to that seaman in addition to wages then due, or sufficient money for the return of the seaman to the nearest and most convenient port of the United States, whichever is the greater amount.

46 USC 10907 - Permission to make complaint

(a) A master may not refuse to permit, deny the opportunity to, or hinder a seaman who wishes to make a complaint authorized by this chapter.
(b) A master violating this section is liable to the United States Government for civil penalty of $500.

46 USC 10908 - Penalty for sending unseaworthy vessel to sea

A person that knowingly sends or attempts to send, or that is a party to sending or attempting to send, a vessel of the United States to sea, in an unseaworthy state that is likely to endanger the life of an individual, shall be fined not more than $1,000, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 111 - PROTECTION AND RELIEF

46 USC 11101 - Accommodations for seamen

(a) On a merchant vessel of the United States the construction of which began after March 4, 1915 (except a yacht, pilot vessel, or vessel of less than 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title)
(1) each place appropriated to the crew of the vessel shall have a space of at least 120 cubic feet and at least 16 square feet, measured on the floor or deck of that place, for each seaman or apprentice lodged in the vessel;
(2) each seaman shall have a separate berth and not more than one berth shall be placed one above another;
(3) the place or berth shall be securely constructed, properly lighted, drained, heated, and ventilated, properly protected from weather and sea, and, as far as practicable, properly shut off and protected from the effluvium of cargo or bilge water; and
(4) crew space shall be kept free from goods or stores that are not the personal property of the crew occupying the place in use during the voyage.
(b) In addition to the requirements of subsection (a) of this section, a merchant vessel of the United States that in the ordinary course of trade makes a voyage of more than 3 days duration between ports and carries a crew of at least 12 seamen shall have a hospital compartment, suitably separated from other spaces. The compartment shall have at least one bunk for each 12 seamen constituting the crew (but not more than 6 bunks may be required).
(c) A steam vessel of the United States operating on the Mississippi River or its tributaries shall provide, under the direction and approval of the Secretary, an appropriate place for the crew that shall conform to the requirements of this section, as far as they apply to the steam vessel, by providing a properly heated sleeping room in the engineroom of the steam vessel properly protected from the cold, wind, and rain by means of suitable awnings or screens on either side of the guards or sides and forward, reaching from the boiler deck to the lower or main deck.
(d) A merchant vessel of the United States, the construction of which began after March 4, 1915, having more than 10 seamen on deck, shall have at least one lighted, clean, and properly heated and ventilated washing place. There shall be provided at least one washing outfit for each 2 seamen of the watch. A separate washing place shall be provided for the fireroom and engineroom seamen, if their number is more than 10, that shall be large enough to accommodate at least one-sixth of them at the same time, and have a hot and cold water supply and a sufficient number of washbasins, sinks, and shower baths.
(e) Forecastles shall be fumigated at intervals provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with the approval of the Secretary, and shall have at least 2 exits, one of which may be used in emergencies.
(f) The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, or licensed individual of a vessel not complying with this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of at least $50 but not more than $500.

46 USC 11102 - Medicine chests

(a) A vessel of the United States on a voyage from a port in the United States to a foreign port (except to a Canadian port), and a vessel of the United States of at least 75 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title on a voyage between a port of the United States on the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, shall be provided with a medicine chest.
(b) The owner and master of a vessel not equipped as required by subsection (a) of this section or a regulation prescribed under subsection (a) are liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500. If the offense was due to the fault of the owner, a master penalized under this section has the right to recover the penalty and costs from the owner.

46 USC 11103 - Slop chests

(a) A vessel to which section 11102 of this title applies shall be provided with a slop chest containing sufficient clothing for the intended voyage for each seaman, including
(1) boots or shoes;
(2) hats or caps;
(3) underclothing;
(4) outer clothing;
(5) foul weather clothing;
(6) everything necessary for the wear of a seaman; and
(7) a complete supply of tobacco and blankets.
(b) Merchandise in the slop chest shall be sold to a seaman desiring it, for the use of the seaman, at a profit of not more than 10 percent of the reasonable wholesale value of the merchandise at the port at which the voyage began.
(c) This section does not apply to a vessel on a voyage to Canada, Bermuda, the West Indies, Mexico, or Central America, or a fishing or whaling vessel.

46 USC 11104 - Destitute seamen

(a) A consular officer shall provide, for a destitute seaman of the United States, subsistence and passage to a port of the United States in the most reasonable manner, at the expense of the United States Government and subject to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of State. A seaman, if able, shall be required to perform duties on the vessel giving the seaman passage, in accordance with the seamans rating.
(b) A master of a vessel of the United States bound to a port of the United States shall take a destitute seaman on board at the request of a consular officer and transport the seaman to the United States. A master refusing to transport a destitute seaman when requested is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $100. The certificate signed and sealed by a consular officer is prima facie evidence of refusal. A master is not required to carry a destitute seaman if the seamans presence would cause the number of individuals on board to exceed the number permitted in the certificate of inspection or if the seaman has a contagious disease.
(c) Compensation for the transportation of destitute seamen to the United States who are unable to work shall be agreed on by the master and the consular officer, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of State. However, the compensation may be not more than the lowest passenger rate of the vessel, or 2 cents a mile, whichever is less.
(d) When a master of a vessel of the United States takes on board a destitute seaman unable to work, from a port or place not having a consular officer, for transportation to the United States or to a port at which there is a consular officer, the master or owner of the vessel shall be compensated reasonably under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of State.

46 USC 11105 - Wages on discharge when vessel sold

(a) When a vessel of the United States is sold in a foreign country, the master shall deliver to the consular officer a certified crew list and the agreement required by this part. The master shall pay each seaman the wages due the seaman and provide the seaman with employment on board another vessel of the United States bound for the port of original engagement of the seaman or to another port agreed on. If employment cannot be provided, the master shall
(1) provide the seaman with the means to return to the port of original engagement;
(2) provide the seaman passage to the port of original engagement; or
(3) deposit with the consular officer an amount of money considered sufficient by the officer to provide the seaman with maintenance and passage home.
(b) The consular officer shall endorse on the agreement the particulars of the payment, provision, or deposit made under this section.
(c) An owner of a vessel is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $500 if the master does not comply with this section.

46 USC 11106 - Wages on justifiable complaint of seamen

(a) Before a seaman on a vessel of the United States is discharged in a foreign country by a consular officer on the seamans complaint that the agreement required by this part has been breached because the vessel is badly provisioned or unseaworthy, or against the officers for cruel treatment, the officer shall inquire about the complaint. If satisfied of the justice of the complaint, the consular officer shall require the master to pay the wages due the seaman plus one months additional wages and shall discharge the seaman. The master shall provide the seaman with employment on another vessel or provide the seaman with passage on another vessel to the port of original engagement, to the most convenient port of the United States, or to some port agreeable to the seaman.
(b) When a vessel does not have sufficient provisions for the intended voyage, and the seaman has been forced to accept a reduced ration or provisions that are bad in quality or unfit for use, the seaman is entitled to recover from the master or owner an allowance, as additional wages, that the court hearing the case considers reasonable.
(c) Subsection (b) of this section does not apply when the reduction in rations was for a period during which the seaman willfully and without sufficient cause failed to perform duties or was lawfully under confinement on board or on shore for misconduct, unless that reduction can be shown to have been unreasonable.
(d) Subsection (b) of this section does not apply to a fishing or whaling vessel or a yacht.

46 USC 11107 - Unlawful engagements void

An engagement of a seaman contrary to a law of the United States is void. A seaman so engaged may leave the service of the vessel at any time and is entitled to recover the highest rate of wages at the port from which the seaman was engaged or the amount agreed to be given the seaman at the time of engagement, whichever is higher.

46 USC 11108 - Taxes

(a) Withholding.— 
Wages due or accruing to a master or seaman on a vessel in the foreign, coastwise, intercoastal, interstate, or noncontiguous trade or an individual employed on a fishing vessel or any fish processing vessel may not be withheld under the tax laws of a State or a political subdivision of a State. However, this section does not prohibit withholding wages of a seaman on a vessel in the coastwise trade between ports in the same State if the withholding is under a voluntary agreement between the seaman and the employer of the seaman.
(b) Liability.— 

(1) Limitation on jurisdiction to tax.— 
An individual to whom this subsection applies is not subject to the income tax laws of a State or political subdivision of a State, other than the State and political subdivision in which the individual resides, with respect to compensation for the performance of duties described in paragraph (2).
(2) Application.— 
This subsection applies to an individual
(A) engaged on a vessel to perform assigned duties in more than one State as a pilot licensed under section 7101 of this title or licensed or authorized under the laws of a State; or
(B) who performs regularly-assigned duties while engaged as a master, officer, or crewman on a vessel operating on the navigable waters of more than one State.

46 USC 11109 - Attachment of wages

(a) Wages due or accruing to a master or seaman are not subject to attachment or arrestment from any court, except for an order of a court about the payment by a master or seaman of any part of the masters or seamans wages for the support and maintenance of the spouse or minor children of the master or seaman, or both. A payment of wages to a master or seaman is valid, notwithstanding any prior sale or assignment of wages or any attachment, encumbrance, or arrestment of the wages.
(b) An assignment or sale of wages or salvage made before the payment of wages does not bind the party making it, except allotments authorized by section 10315 of this title.
(c) This section applies to an individual employed on a fishing vessel or any fish processing vessel.

46 USC 11110 - Seamens clothing

The clothing of a seaman is exempt from attachments and liens. A person detaining a seamans clothing shall be fined not more than $500, imprisoned for not more than 6 months, or both.

46 USC 11111 - Limit on amount recoverable on voyage

When a seaman is on a voyage on which a written agreement is required under this part, not more than $1 is recoverable from the seaman by a person for a debt incurred by the seaman during the voyage for which the seaman is signed on until the voyage is ended.

46 USC 11112 - Masters lien for wages

The master of a documented vessel has the same lien against the vessel for the masters wages and the same priority as any other seaman serving on the vessel.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 112 - MERCHANT MARINER BENEFITS

46 USC 11201 - Eligibility for veterans burial and cemetery benefits

(a) Eligibility.— 

(1) In general.— 
The qualified service of a person referred to in paragraph (2) shall be considered to be active duty in the Armed Forces during a period of war for purposes of eligibility for benefits under the following provisions of title 38:
(A) Chapter 23 (relating to burial benefits).
(B) Chapter 24 (relating to interment in national cemeteries).
(2) Covered individuals.— 
Paragraph (1) applies to a person who
(A) receives an honorable service certificate under section 11203 of this title; and
(B) is not eligible under any other provision of law for benefits under laws administered by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.
(b) Reimbursement for Benefits Provided.— 
The Secretary shall reimburse the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for the value of benefits that the Secretary of Veterans Affairs provides for a person by reason of eligibility under this section.
(c) Applicability.— 

(1) General rule.— 
Benefits may be provided under the provisions of law referred to in subsection (a)(1) by reason of this chapter only for deaths occurring after the date of the enactment of this chapter.
(2) Burials, etc. in national cemeteries.Notwithstanding paragraph (1), in the case of an initial burial or columbarium placement after the date of the enactment of this chapter, benefits may be provided under chapter 24 of title 38 by reason of this chapter (regardless of the date of death), and in such a case benefits may be provided under section 2306 of such title.

46 USC 11202 - Qualified service

For purposes of this chapter, a person shall be considered to have engaged in qualified service if, between August 16, 1945, and December 31, 1946, the person
(1) was a member of the United States merchant marine (including the Army Transport Service and the Naval Transport Service) serving as a crewmember of a vessel that was
(A) operated by the War Shipping Administration or the Office of Defense Transportation (or an agent of the Administration or Office);
(B) operated in waters other than inland waters, the Great Lakes, and other lakes, bays, and harbors of the United States;
(C) under contract or charter to, or property of, the Government of the United States; and
(D) serving the Armed Forces; and
(2) while so serving, was licensed or otherwise documented for service as a crewmember of such a vessel by an officer or employee of the United States authorized to license or document the person for such service.

46 USC 11203 - Documentation of qualified service

(a) Record of Service.— 
The Secretary, or in the case of personnel of the Army Transport Service or the Naval Transport Service, the Secretary of Defense, shall, upon application
(1) issue a certificate of honorable service to a person who, as determined by that Secretary, engaged in qualified service of a nature and duration that warrants issuance of the certificate; and
(2) correct, or request the appropriate official of the Federal Government to correct, the service records of that person to the extent necessary to reflect the qualified service and the issuance of the certificate of honorable service.
(b) Timing of Documentation.— 
A Secretary receiving an application under subsection (a) shall act on the application not later than 1 year after the date of that receipt.
(c) Standards Relating to Service.— 
In making a determination under subsection (a)(1), the Secretary acting on the application shall apply the same standards relating to the nature and duration of service that apply to the issuance of honorable discharges under section 401(a)(1)(B) of the GI Bill Improvement Act of 1977 (38 U.S.C. 106 note ).
(d) Correction of Records.— 
An official who is requested under subsection (a)(2) to correct the service records of a person shall make such correction.

46 USC 11204 - Processing fees

(a) Collection of Fees.— 
The Secretary, or in the case of personnel of the Army Transport Service or the Naval Transport Service, the Secretary of Defense, shall collect a fee of $30 from each applicant for processing an application submitted under section 11203 (a) of this title.
(b) Treatment of Fees Collected.— 
Amounts received by the Secretary under this section shall be deposited in the General Fund of the Treasury as offsetting receipts of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating and ascribed to Coast Guard activities. Amounts received by the Secretary of Defense under this section shall be deposited in the General Fund of the Treasury as offsetting receipts of the Department of Defense. In either case, such amounts shall be available, subject to appropriation, for the administrative costs of processing applications under section 11203 of this title.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 113 - OFFICIAL LOGBOOKS

46 USC 11301 - Logbook and entry requirements

(a) Except a vessel on a voyage from a port in the United States to a port in Canada, a vessel of the United States shall have an official logbook if the vessel is
(1) on a voyage from a port in the United States to a foreign port; or
(2) of at least 100 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title and is on a voyage between a port of the United States on the Atlantic Ocean and on the Pacific Ocean.
(b) The master of the vessel shall make or have made in the official logbook the following entries:
(1) each legal conviction of a seaman of the vessel and the punishment inflicted.
(2) each offense committed by a seaman of the vessel for which it is intended to prosecute or to enforce under a forfeiture, together with statements about reading the entry and the reply made to the charge as required by section 11502 of this title.
(3) each offense for which punishment is inflicted on board and the punishment inflicted.
(4) a statement of the conduct, character, and qualifications of each seaman of the vessel or a statement that the master declines to give an opinion about that conduct, character, and qualifications.
(5) each illness of or injury to a seaman of the vessel, the nature of the illness or injury, and the medical treatment.
(6) each death on board, with the cause of death, and if a seaman, the information required by section 10702 of this title.
(7) each birth on board, with the sex of the infant and name of the parents.
(8) each marriage on board, with the names and ages of the parties.
(9) the name of each seaman who ceases to be a crewmember (except by death), with the place, time, manner, and the cause why the seaman ceased to be a crewmember.
(10) the wages due to a seaman who dies during the voyage and the gross amount of all deductions to be made from the wages.
(11) the sale of the property of a seaman who dies during the voyage, including a statement of each article sold and the amount received for the property.
(12) when a marine casualty occurs, a statement about the casualty and the circumstances under which it occurred, made immediately after the casualty when practicable to do so.

46 USC 11302 - Manner of making entries

Each entry made in the official logbook
(1) shall be made as soon as possible after the occurrence;
(2) if not made on the day of the occurrence, shall be dated and state the date of the occurrence;
(3) if the entry is about an occurrence happening before the vessels arrival at the final port of discharge, shall be made not later than 24 hours after the arrival;
(4) shall be signed by the master; and
(5) shall be signed by the chief mate or another seaman.

46 USC 11303 - Penalties

(a) A master failing to maintain an official logbook as required by this part is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $200.
(b) A master failing to make an entry in the vessels official logbook as required by this part is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $200.
(c) A person is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of $150 when the person makes, procures to be made, or assists in making, an entry in the vessels official logbook
(1) later than 24 hours after the vessels arrival at the final port of discharge; and
(2) that is about an occurrence that happened before that arrival.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 115 - OFFENSES AND PENALTIES

46 USC 11501 - Penalties for specified offenses

When a seaman lawfully engaged commits any of the following offenses, the seaman shall be punished as specified:
(1) For desertion, the seaman forfeits any part of the money or property the seaman leaves on board and any part of earned wages.
(2) For neglecting or refusing without reasonable cause to join the seamans vessel or to proceed to sea in the vessel, for absence without leave within 24 hours of the vessels sailing from a port (at the beginning or during the voyage), or for absence without leave from duties and without sufficient reason, the seaman forfeits from the seamans wages not more than 2 days pay or a sufficient amount to defray expenses incurred in hiring a substitute.
(3) For quitting the vessel without leave after the vessels arrival at the port of delivery and before the vessel is placed in security, the seaman forfeits from the seamans wages not more than one months pay.
(4) For willful disobedience to a lawful command at sea, the seaman, at the discretion of the master, may be confined until the disobedience ends, and on arrival in port forfeits from the seamans wages not more than 4 days pay or, at the discretion of the court, may be imprisoned for not more than one month.
(5) For continued willful disobedience to lawful command or continued willful neglect of duty at sea, the seaman, at the discretion of the master, may be confined, on water and 1,000 calories, with full rations every 5th day, until the disobedience ends, and on arrival in port forfeits, for each 24 hours continuance of the disobedience or neglect, not more than 12 days pay or, at the discretion of the court, may be imprisoned for not more than 3 months.
(6) For assaulting a master, mate, pilot, engineer, or staff officer, the seaman shall be imprisoned for not more than 2 years.
(7) For willfully damaging the vessel, or embezzling or willfully damaging any of the stores or cargo, the seaman forfeits from the seamans wages the amount of the loss sustained and, at the discretion of the court, may be imprisoned for not more than 12 months.
(8) For smuggling for which a seaman is convicted causing loss or damage to the owner or master, the seaman is liable to the owner or master for the loss or damage, and any part of the seamans wages may be retained to satisfy the liability. The seaman also may be imprisoned for not more than 12 months.

46 USC 11502 - Entry of offenses in logbook

(a) When an offense listed in section 11501 of this title is committed, an entry shall be made in the vessels official logbook
(1) on the day of the offense;
(2) stating the details;
(3) signed by the master; and
(4) signed by the chief mate or another seaman.
(b) Before arrival in port if the offense was committed at sea, or before departure if the offense was committed in port and the offender is still on the vessel
(1) the entry shall be read to the offender;
(2) the offender shall be given a copy; and
(3) the offender shall be given the opportunity to reply.
(c) After subsection (b) of this section has been complied with, an entry shall be made in the official logbook
(1) stating that the entry about the offense was read and a copy provided to the offender;
(2) stating the offenders reply;
(3) signed by the master; and
(4) signed by the chief mate or another seaman.
(d) In a subsequent legal proceeding, if the entries required by this section are not produced or proved, the court may refuse to receive evidence of the offense.

46 USC 11503 - Duties of consular officers related to insubordination

(a) A consular officer shall use every means to discountenance insubordination on vessels of the United States, including employing the aid of local authorities.
(b) When a seaman is accused of insubordination, a consular officer shall inquire into the facts and proceed as provided in section 11106 of this title. If the consular officer discharges the seaman, the officer shall endorse the agreement required by this part and enter in the vessels official logbook the cause and particulars of the discharge.

46 USC 11504 - Enforcement of forfeitures

When an offense by a seaman also is a criminal violation, it is not necessary that a criminal proceeding be brought to enforce a forfeiture.

46 USC 11505 - Disposal of forfeitures

(a) Money, property, and wages forfeited under this chapter for desertion may be applied to compensate the owner or master of the vessel for expenses caused by the desertion. The balance shall be transferred to the appropriate district court of the United States when the voyage is completed.
(b) If it appears to the district court that the forfeiture was imposed properly, the property transferred may be sold in the same manner prescribed for the disposition of the property of deceased seamen. The court shall deposit in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts the proceeds of the sale and any money and wages transferred to the court.
(c) When an owner or master fails to transfer the balance as required under subsection (a) of this section, the owner or master is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of 2 times the amount of the balance, recoverable by the Secretary in the same manner that seamans wages are recovered.
(d) In all other cases of forfeiture of wages, the forfeiture shall be for the benefit of the owner of the vessel.

46 USC 11506 - Carrying sheath knives

A seaman in the merchant marine may not wear a sheath knife on board a vessel without the consent of the master. The master of a vessel of the United States shall inform each seaman of this prohibition before engagement. A master failing to advise a seaman is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of $50.

46 USC 11507 - Surrender of offending officers

When an officer of a vessel of the United States (except the master) has violated section 2191 of title 18, and the master has actual knowledge of the offense or if complaint is made within 3 days after reaching port, the master shall surrender the offending officer to the proper authorities. If the master fails to use diligence to comply with this section and the offender escapes, the owner, the master, and the vessel are liable for damages to the individual unlawfully punished.

Part H - Identification of Vessels

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 121 - DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL

46 USC 12101 - Definitions

(a) Rebuilt in the United States.— 
In this chapter, a vessel is deemed to have been rebuilt in the United States only if the entire rebuilding, including the construction of any major component of the hull or superstructure, was done in the United States.
(b) Related Terms in Other Laws.— 
When the following terms are used in a law, regulation, document, ruling, or other official act referring to the documentation of a vessel, the following definitions apply:
(1) Registry endorsement.— 
The terms certificate of registry, register, and registry mean a certificate of documentation with a registry endorsement issued under this chapter.
(2) Coastwise endorsement.— 
The terms license, enrollment and license, license for the coastwise (or coasting) trade, and enrollment and license for the coastwise (or coasting) trade mean a certificate of documentation with a coastwise endorsement issued under this chapter.
(3) Yacht.— 
The term yacht means a recreational vessel even if not documented.

46 USC 12102 - Vessels requiring documentation

(a) In General.— 
Except as otherwise provided, a vessel may engage in a trade only if the vessel has been issued a certificate of documentation with an endorsement for that trade under this chapter.
(b) Vessels Less Than 5 Net Tons.— 
A vessel of less than 5 net tons may engage in a trade without being documented if the vessel otherwise satisfies the requirements to engage in the particular trade.
(c) Barges.— 
A barge qualified to engage in the coastwise trade may engage in the coastwise trade, without being documented, on rivers, harbors, lakes (except the Great Lakes), canals, and inland waters.

46 USC 12103 - General eligibility requirements

(a) In General.— 
Except as otherwise provided, a certificate of documentation for a vessel may be issued under this chapter only if the vessel is
(1) wholly owned by one or more individuals or entities described in subsection (b);
(2) at least 5 net tons as measured under part J of this subtitle; and
(3) not documented under the laws of a foreign country.
(b) Eligible Owners.— 
For purposes of subsection (a)(1), the following are eligible owners:
(1) An individual who is a citizen of the United States.
(2) An association, trust, joint venture, or other entity if
(A) each of its members is a citizen of the United States; and
(B) it is capable of holding title to a vessel under the laws of the United States or a State.
(3) A partnership if
(A) each general partner is a citizen of the United States; and
(B) the controlling interest in the partnership is owned by citizens of the United States.
(4) A corporation if
(A) it is incorporated under the laws of the United States or a State;
(B) its chief executive officer, by whatever title, and the chairman of its board of directors are citizens of the United States; and
(C) no more of its directors are noncitizens than a minority of the number necessary to constitute a quorum.
(5) The United States Government.
(6) The government of a State.
(c) Temporary Certificates Prior to Measurement.— 
Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2), the Secretary may issue a temporary certificate of documentation for a vessel before it is measured.

46 USC 12104 - Applications for documentation

(a) In General.— 
An application for a certificate of documentation or endorsement under this chapter must be filed by the owner of the vessel. The application must be filed in the manner, be in the form, and contain the information prescribed by the Secretary.
(b) Applicant’s Identifying Information.— 
The Secretary shall require the applicant to provide
(1) if the applicant is an individual, the individuals social security number; or
(2) if the applicant is an entity
(A) the entitys taxpayer identification number; or
(B) if the entity does not have a taxpayer identification number, the social security number of an individual who is a corporate officer, general partner, or individual trustee of the entity and who signs the application.

46 USC 12105 - Issuance of documentation

(a) In General.— 
Except as provided in section 12152 of this title, the Secretary, on receipt of a proper application, shall issue a certificate of documentation or a temporary certificate of documentation for a vessel satisfying the requirements of section 12103 of this title. The certificate shall contain each endorsement under subchapter II of this chapter for which the owner applies and the vessel is eligible.
(b) Temporary Certificates for Recreational Vessels.— 
The Secretary may delegate, subject to the supervision and control of the Secretary and under terms prescribed by regulation, to private entities determined and certified by the Secretary to be qualified, the authority to issue a temporary certificate of documentation for a recreational vessel eligible under section 12103 of this title. A temporary certificate issued under this subsection is valid for not more than 30 days.
(c) Information To Be Included in Certificate.— 
A certificate of documentation shall
(1) identify and describe the vessel;
(2) identify the owner of the vessel; and
(3) contain additional information prescribed by the Secretary.
(d) Procedures To Ensure Integrity and Accuracy.— 
The Secretary shall prescribe procedures to ensure the integrity of, and the accuracy of information contained in, certificates of documentation.

46 USC 12106 - Surrender of title and number

(a) In General.— 
A documented vessel may not be titled by a State or required to display numbers under chapter 123 of this title, and any certificate of title issued by a State for a documented vessel shall be surrendered as provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(b) Vessels Covered by Preferred Mortgage.— 
The Secretary may approve the surrender under subsection (a) of a certificate of title for a vessel covered by a preferred mortgage under section 31322 (d) of this title only if the mortgagee consents.

46 USC 12107 - Wrecked vessels

(a) Requirements.— 
A vessel is a wrecked vessel under this chapter if it
(1) was wrecked on a coast of the United States or adjacent waters; and
(2) has undergone repairs in a shipyard in the United States equal to at least 3 times the appraised salvage value of the vessel.
(b) Appraisals.— 
The Secretary may appoint a board of three appraisers to determine whether a vessel satisfies subsection (a)(2). The costs of the appraisal shall be paid by the owner of the vessel.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - ENDORSEMENTS AND SPECIAL DOCUMENTATION

46 USC 12111 - Registry endorsement

(a) Requirements.— 
A registry endorsement may be issued for a vessel that satisfies the requirements of section 12103 of this title.
(b) Authorized Activity.— 
A vessel for which a registry endorsement is issued may engage in foreign trade or trade with Guam, American Samoa, Wake, Midway, or Kingman Reef.
(c) Certain Vessels Owned by Trusts.— 

(1) Nonapplication of beneficiary citizenship requirement.— 
For the issuance of a certificate of documentation with only a registry endorsement, the beneficiaries of a trust are not required to be citizens of the United States if the trust qualifies under paragraph (2) and the vessel is subject to a charter to a citizen of the United States.
(2) Requirements for trust to qualify.— 

(A) In general.— 
Subject to subparagraph (B), a trust qualifies under this paragraph with respect to a vessel only if
(i) each trustee is a citizen of the United States; and
(ii) the application for documentation of the vessel includes the affidavit of each trustee stating that the trustee is not aware of any reason involving a beneficiary of the trust that is not a citizen of the United States, or involving any other person that is not a citizen of the United States, as a result of which the beneficiary or other person would hold more than 25 percent of the aggregate power to influence or limit the exercise of the authority of the trustee with respect to matters involving any ownership or operation of the vessel that may adversely affect the interests of the United States.
(B) Authority of non-citizens.— 
If any person that is not a citizen of the United States has authority to direct or participate in directing a trustee for a trust in matters involving any ownership or operation of the vessel that may adversely affect the interests of the United States or in removing a trustee for a trust without cause, either directly or indirectly through the control of another person, the trust is not qualified under this paragraph unless the trust instrument provides that persons who are not citizens of the United States may not hold more than 25 percent of the aggregate authority to so direct or remove a trustee.
(C) Ownership by non-citizens.— 
Subparagraphs (A) and (B) do not prohibit a person that is not a citizen of the United States from holding more than 25 percent of the beneficial interest in a trust.
(3) Citizenship of person chartering vessel.— 
If a person chartering a vessel from a trust that qualifies under paragraph (2) is a citizen of the United States under section 50501 of this title, the vessel is deemed to be owned by a citizen of the United States for purposes of that section and related laws, except chapter 531 of this title.

46 USC 12112 - Coastwise endorsement

(a) Requirements.— 
A coastwise endorsement may be issued for a vessel that
(1) satisfies the requirements of section 12103 of this title;
(2) 
(A) was built in the United States; or
(B) if not built in the United States
(i) was captured in war by citizens of the United States and lawfully condemned as prize;
(ii) was adjudged to be forfeited for a breach of the laws of the United States; or
(iii) qualifies as a wrecked vessel under section 12107 of this title; and
(3) otherwise qualifies under the laws of the United States to engage in the coastwise trade.
(b) Authorized Activity.— 
Subject to the laws of the United States regulating the coastwise trade, a vessel for which a coastwise endorsement is issued may engage in the coastwise trade.

46 USC 12113 - Fishery endorsement

(a) Requirements.— 
A fishery endorsement may be issued for a vessel that
(1) satisfies the requirements of section 12103 of this title and, if owned by an entity, the entity satisfies the ownership requirements in subsection (c);
(2) was built in the United States;
(3) if rebuilt, was rebuilt in the United States;
(4) was not forfeited to the United States Government after July 1, 2001, for a breach of the laws of the United States; and
(5) otherwise qualifies under the laws of the United States to engage in the fisheries.
(b) Authorized Activity.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subject to the laws of the United States regulating the fisheries, a vessel for which a fishery endorsement is issued may engage in the fisheries.
(2) Use by prohibited persons.— 
A fishery endorsement is invalid immediately if the vessel for which it is issued is used as a fishing vessel while it is chartered or leased to an individual who is not a citizen of the United States or to an entity that is not eligible to own a vessel with a fishery endorsement.
(c) Ownership Requirements for Entities.— 

(1) In general.— 
A vessel owned by an entity is eligible for a fishery endorsement only if at least 75 percent of the interest in the entity, at each tier of ownership and in the aggregate, is owned and controlled by citizens of the United States.
(2) Determining 75 percent interest.— 
In determining whether at least 75 percent of the interest in the entity is owned and controlled by citizens of the United States under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall apply section 50501 (d) of this title, except that for this purpose the terms control or controlled
(A) include the right to
(i) direct the business of the entity;
(ii) limit the actions of or replace the chief executive officer, a majority of the board of directors, any general partner, or any person serving in a management capacity of the entity; or
(iii) direct the transfer, operation, or manning of a vessel with a fishery endorsement; but
(B) do not include the right to simply participate in the activities under subparagraph (A), or the exercise of rights under loan or mortgage covenants by a mortgagee eligible to be a preferred mortgagee under section 31322 (a) of this title, except that a mortgagee not eligible to own a vessel with a fishery endorsement may only operate such a vessel to the extent necessary for the immediate safety of the vessel or for repairs, drydocking, or berthing changes.
(3) Exceptions.— 
This subsection does not apply to a vessel when it is engaged in the fisheries in the exclusive economic zone under the authority of the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council established under section 302(a)(1)(H) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1852 (a)(1)(H)) or to a purse seine vessel when it is engaged in tuna fishing in the Pacific Ocean outside the exclusive economic zone or pursuant to the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Treaty, provided that the owner of the vessel continues to comply with the eligibility requirements for a fishery endorsement under the Federal law that was in effect on October 1, 1998. A fishery endorsement issued pursuant to this paragraph is valid for engaging only in the activities described in this paragraph.
(d) Requirements Based on Length, Tonnage, or Horsepower.— 

(1) Application.— 
This subsection applies to a vessel that
(A) is greater than 165 feet in registered length;
(B) is more than 750 gross registered tons as measured under chapter 145 of this title or 1,900 gross registered tons as measured under chapter 143 of this title; or
(C) has an engine or engines capable of producing a total of more than 3,000 shaft horsepower.
(2) Requirements.— 
A vessel subject to this subsection is not eligible for a fishery endorsement unless
(A) 
(i) a certificate of documentation was issued for the vessel and endorsed with a fishery endorsement that was effective on September 25, 1997;
(ii) the vessel is not placed under foreign registry after October 21, 1998; and
(iii) if the fishery endorsement is invalidated after October 21, 1998, application is made for a new fishery endorsement within 15 business days of the invalidation; or
(B) the owner of the vessel demonstrates to the Secretary that the regional fishery management council of jurisdiction established under section 302(a)(1) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1852 (a)(1)) has recommended after October 21, 1998, and the Secretary of Commerce has approved, conservation and management measures in accordance with the American Fisheries Act (Public Law 105277, div. C, title II) (16 U.S.C. 1851 note )[1] to allow the vessel to be used in fisheries under the councils authority.
(e) Vessels Measuring 100 Feet or Greater.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Administrator of the Maritime Administration shall administer subsections (c) and (d) with respect to vessels 100 feet or greater in registered length. The owner of each such vessel shall file a statement of citizenship setting forth all relevant facts regarding vessel ownership and control with the Administrator on an annual basis to demonstrate compliance with those provisions.
(2) Regulations.— 
Regulations to implement this subsection shall conform to the extent practicable with the regulations establishing the form of citizenship affidavit set forth in part 355 of title 46, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on September 25, 1997, except that the form of the statement shall be written in a manner to allow the owner of the vessel to satisfy any annual renewal requirements for a certificate of documentation for the vessel and to comply with this subsection and subsections (c) and (d), and shall not be required to be notarized.
(3) Transfer of ownership.— 
Transfers of ownership and control of vessels subject to subsection (c) or (d), which are 100 feet or greater in registered length, shall be rigorously scrutinized for violations of those provisions, with particular attention given to
(A) leases, charters, mortgages, financing, and similar arrangements;
(B) the control of persons not eligible to own a vessel with a fishery endorsement under subsection (c) or (d), over the management, sales, financing, or other operations of an entity; and
(C) contracts involving the purchase over extended periods of time of all, or substantially all, of the living marine resources harvested by a fishing vessel.
(f) Vessels Measuring Less Than 100 Feet.— 
The Secretary shall establish reasonable and necessary requirements to demonstrate compliance with subsections (c) and (d), with respect to vessels measuring less than 100 feet in registered length, and shall seek to minimize the administrative burden on individuals who own and operate those vessels.
(g) Vessels Purchased Through Fishing Capacity Reduction Program.— 
A vessel purchased by the Secretary of Commerce through a fishing capacity reduction program under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act[1] (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) or section 308 of the Interjurisdictional Fisheries Act of 1986 (16 U.S.C. 4107) is not eligible for a fishery endorsement, and any fishery endorsement issued for that vessel is invalid.
(h) Revocation of Endorsements.— 
The Secretary shall revoke the fishery endorsement of any vessel subject to subsection (c) or (d) whose owner does not comply with those provisions.
(i) Regulations.— 
Regulations to implement subsections (c) and (d) and sections 12151 (c) and 31322 (b) of this title shall prohibit impermissible transfers of ownership or control, specify any transactions that require prior approval of an implementing agency, identify transactions that do not require prior agency approval, and to the extent practicable, minimize disruptions to the commercial fishing industry, to the traditional financing arrangements of that industry, and to the opportunity to form fishery cooperatives.
[1] See References in Text note below.

46 USC 12114 - Recreational endorsement

(a) Requirements.— 
A recreational endorsement may be issued for a vessel that satisfies the requirements of section 12103 of this title.
(b) Authorized Activity.— 
A vessel operating under a recreational endorsement may be operated only for pleasure.
(c) Application of Customs Laws.— 
A vessel for which a recreational endorsement is issued may proceed between a port of the United States and a port of a foreign country without entering or clearing with the Secretary of Homeland Security. However, a recreational vessel is subject to the requirements for reporting arrivals under section 433 of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1433), and individuals on the vessel are subject to applicable customs regulations.

46 USC 12115 - Temporary endorsement for vessels procured outside the United States

(a) General Authority.— 
The Secretary and the Secretary of State, acting jointly, may provide for the issuance of a certificate of documentation with an appropriate endorsement for a vessel procured outside the United States and meeting the ownership requirements of section 12103 of this title.
(b) Authorized Activity.— 
Subject to limitations the Secretary may prescribe, a vessel documented under this section may proceed to the United States and engage en route in foreign trade or trade with Guam, American Samoa, Wake, Midway, or Kingman Reef.
(c) Application of United States Jurisdiction and Laws.— 
A vessel documented under this section is subject to the jurisdiction and laws of the United States. However, if the Secretary considers it to be in the public interest, the Secretary may suspend for a period of not more than 6 months the application of a vessel inspection law carried out by the Secretary or regulations prescribed under that law.
(d) Surrender of Certificate.— 
On the vessels arrival in the United States, the certificate of documentation shall be surrendered as provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

46 USC 12116 - Limited endorsements for Guam, American Samoa, and Northern Mariana Islands

(a) Endorsements.— 
A vessel satisfying the requirements of subsection (b) may be issued
(1) a coastwise endorsement to engage in the coastwise trade of fisheries products between places in Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands; or
(2) a fishery endorsement to engage in fishing in the territorial sea and fishery conservation zone adjacent to Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
(b) Requirements.— 
An endorsement may be issued under subsection (a) for a vessel that
(1) satisfies the requirements of section 12103 of this title;
(2) was not built in the United States, except that for an endorsement under subsection (a)(2), the vessel must not have been built or rebuilt in the United States;
(3) is less than 200 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage as measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; and
(4) otherwise qualifies under the laws of the United States to engage in the coastwise trade or the fisheries, as the case may be.

46 USC 12117 - Oil spill response vessels

(a) Requirements.— 
A coastwise endorsement may be issued for a vessel that
(1) satisfies the requirements for a coastwise endorsement, except for the ownership requirement otherwise applicable without regard to this section;
(2) is owned by a not-for-profit oil spill response cooperative or by members of such a cooperative that dedicate the vessel to use by the cooperative;
(3) is at least 50 percent owned by individuals or entities described in section 12103 (b) of this title; and
(4) is to be used only for
(i) deploying equipment, supplies, and personnel to recover, contain, or transport oil discharged into the navigable waters of the United States or the exclusive economic zone; or
(ii) training exercises to prepare to respond to such a discharge.
(b) Deemed Owned by Citizens.— 
A vessel satisfying subsection (a) is deemed to be owned only by citizens of the United States under sections 12103, 12132, and 50501 of this title.

46 USC 12118 - Owners engaged primarily in manufacturing or mineral industry

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section:
(1) Bowaters corporation.— 
The term Bowaters corporation means a corporation that has filed a certificate under oath with the Secretary, in the form and at the times prescribed by the Secretary, establishing that
(A) the corporation is incorporated under the laws of the United States or a State;
(B) a majority of the officers and directors of the corporation are individuals who are citizens of the United States;
(C) at least 90 percent of the employees of the corporation are residents of the United States;
(D) the corporation is engaged primarily in a manufacturing or mineral industry in the United States;
(E) the total book value of the vessels owned by the corporation is not more than 10 percent of the total book value of the assets of the corporation; and
(F) the corporation buys or produces in the United States at least 75 percent of the raw materials used or sold in its operations.
(2) Parent.— 
The term parent means a corporation that has filed a certificate under oath with the Secretary, in the form and at the times prescribed by the Secretary, establishing that the corporation
(A) is incorporated under the laws of the United States or a State; and
(B) controls, directly or indirectly, at least 50 percent of the voting stock of a Bowaters corporation.
(3) Subsidiary.— 
The term subsidiary means a corporation that has filed a certificate under oath with the Secretary, in the form and at the times prescribed by the Secretary, establishing that the corporation
(A) is incorporated under the laws of the United States or a State; and
(B) has at least 50 percent of its voting stock controlled, directly or indirectly, by a Bowaters corporation or its parent.
(b) Deemed Citizen.— 
A Bowaters corporation is deemed to be a citizen of the United States for purposes of chapters 121, 551, and 561 and section 80104 of this title.
(c) Issuance of Documentation.— 
A certificate of documentation and appropriate endorsement may be issued for a vessel that
(1) is owned by a Bowaters corporation;
(2) was built in the United States; and
(3) 
(A) is self-propelled and less than 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title, or an alternate tonnage as measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title; or
(B) is not self-propelled.
(d) Effects of Documentation.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subject to paragraph (2)
(A) a vessel documented under this section may engage in the coastwise trade; and
(B) the vessel and its owner and master are entitled to the same benefits and are subject to the same requirements and penalties as if the vessel were otherwise documented or exempt from documentation under this chapter.
(2) Transportation of passengers or merchandise.— 
A vessel documented under this section may transport passengers or merchandise for hire in the coastwise trade only
(A) as a service for a parent or subsidiary of the corporation owning the vessel; or
(B) when under a demise or bareboat charter, at prevailing rates for use not in the domestic noncontiguous trades, from the corporation owning the vessel to a carrier that
(i) is subject to jurisdiction under subchapter II of chapter 135 of title 49;
(ii) otherwise qualifies as a citizen of the United States under section 50501 of this title; and
(iii) is not owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the corporation owning the vessel.
(e) Validity of Corporate Certificate.— 
A certificate filed by a corporation under this section remains valid only as long as the corporation continues to satisfy the conditions required of the corporation by this section. When a corporation no longer satisfies those conditions, the corporation loses its status under this section and immediately shall surrender to the Secretary any documents issued to it based on that status.
(f) Penalties.— 

(1) Falsifying material fact.— 
If a corporation knowingly falsifies a material fact in a certificate filed under subsection (a), the vessel (or its value) documented or operated under this section shall be forfeited.
(2) Transporting merchandise.— 
If a vessel transports merchandise for hire in violation of this section, the merchandise shall be forfeited to the United States Government.
(3) Transporting passengers.— 
If a vessel transports passengers for hire in violation of this section, the vessel is liable for a penalty of $200 for each passenger so transported.
(4) Remission or mitigation.— 
A penalty or forfeiture incurred under this subsection may be remitted or mitigated under section 2107 (b) of this title.

46 USC 12119 - Owners engaged primarily in leasing or financing transactions

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section:
(1) Affiliate.— 
The term affiliate means, with respect to any person, any other person that is
(i) directly or indirectly controlled by, under common control with, or controlling that person; or
(ii) named as being part of the same consolidated group in any report or other document submitted to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission or the Internal Revenue Service.
(2) Cargo.— 
The term cargo does not include cargo to which title is held for non-commercial reasons and primarily for the purpose of evading the requirements of subsection (c)(3).
(3) Oil.— 
The term oil has the meaning given that term in section 2101 (20) of this title.
(4) Passive investment.— 
The term passive investment means an investment in which neither the investor nor any affiliate of the investor is involved in, or has the power to be involved in, the formulation, determination, or direction of any activity or function concerning the management, use, or operation of the asset that is the subject of the investment.
(5) Qualified proprietary cargo.— 
The term qualified proprietary cargo means
(A) oil, petroleum products, petrochemicals, or liquefied natural gas cargo that is beneficially owned by the person that submits to the Secretary an application or annual certification under subsection (c)(3), or by an affiliate of that person, immediately before, during, or immediately after the cargo is carried in coastwise trade on a vessel owned by that person;
(B) oil, petroleum products, petrochemicals, or liquefied natural gas cargo not beneficially owned by the person that submits to the Secretary an application or an annual certification under subsection (c)(3), or by an affiliate of that person, but which is carried in coastwise trade by a vessel owned by that person and which is part of an arrangement in which vessels owned by that person and at least one other person are operated collectively as one fleet, to the extent that an equal amount of oil, petroleum products, petrochemicals, or liquefied natural gas cargo beneficially owned by that person, or by an affiliate of that person, is carried in coastwise trade on one or more other vessels, not owned by that person, or by an affiliate of that person, if the other vessel or vessels are also part of the same arrangement;
(C) in the case of a towing vessel associated with a non-self-propelled tank vessel where both vessels function as a single self-propelled vessel, oil, petroleum products, petrochemicals, or liquefied natural gas cargo that is beneficially owned by the person that owns both the towing vessel and the non-self-propelled tank vessel, or any United States affiliate of that person, immediately before, during, or immediately after the cargo is carried in coastwise trade on either of those vessels; or
(D) any oil, petroleum products, petrochemicals, or liquefied natural gas cargo carried on any vessel that is either a self-propelled tank vessel having a length of at least 210 meters or a tank vessel that is a liquefied natural gas carrier that
(i) was delivered by the builder of the vessel to the owner of the vessel after December 31, 1999; and
(ii) was purchased by a person for the purpose, and with the reasonable expectation, of transporting on the vessel liquefied natural gas or unrefined petroleum beneficially owned by the owner of the vessel, or an affiliate of the owner, from Alaska to the continental United States.
(6) United states affiliate.— 
The term United States affiliate means, with respect to any person, an affiliate the principal place of business of which is located in the United States.
(b) Requirements.— 
A coastwise endorsement may be issued for a vessel if
(1) the vessel satisfies the requirements for a coastwise endorsement, except for the ownership requirement otherwise applicable without regard to this section;
(2) the person that owns the vessel (or, if the vessel is owned by a trust or similar arrangement, the beneficiary of the trust or similar arrangement) meets the requirements of subsection (c);
(3) the vessel is under a demise charter to a person that certifies to the Secretary that the person is a citizen of the United States under section 50501 of this title for engaging in the coastwise trade; and
(4) the demise charter is for a period of at least 3 years or a shorter period as may be prescribed by the Secretary.
(c) Ownership Certification.— 

(1) In general.— 
A person meets the requirements of this subsection if the person transmits to the Secretary each year the certification required by paragraph (2) or (3) with respect to a vessel.
(2) Investment certification.— 
To meet the certification requirement of this paragraph, a person shall certify that it
(A) is a leasing company, bank, or financial institution;
(B) owns, or holds the beneficial interest in, the vessel solely as a passive investment;
(C) does not operate any vessel for hire and is not an affiliate of any person that operates any vessel for hire; and
(D) is independent from, and not an affiliate of, any charterer of the vessel or any other person that has the right, directly or indirectly, to control or direct the movement or use of the vessel.
(3) Certain tank vessels.— 

(A) In general.— 
To meet the certification requirement of this paragraph, a person shall certify that
(i) the aggregate book value of the vessels owned by the person and United States affiliates of the person does not exceed 10 percent of the aggregate book value of all assets owned by the person and its United States affiliates;
(ii) not more than 10 percent of the aggregate revenues of the person and its United States affiliates is derived from the ownership, operation, or management of vessels;
(iii) at least 70 percent of the aggregate tonnage of all cargo carried by all vessels owned by the person and its United States affiliates and documented with a coastwise endorsement is qualified proprietary cargo;
(iv) any cargo other than qualified proprietary cargo carried by all vessels owned by the person and its United States affiliates and documented with a coastwise endorsement consists of oil, petroleum products, petrochemicals, or liquified natural gas;
(v) no vessel owned by the person or any of its United States affiliates and documented with a coastwise endorsement carries molten sulphur; and
(vi) the person owned one or more vessels documented under this section as of August 9, 2004.
(B) Application only to certain vessels.— 
A person may make a certification under this paragraph only with respect to
(i) a tank vessel having a tonnage of at least 6,000 gross tons, as measured under section 14502 of this title (or an alternative tonnage measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title); or
(ii) a towing vessel associated with a non-self-propelled tank vessel that meets the requirements of clause (i), where both vessels function as a single self-propelled vessel.
(d) Filing of Demise Charter.— 
The demise charter and any amendments to the charter shall be filed with the certification required by subsection (b)(3) or within 10 days after filing an amendment to the charter. The charter and amendments shall be made available to the public.
(e) Continuation of Endorsement After Termination of Charter.— 
When a charter required by subsection (b)(3) is terminated for default by the charterer, the Secretary may continue the coastwise endorsement for not more than 6 months on terms and conditions the Secretary may prescribe.
(f) Deemed Owned by Citizens.— 
A vessel satisfying the requirements of this section is deemed to be owned only by citizens of the United States under sections 12103 and 50501 of this title.

46 USC 12120 - Liquified gas tankers

Notwithstanding any agreement with the United States Government, the Secretary may issue a certificate of documentation with a coastwise endorsement for a vessel to transport liquified natural gas or liquified petroleum gas to Puerto Rico from other ports in the United States, if the vessel
(1) is a foreign built vessel that was built before October 19, 1996; or
(2) was documented under this chapter before that date, even if the vessel is placed under a foreign registry and subsequently redocumented under this chapter for operation under this section.

46 USC 12121 - Small passenger vessels and uninspected passenger vessels

(a) Definitions.— 
In this section:
(1) Eligible vessel.— 
The term eligible vessel means a vessel that
(A) was not built in the United States and is at least 3 years old; or
(B) if rebuilt, was rebuilt outside the United States at least 3 years before the certificate requested under subsection (b) would take effect.
(2) Small passenger vessel; uninspected passenger vessel; passenger for hire.— 
The terms small passenger vessel, uninspected passenger vessel, and passenger for hire have the meaning given those terms in section 2101 of this title.
(b) Issuance of Certificate and Endorsement.— 
Notwithstanding sections 12112, 12113, 55102, and 55103 of this title, the Secretary may issue a certificate of documentation with an appropriate endorsement for employment in the coastwise trade as a small passenger vessel or an uninspected passenger vessel in the case of an eligible vessel authorized to carry no more than 12 passengers for hire if the Secretary of Transportation, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, determines that the employment of the vessel in the coastwise trade will not adversely affect
(1) United States vessel builders; or
(2) the coastwise trade business of any person that employs vessels built in the United States in that business.
(c) Revocation.— 

(1) For fraud.— 
The Secretary shall revoke a certificate or endorsement issued under subsection (b) if the Secretary of Transportation, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, determines that the certificate or endorsement was obtained by fraud.
(2) Other provisions not affected.— 
Paragraph (1) does not affect
(A) the criminal prohibition on fraud and false statements in section 1001 of title 18; or
(B) any other authority of the Secretary to revoke a certificate or endorsement issued under subsection (b).

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - MISCELLANEOUS

46 USC 12131 - Command of documented vessels

(a) In General.— 
Except as provided in subsection (b), a documented vessel may be placed under the commmand[1] only of a citizen of the United States.
(b) Exceptions.— 
Subsection (a) does not apply to
(1) a vessel with only a recreational endorsement; or
(2) an unmanned barge operating outside of the territorial waters of the United States.
[1] So in original. Probably should be “command”.

46 USC 12132 - Loss of coastwise trade privileges

(a) Sold Foreign or Placed Under Foreign Registry.— 
A vessel of more than 200 gross tons (as measured under chapter 143 of this title), eligible to engage in the coastwise trade, and later sold foreign in whole or in part or placed under foreign registry may not thereafter engage in the coastwise trade.
(b) Rebuilt Outside the United States.— 
A vessel eligible to engage in the coastwise trade and later rebuilt outside the United States may not thereafter engage in the coastwise trade.

46 USC 12133 - Duty to carry certificate on vessel and allow examination

(a) Duty To Carry.— 
The certificate of documentation of a vessel shall be carried on the vessel unless the vessel is exempt by regulation from carrying the certificate.
(b) Availability.— 
The owner or individual in charge of a vessel required to carry its certificate of documentation shall make the certificate available for examination at the request of an officer enforcing the revenue laws or as otherwise required by law or regulation.
(c) Criminal Penalty.— 
A person willfully violating subsection (b) shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.

46 USC 12134 - Evidentiary uses of documentation

A certificate of documentation is
(1) conclusive evidence of nationality for international purposes, but not in a proceeding conducted under the laws of the United States;
(2) conclusive evidence of qualification to engage in a specified trade; and
(3) not conclusive evidence of ownership in a proceeding in which ownership is in issue.

46 USC 12135 - Invalidation of certificates of documentation

A certificate of documentation or an endorsement on the certificate is invalid if the vessel for which it is issued
(1) no longer meets the requirements of this chapter and regulations prescribed under this chapter applicable to the certificate or endorsement; or
(2) is placed under the command of an individual not a citizen of the United States in violation of section 12131 of this title.

46 USC 12136 - Surrender of certificates of documentation

(a) Surrender.— 
An invalid certificate of documentation, or a certificate with an invalid endorsement, shall be surrendered as provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(b) Conditions for Surrender.— 

(1) Vessels over 1,000 tons.— 
The Secretary may condition approval of the surrender of the certificate of documentation for a vessel over 1,000 gross tons.
(2) Vessels covered by mortgage.— 
The Secretary may approve the surrender of the certificate of documentation of a vessel covered by a mortgage filed or recorded under section 31321 of this title only if the mortgagee consents.
(3) Notice of lien.— 
The Secretary may not refuse to approve the surrender of the certificate of documentation for a vessel solely on the basis that a notice of a claim of a lien on the vessel has been recorded under section 31343 (a) of this title.
(c) Continued Application of Certain Laws.— 

(1) In general.— 
Notwithstanding subsection (a), until the certificate of documentation is surrendered with the approval of the Secretary, a documented vessel is deemed to continue to be documented under this chapter for purposes of
(A) chapter 313 of this title for an instrument filed or recorded before the date of invalidation and an assignment after that date;
(B) sections 56101 and 56102 (a)(2) and chapter 563 of this title; and
(C) any other law of the United States identified by the Secretary by regulation as a law to which the Secretary applies this subsection.
(2) Exception.— 
This subsection does not apply when a vessel is forfeited or sold by order of a district court of the United States.

46 USC 12137 - Recording of vessels built in the United States

The Secretary may provide for recording and certifying information about vessels built in the United States that the Secretary considers to be in the public interest.

46 USC 12138 - List of documented vessels

(a) In General.— 
The Secretary shall publish periodically a list of all documented vessels and information about those vessels that the Secretary considers pertinent or useful. The list shall contain a notation clearly indicating all vessels classed by the American Bureau of Shipping.
(b) Vessels for Cable Laying, Maintenance, and Repair.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall develop, maintain, and periodically update an inventory of vessels that are documented under this chapter, are at least 200 feet in length, and have the capability to lay, maintain, or repair a submarine cable, without regard to whether a particular vessel is classed as a cable ship or cable vessel.
(2) Information to be included.— 
For each vessel listed in the inventory, the Secretary of Transportation shall include in the inventory
(A) the name, length, beam, depth, and other distinguishing characteristics of the vessel;
(B) the abilities and limitations of the vessel with respect to laying, maintaining, and repairing a submarine cable; and
(C) the name and address of the person to whom inquiries regarding the vessel may be made.
(3) Publication.— 
The Secretary of Transportation shall publish in the Federal Register an updated inventory every 6 months.

46 USC 12139 - Reports

(a) In General.— 
To ensure compliance with this chapter and laws governing the qualifications of vessels to engage in the coastwise trade and the fisheries, the Secretary may require owners, masters, and charterers of documented vessels to submit reports in any reasonable form and manner the Secretary may prescribe.
(b) Vessels Rebuilt Outside United States.— 

(1) In general.— 
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if a vessel exceeding the tonnage specified in paragraph (2) and documented or last documented under the laws of the United States is rebuilt outside the United States, the owner or master shall submit a report of the rebuilding to the Secretary.
(2) Tonnage.— 
The tonnage referred to in paragraph (1) is
(A) 500 gross tons as measured under section 14502 of this title; or
(B) an alternate tonnage as measured under section 14302 of this title as prescribed by the Secretary under section 14104 of this title.
(3) Timing of submission.— 
If the rebuilding is completed in the United States, the report shall be submitted when the rebuilding is completed. If the rebuilding is completed outside the United States, the report shall be submitted when the vessel first arrives at a port in the customs territory of the United States.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER IV - PENALTIES

46 USC 12151 - Penalties

(a) In General.— 
A person that violates this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate violation.
(b) Seizure and Forfeiture of Vessels.— 
A vessel and its equipment are liable to seizure by and forfeiture to the Government if
(1) the owner of the vessel or the representative or agent of the owner knowingly falsifies or conceals a material fact, or knowingly makes a false statement or representation, about the documentation of the vessel or in applying for documentation of the vessel;
(2) a certificate of documentation is knowingly and fraudulently used for the vessel;
(3) the vessel is operated after its endorsement has been denied or revoked under section 12152 of this title;
(4) the vessel is employed in a trade without an appropriate endorsement;
(5) the vessel has only a recreational endorsement and is operated other than for pleasure;
(6) the vessel is a documented vessel and is placed under the command of a person not a citizen of the United States, except as authorized by section 12131 (b) of this title; or
(7) the vessel is rebuilt outside the United States and a report of the rebuilding is not submitted as required by section 12139 (b) of this title.
(c) Engaging in Fishing After Falsifying Eligibility.— 
In addition to other penalties under this section, the owner of a documented vessel for which a fishery endorsement has been issued is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $100,000 for each day the vessel engages in fishing (as defined in section 3 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (16 U.S.C. 1802)) within the exclusive economic zone, if the owner or the representative or agent of the owner knowingly falsified or concealed a material fact, or knowingly made a false statement or representation, about the eligibility of the vessel under section 12113 (c) or (d) of this title in applying for or applying to renew the fishery endorsement.

46 USC 12152 - Denial or revocation of endorsement for non-payment of civil penalty

If the owner of a vessel fails to pay a civil penalty imposed by the Secretary, the Secretary may deny the issuance or renewal of an endorsement, or revoke the endorsement, on a certificate of documentation issued for the vessel under this chapter.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 123 - NUMBERING UNDOCUMENTED VESSELS

46 USC 12301 - Numbering vessels

(a) An undocumented vessel equipped with propulsion machinery of any kind shall have a number issued by the proper issuing authority in the State in which the vessel principally is operated.
(b) The Secretary shall require an undocumented barge more than 100 gross tons operating on the navigable waters of the United States to be numbered.

46 USC 12302 - Standard numbering system

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation a standard numbering system for vessels to which this chapter applies. On application by a State, the Secretary shall approve a State numbering system that is consistent with the standard numbering system. In carrying out its numbering system, a State shall adopt any definitions of relevant terms prescribed by regulations of the Secretary.
(b) A State with an approved numbering system is the issuing authority within the meaning of this chapter. The Secretary is the issuing authority in a State in which a State numbering system has not been approved.
(c) When a vessel is numbered in a State, it is deemed in compliance with the numbering system of a State in which it temporarily is operated.
(d) When a vessel is removed to a new State of principal operation, the issuing authority of that State shall recognize the validity of the number issued by the original State for 60 days.
(e) If a State has a numbering system approved after the Secretary issues a number, the State shall recognize the validity of the number issued by the Secretary for one year.
(f) When the Secretary decides that a State numbering system is not being carried out consistent with the standard numbering system or the State has changed the system without the Secretarys approval, the Secretary may withdraw approval after giving notice to the State, in writing, stating the reasons for the withdrawal.

46 USC 12303 - Exemption from numbering requirements

(a) When the Secretary is the authority issuing a number under this chapter, the Secretary may exempt a vessel or class of vessels from the numbering requirements of this chapter under conditions the Secretary may prescribe.
(b) When a State is the issuing authority, it may exempt from the numbering requirements of this chapter a vessel or class of vessels exempted under subsection (a) of this section or otherwise as permitted by the Secretary.

46 USC 12304 - Certificates of numbers

(a) A certificate of number is granted for a number issued under this chapter. The certificate shall be pocketsized, shall be at all times available for inspection on the vessel for which issued when the vessel is in operation, and may be valid for not more than 3 years. The certificate of number for a vessel less than 26 feet in length and leased or rented to another for the latters noncommercial operation of less than 7 days may be retained on shore by the vessels owner or representative at the place from which the vessel departs or returns to the possession of the owner or the owners representative. A vessel that does not have the certificate of number on board shall be identified when in operation, and comply with requirements, as the issuing authority prescribes.
(b) The owner of a vessel numbered under this chapter shall provide
(1) the issuing authority notice of the transfer of any part of the owners interest in the vessel or of the destruction or abandonment of the vessel, within a reasonable time after the transfer, destruction, or abandonment; and
(2) notice of a change of address within a reasonable time of the change, as prescribed by regulation.

46 USC 12305 - Displaying numbers

A number required by this chapter shall be painted on, or attached to, each side of the forward half of the vessel for which it was issued, and shall be the size, color, and type as may be prescribed by the Secretary. No other number may be carried on the forward half of the vessel.

46 USC 12306 - Safety certificates

When a State is the authority issuing a number under this chapter, it may require that the individual in charge of a numbered vessel have a valid safety certificate issued under conditions set by the issuing authority, except when the vessel is subject to manning requirements under part F of this subtitle.

46 USC 12307 - Regulations on numbering and fees

The authority issuing a number under this chapter may prescribe regulations and establish fees to carry out the intent of this chapter. The fees shall apply equally to residents and nonresidents of the State. A State issuing authority may impose only conditions for vessel numbering that are
(1) prescribed by this chapter or regulations of the Secretary about the standard numbering system; or
(2) related to proof of payment of State or local taxes.

46 USC 12308 - Providing vessel numbering and registration information

A person may request from an authority issuing a number under this chapter the numbering and registration information of a vessel that is retrievable from vessel numbering system records of the issuing authority. When the issuing authority is satisfied that the request is reasonable and related to a boating safety purpose, the information shall be provided on paying the cost of retrieving and providing the information requested.

46 USC 12309 - Penalties

(a) A person willfully violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter shall be fined not more than $5,000, imprisoned for not more than one year, or both.
(b) A person violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000. If the violation involves the operation of a vessel, the vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.
(c) When a civil penalty of not more than $200 has been assessed under this chapter, the Secretary may refer the matter of collection of the penalty directly to the United States magistrate judge of the jurisdiction in which the person liable may be found for collection procedures under supervision of the district court and under an order issued by the court delegating this authority under section 636 (b) of title 28.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 125 - VESSEL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

46 USC 12501 - Establishment of a vessel identification system

(a) The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a vessel identification system to make available information under section 12503 of this title for use by the public for law enforcement and other purposes relating to
(1) the ownership of documented vessels;
(2) the ownership of vessels numbered under chapter 123 of this title; and
(3) the ownership of vessels titled under the law of a State.
(b) The vessel identification system shall include information prescribed by the Secretary including
(1) identifying a vessel;
(2) identifying the owner of the vessel, including
(A) the owners social security number or, if that number is not available, other means of identification acceptable to the Secretary; or
(B) for an owner other than an individual
(i) the owners taxpayer identification number; or
(ii) if the owner does not have a taxpayer identification number, the social security number of an individual who is a corporate officer, general partner, or individual trustee of the owner and who signed the application for documentation or numbering for the vessel;
(3) identifying the State in which it is titled or numbered;
(4) indicating whether the vessel is numbered or titled, or both;
(5) if titled in a State, indicating where evidence of a lien or other security interest may be found against the vessel in that State; and
(6) information assisting law enforcement officials.
(c) The Secretary may maintain information under this chapter in connection with any other information system maintained by the Secretary.

46 USC 12502 - Identification numbers, signal letters, and markings

(a) For the identification of a vessel of the United States, the Secretary of Transportation
(1) shall maintain a unique numbering system and assign a number to each vessel of the United States;
(2) may maintain a system of signal letters for a documented vessel;
(3) shall record a name selected by the owner of a documented vessel approved by the Secretary as the vessels name of record; and
(4) may establish other identification markings.
(b) The manufacturer or owner of a vessel shall affix to the vessel and maintain in the manner prescribed by the Secretary the number assigned and any other markings the Secretary may require.
(c) Once a number is assigned under this section, it may not be used by another vessel.
(d) Once a documented vessels name is established, the name may not be changed without the approval of the Secretary.
(e) A person may not tamper with or falsify a number or other marking required under this section.

46 USC 12503 - Information available to the system

(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, a State or a States delegate approved by the Secretary of Transportation may make information available to the Secretary if, in a manner and form prescribed by the Secretary, the State
(1) identifies the vessel;
(2) identifies the owner of the vessel, including by
(A) the owners social security number or, if that number is not available, other means of identification acceptable to the Secretary; or
(B) for an owner other than an individual
(i) the owners taxpayer identification number; or
(ii) if the owner does not have a taxpayer identification number, the social security number of an individual who is a corporate officer, general partner, or individual trustee of the owner and who signed the application for documentation or numbering for the vessel;
(3) identifies the State in which it is titled or numbered;
(4) indicates whether the vessel is numbered or titled, or both;
(5) if titled in a State, indicates where evidence of a lien or other security interest may be found against the vessel in that State;
(6) includes information to assist law enforcement; and
(7) includes other information agreed to by the Secretary and the State.
(b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary also may accept information under conditions and in a manner and form prescribed by the Secretary.
(c) The Secretary shall
(1) retain information on a vessel with a preferred mortgage under section 31322 (d) of this title that is no longer titled in a State making information available to the Secretary under this chapter until the mortgage is discharged or the vessel is sold; and
(2) accept information under section 31321 (h) of this title only if that information cannot be provided to a State.

46 USC 12504 - Information available from the system

For law enforcement or other purposes and under conditions prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation, the Secretary
(1) shall make available information in the vessel identification system to a State making information available under section 12503 (a) of this title; and
(2) may make available information in the vessel identification system to others.

46 USC 12505 - Fees

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may charge a fee under section 9701 of title 31 for providing information to or requesting information from the vessel identification system, except to
(1) an agency; or
(2) a State making information available to the Secretary under section 12503 (a) of this title.
(b) The Secretary shall deposit amounts transferred or collected under this section in the general fund of the Treasury as proprietary receipts of the Secretary and ascribed to the vessel identification system.

46 USC 12506 - Delegation of authority

The Secretary of Transportation may delegate to an agency, a State, or a qualified person the authority to
(1) establish and maintain the vessel identification system; and
(2) charge fees under section 12505 of this title to a person making information available to or requesting information from the vessel identification system.

46 USC 12507 - Penalties

(a) A person shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both, if the person with the intent to defraud
(1) provides false information to the Secretary of Transportation or a State issuing authority regarding the identification of a vessel under this chapter; or
(2) tampers with, removes, or falsifies the unique vessel identification number assigned to a vessel under section 12502 of this title.
(b) A person is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 if the person
(1) provides false information to the Secretary or a State issuing authority regarding the identification of a vessel under this chapter;
(2) violates section 12502 of this title; or
(3) fails to comply with requirements prescribed by the Secretary under section 12505 of this title.
(c) A vessel involved in a violation of this chapter, or regulation under this chapter, and its equipment, may be seized by, and forfeited to, the Government.
(d) If a person, not an individual, is involved in a violation of this chapter, the president or chief executive of the person also is subject to any penalty provided under this section.

Part I - State Boating Safety Programs

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 131 - RECREATIONAL BOATING SAFETY

46 USC 13101 - Definitions

In this chapter:
(1) Eligible State.— 
The term eligible State means a State that has a State recreational boating safety program accepted by the Secretary.
(2) State Recreational Boating Safety Program.— 
The term State recreational boating safety program means education, assistance, and enforcement activities conducted for maritime casualty prevention, reduction, and reporting for recreational boating.

46 USC 13102 - State recreational boating safety programs

(a) To encourage greater State participation and uniformity in boating safety efforts, and particularly to permit the States to assume the greater share of boating safety education, assistance, and enforcement activities, the Secretary shall carry out a national recreational boating safety program. Under this program, the Secretary shall make contracts with, and allocate and distribute amounts to, eligible States to assist them in developing, carrying out, and financing State recreational boating safety programs.
(b) The Secretary shall establish guidelines and standards for the program. In doing so, the Secretary
(1) shall consider, among other things, factors affecting recreational boating safety by contributing to overcrowding and congestion of waterways, such as the increasing number of recreational vessels operating on those waterways and their geographic distribution, the availability and geographic distribution of recreational boating facilities in and among applying States, and State marine casualty and fatality statistics for recreational vessels;
(2) shall consult with the Secretary of the Interior to minimize duplication with the purposes and expenditures of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (16 U.S.C. 460l–4460l11) the Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act of 1950 (16 U.S.C. 777–777k), and with the guidelines developed under those Acts; and
(3) shall maintain environmental standards consistent with the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 U.S.C. 1451–1464) and other laws and policies of the United States intended to safeguard the ecological and esthetic quality of the waters and wetlands of the United States.
(c) A State whose recreational boating safety program has been approved by the Secretary is eligible for allocation and distribution of amounts under this chapter to assist that State in developing, carrying out, and financing its program. Matching amounts shall be allocated and distributed among eligible States by the Secretary as provided by section 13104 of this title.

46 USC 13103 - Program acceptance

(a) The Secretary shall make a contract with, and allocate and distribute amounts from the Sport Fish Restoration and Boating Trust Fund established by section 9504 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (26 U.S.C. 9504) to, a State that has an approved State recreational boating safety program, if the State demonstrates to the Secretarys satisfaction that
(1) the program submitted by that State is consistent with this chapter and chapters 61 and 123 of this title;
(2) amounts distributed will be used to develop and carry out a State recreational boating safety program containing the minimum requirements of subsection (c) of this section;
(3) sufficient State matching amounts are available from general State revenue, undocumented vessel numbering and license fees, State marine fuels taxes, or from a fund constituted from the proceeds of those taxes and established to finance a State recreational boating safety program; and
(4) the program submitted by that State designates a State lead authority or agency that will carry out or coordinate carrying out the State recreational boating safety program supported by financial assistance of the United States Government in that State, including the requirement that the designated State authority or agency submit required reports that are necessary and reasonable to carry out properly and efficiently the program and that are in the form prescribed by the Secretary.
(b) Amounts of the Government (except amounts from sources referred to in subsection (a)(3) of this section) may not be used to provide a States share of the costs of the program described under this section. State matching amounts committed to a program under this chapter may not be used to constitute the States share of matching amounts required by another program of the Government.
(c) The Secretary shall approve a State recreational boating safety program, and the program is eligible to receive amounts authorized to be expended under section 13107 of this title, if the program includes
(1) a vessel numbering system approved or carried out by the Secretary under chapter 123 of this title;
(2) a cooperative boating safety assistance program with the Coast Guard in that State;
(3) sufficient patrol and other activity to ensure adequate enforcement of applicable State boating safety laws and regulations;
(4) an adequate State boating safety education program, that includes the dissemination of information concerning the hazards of operating a vessel when under the influence of alcohol or drugs; and
(5) a system, approved by the Secretary, for reporting marine casualties required under section 6102 of this title.
(d) The Secretarys approval under this section is a contractual obligation of the Government for the payment of a proportionate share of the cost of carrying out the program.

46 USC 13104 - Allocations

(a) The Secretary shall allocate amounts available for allocation and distribution under this chapter for State recreational boating safety programs as follows:
(1) One-third shall be allocated equally each fiscal year among eligible States.
(2) One-third shall be allocated among eligible States that maintain a State vessel numbering system approved under chapter 123 of this title and a marine casualty reporting system approved under this chapter so that the amount allocated each fiscal year to each eligible State will be in the same ratio as the number of vessels numbered in that State bears to the number of vessels numbered in all eligible States.
(3) One-third shall be allocated so that the amount allocated each fiscal year to each eligible State will be in the same ratio as the amount of State amounts expended by the State for the State recreational boating safety program during the prior fiscal year bears to the total State amounts expended during that fiscal year by all eligible States for State recreational boating safety programs.
(b) The amount received by a State under this section in a fiscal year may be not more than one-half of the total cost incurred by that State in developing, carrying out, and financing that States recreational boating safety program in that fiscal year.
(c) The Secretary may allocate not more than 5 percent of the amounts available for allocation and distribution in a fiscal year for national boating safety activities of national nonprofit public service organizations.

46 USC 13105 - Availability of allocations

(a) 
(1) Amounts allocated to a State shall be available for obligation by that State for a period of 3 years after the date of allocation.
(2) Amounts allocated to a State that are not obligated at the end of the 3-year period referred to in paragraph (1) shall be withdrawn and allocated by the Secretary in addition to any other amounts available for allocation in the fiscal year in which they are withdrawn or the following fiscal year.
(b) Amounts available to the Secretary for State recreational boating safety programs for a fiscal year that have not been allocated at the end of the fiscal year shall be allocated among States in the next fiscal year in addition to amounts otherwise available for allocation to States for that next fiscal year.

46 USC 13106 - Computation decisions about State amounts expended

(a) Consistent with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the computation by a State of amounts expended for the State recreational boating safety program shall include
(1) the acquisition, maintenance, and operating costs of land, facilities, equipment, and supplies;
(2) personnel salaries and reimbursable expenses;
(3) the costs of training personnel;
(4) public boat safety education;
(5) the costs of carrying out the program; and
(6) other expenses that the Secretary considers appropriate.
(b) The Secretary shall decide an issue arising out of the computation made under subsection (a) of this section.

46 USC 13107 - Authorization of appropriations

(a) 
(1) Subject to paragraph (2) and subsection (c), the Secretary shall expend in each fiscal year for State recreational boating safety programs, under contracts with States under this chapter, an amount equal to the sum of
(A)  the amount made available from the Boat Safety Account for that fiscal year under section 15 of the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act and
(B)  the amount transferred to the Secretary under subsections (a)(2) and (f) of section 4 of the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 777c (a)(2) and (f)). The amount shall be allocated as provided under section 13104 of this title and shall be available for State recreational boating safety programs as provided under the guidelines established under subsection (b) of this section. Amounts authorized to be expended for State recreational boating safety programs shall remain available until expended and are deemed to have been expended only if an amount equal to the total amounts authorized to be expended under this section for the fiscal year in question and all prior fiscal years have been obligated. Amounts previously obligated but released by payment of a final voucher or modification of a program acceptance shall be credited to the balance of unobligated amounts and are immediately available for expenditure.
(2) The Secretary shall use not more than two percent of the amount available each fiscal year for State recreational boating safety programs under this chapter to pay the costs of investigations, personnel, and activities related to administering those programs.
(b) The Secretary shall establish guidelines prescribing the purposes for which amounts available under this chapter for State recreational boating safety programs may be used. Those purposes shall include
(1) providing facilities, equipment, and supplies for boating safety education and law enforcement, including purchase, operation, maintenance, and repair;
(2) training personnel in skills related to boating safety and to the enforcement of boating safety laws and regulations;
(3) providing public boating safety education, including educational programs and lectures, to the boating community and the public school system;
(4) acquiring, constructing, or repairing public access sites used primarily by recreational boaters;
(5) conducting boating safety inspections and marine casualty investigations;
(6) establishing and maintaining emergency or search and rescue facilities, and providing emergency or search and rescue assistance;
(7) establishing and maintaining waterway markers and other appropriate aids to navigation; and
(8) providing State recreational vessel numbering and titling programs.
(c) 
(1) Of the amount transferred to the Secretary under subsection (a)(2) of section 4 of the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act (16 U.S.C. 777c (a)(2)), $5,500,000 is available to the Secretary for payment of expenses of the Coast Guard for personnel and activities directly related to coordinating and carrying out the national recreational boating safety program under this title, of which not less than $2,000,000 shall be available to the Secretary only to ensure compliance with chapter 43 of this title.
(2) No funds available to the Secretary under this subsection may be used to replace funding traditionally provided through general appropriations, nor for any purposes except those purposes authorized by this section.
(3) Amounts made available by this subsection shall remain available during the 2 succeeding fiscal years. Any amount that is unexpended or unobligated at the end of the 3-year period during which it is available shall be withdrawn by the Secretary and allocated to the States in addition to any other amounts available for allocation in the fiscal year in which they are withdrawn or the following fiscal year.
(4) The Secretary shall publish annually in the Federal Register a detailed accounting of the projects, programs, and activities funded under this subsection.

46 USC 13108 - Computing amounts allocated to States and State records requirements

(a) Amounts allocated and distributed under section 13104 of this title shall be computed and paid to the States as follows:
(1) During the second quarter of a fiscal year and on the basis of computations made under section 13106 of this title and submitted by the States for the preceding fiscal year, the Secretary shall determine the percentage of the amounts available to which each eligible State is entitled for the next fiscal year.
(2) Notice of the percentage and of the dollar amount, if it can be determined, for each State shall be provided to the States at the earliest practicable time.
(3) If the Secretary determines that an amount made available to a State for a prior fiscal year is greater or less than the amount that should have been made available to the State for the prior fiscal year, because of later or more accurate State expenditure information, the amount for the current fiscal year may be increased or decreased by the appropriate amount.
(b) The Secretary shall schedule the payment of amounts, consistent with the program purposes and applicable regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, to minimize the time elapsing between the transfer of amounts from the Treasury and the subsequent disbursement of the amounts by a State.
(c) The Secretary shall notify a State authority or agency that further payments will be made to the State only when the program complies with the prescribed standards or a failure to comply substantially with standards is corrected if the Secretary, after reasonable notice to the designated State authority or agency, finds that
(1) the State recreational boating safety program submitted by the State and accepted by the Secretary has been so changed that it no longer complies with this chapter or standards prescribed by regulations; or
(2) in carrying out the State recreational boating safety program, there has been a failure to comply substantially with the standards prescribed by regulations.
(d) The Secretary shall provide for the accounting, budgeting, and other fiscal procedures that are necessary and reasonable to carry out this section properly and efficiently. Records related to amounts allocated under this chapter shall be made available to the Secretary and the Comptroller General to conduct audits.

46 USC 13109 - Consultation, cooperation, and regulation

(a) In carrying out responsibilities under this chapter, the Secretary may consult with State and local governments, public and private agencies, organizations and committees, private industry, and other persons having an interest in boating safety.
(b) The Secretary may advise, assist, and cooperate with the States and other interested public and private agencies in planning, developing, and carrying out boating safety programs. Acting under section 141 of title 14, the Secretary shall ensure the fullest cooperation between the State and United States Government authorities in promoting boating safety by making agreements and other arrangements with States when possible. Subject to chapter 23 of title 14, the Secretary may make available, on request of a State, the services of members of the Coast Guard Auxiliary to assist the State in promoting boating safety on State waters.
(c) The Secretary may prescribe regulations to carry out this chapter.

46 USC 13110 - National Boating Safety Advisory Council

(a) The Secretary shall establish a National Boating Safety Advisory Council. The Council shall consist of 21 members appointed by the Secretary, whom the Secretary considers to have a particular expertise, knowledge, and experience in recreational boating safety.
(b) 
(1) The membership of the Council shall consist of
(A) 7 representatives of State officials responsible for State boating safety programs;
(B) 7 representatives of recreational vessel manufacturers and associated equipment manufacturers; and
(C) 7 representatives of national recreational boating organizations and from the general public, at least 5 of whom shall be representatives of national recreational boating organizations.
(2) Additional individuals from the sources referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection may be appointed to panels of the Council to assist the Council in performing its duties.
(3) At least once a year, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register soliciting nominations for membership on the Council.
(c) In addition to the consultation required by section 4302 of this title, the Secretary shall consult with the Council on other major boating safety matters related to this chapter. The Council may make available to Congress information, advice, and recommendations that the Council is authorized to give to the Secretary.
(d) When attending meetings of the Council, a member of the Council or a panel may be paid at a rate not more than the rate for GS18. When serving away from home or regular place of business, the member may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for individuals employed intermittently in the Government service. A payment under this section does not make a member of the Council an officer or employee of the United States Government for any purpose.
(e) The Council shall terminate on September 30, 2010.

Part J - Measurement of Vessels

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 141 - GENERAL

46 USC 14101 - Definitions

In this part
(1) Convention means the International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969.
(2) existing vessel means a vessel the keel of which was laid or that was at a similar stage of construction before July 18, 1982.
(3) Great Lakes means
(A) the Great Lakes; and
(B) the St. Lawrence River west of
(i) a rhumb line drawn from Cap des Rosiers to West Point, Anticosti Island; and
(ii) on the north side of Anticosti Island, the meridian of longitude 63 degrees west.
(4) vessel engaged on a foreign voyage means a vessel
(A) arriving at a place under the jurisdiction of the United States from a place in a foreign country;
(B) making a voyage between places outside the United States (except a foreign vessel engaged on that voyage);
(C) departing from a place under the jurisdiction of the United States for a place in a foreign country; or
(D) making a voyage between a place within a territory or possession of the United States and another place under the jurisdiction of the United States not within that territory or possession.

46 USC 14102 - Repealed. Pub. L. 101595, title VI, 603(12)(A), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 2993]

Section, Pub. L. 99–509, title V, § 5101(3), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1919, authorized Secretary to prescribe regulations to carry out this part.

46 USC 14103 - Delegation of authority

(a) The Secretary may delegate to a qualified person the authority to measure a vessel and issue an International Tonnage Certificate (1969) or other appropriate certificate of measurement under this part.
(b) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a decision of the person delegated authority under subsection (a) of this section related to measuring a vessel or issuing a certificate may be appealed to the Secretary.
(c) For a vessel intended to be engaged on a foreign voyage, the Secretary may delegate to another country that is a party to the Convention the authority to measure the vessel and issue an International Tonnage Certificate (1969) under chapter 143 of this title.
(d) The Secretary may terminate a delegation made under this section after giving written notice to the person.

46 USC 14104 - Measurement to determine application of a law

(a) When the application of a law of the United States to a vessel depends on the vessels tonnage, the vessel shall be measured under this part.
(b) If a statute allows for an alternate tonnage to be prescribed under this section, the Secretary may prescribe it by regulation. Any such regulation shall be considered to be an interpretive regulation for purposes of section 553 of title 5. Until an alternate tonnage is prescribed, the statutorily established tonnage shall apply to vessels measured under chapter 143 or chapter 145 of this title.
(c) The head of each Federal agency shall ensure that regulations issued by the agency that specify particular tonnages comply with the alternate tonnages implemented by the Secretary.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 143 - CONVENTION MEASUREMENT

46 USC 14301 - Application

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, this chapter applies to the following:
(1) a documented vessel.
(2) a vessel that is to be documented under chapter 121 of this title.
(3) a vessel engaged on a foreign voyage.
(b) This chapter does not apply to the following:
(1) a vessel of war.
(2) a vessel of less than 24 meters (79 feet) overall in length.
(3) a vessel operating only on the Great Lakes, unless the owner requests.
(4) a vessel (except a vessel engaged on a foreign voyage) the keel of which was laid or that was at a similar stage of construction before January 1, 1986, unless
(A) the owner requests; or
(B) the vessel undergoes a change that the Secretary finds substantially affects the vessels gross tonnage.
(5) before July 19, 1994, an existing vessel unless
(A) the owner requests; or
(B) the vessel undergoes a change that the Secretary finds substantially affects the vessels gross tonnage.
(6) a barge (except a barge engaged on a foreign voyage) unless the owner requests.
(c) A vessel made subject to this chapter at the request of the owner may be remeasured only as provided by this chapter.
(d) After July 18, 1994, an existing vessel (except an existing vessel referred to in subsection (b)(5)(A) or (B) of this section) may retain its tonnages existing on July 18, 1994, for the application of relevant requirements under international agreements (except the Convention) and other laws of the United States. However, if the vessel undergoes a change substantially affecting its tonnage after July 18, 1994, the vessel shall be remeasured under this chapter.
(e) This chapter does not affect an international agreement to which the United States Government is a party that is not in conflict with the Convention or the application of IMO Resolutions A.494 (XII) of November 19, 1981, A.540 (XIII) of November 17, 1983, and A.541 (XIII) of November 17, 1983.

46 USC 14302 - Measurement

(a) The Secretary shall measure a vessel to which this chapter applies in the way provided by this chapter and the Convention.
(b) Except as provided in section 1602(a) of the Panama Canal Act of 1979 (22 U.S.C. 3792 (a)), a vessel measured under this chapter may not be required to be measured under another law.
(c) Unless otherwise provided by law, the measurement of a vessel under this chapter applies to a law of the United States whose applicability depends on a vessels tonnage, if that law
(1) becomes effective after July 18, 1994; or
(2) is in effect before July 19, 1994, is not enumerated in section 14305 of this title, and is identified by the Secretary by regulation as a law to which this chapter applies.

46 USC 14303 - International Tonnage Certificate (1969)

(a) After measuring a vessel under this chapter, the Secretary shall issue, on request of the owner, an International Tonnage Certificate (1969) and deliver it to the owner or master of the vessel.
(b) The certificate shall be maintained as required by the Secretary.

46 USC 14304 - Remeasurement

(a) To the extent necessary, the Secretary shall remeasure a vessel to which this chapter applies if
(1) the Secretary or the owner alleges an error in its measurement; or
(2) the vessel or the use of its space is changed in a way that substantially affects its tonnage.
(b) Except as provided in this chapter or section 14504 of this title, a vessel that has been measured does not have to be remeasured to obtain another document or endorsement under chapter 121 of this title.

46 USC 14305 - Optional regulatory measurement

(a) On request of the owner of a documented vessel measured under this chapter, the Secretary also shall measure the vessel under chapter 145 of this title. The tonnages determined under that chapter shall be used in applying
(1) parts A, B, C, E, F, and G of this subtitle and section 12116 of this title;
(2) section 3(d)(3) of the Longshore and Harbor Workers Compensation Act (33 U.S.C. 903 (d)(3));
(3) section 4 of the Bridge to Bridge Radiotelephone Act (33 U.S.C. 1203 (a));
(4) section 4(a)(3) of the Ports and Waterways Safety Act (33 U.S.C. 1223 (a)(3));
(5) section 30506 of this title;
(6) sections 12118 and 12132 of this title;
(7) section 12139 (b) of this title;
(8) sections 351, 352, 355, and 356 of the Ship Radio Act (47 U.S.C. 351, 352, 354, and 354a);
(9) section 403 of the Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Act (46 U.S.C. 3302 note );
(10) the Officers Competency Certificates Convention, 1936, and sections 8303 and 8304 of this title;
(11) the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea as provided by IMCO Resolution A.494 (XII) of November 19, 1981;
(12) the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as provided by IMO Resolution A.540 (XIII) of November 17, 1983;
(13) the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as provided by IMO Resolution A.541 (XIII) of November 17, 1983;
(14) provisions of law establishing the threshold tonnage levels at which evidence of financial responsibility must be demonstrated; or
(15) unless otherwise provided by law, any other law of the United States in effect before July 19, 1994, and not listed by the Secretary under section 14302 (c) of this title.
(b) As long as the owner of a vessel has a request in effect under subsection (a) of this section, the tonnages determined under that request shall be used in applying the other provisions of law described in subsection (a) to that vessel.

46 USC 14306 - Reciprocity for foreign vessels

(a) When the Secretary finds that the laws and regulations of a foreign country related to measurement of vessels are similar to those of this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter, or when a foreign country is a party to the Convention, the Secretary shall accept the measurement and certificate of a vessel of that foreign country as complying with this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter.
(b) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to a vessel of a foreign country that does not recognize measurements under this chapter. The Secretary may apply measurement standards the Secretary considers appropriate to the vessel, subject to applicable international agreements to which the United States Government is a party.

46 USC 14307 - Inspection of foreign vessels

(a) The Secretary may inspect a vessel of a foreign country to verify that
(1) the vessel has an International Tonnage Certificate (1969) and the main characteristics of the vessel correspond to the information in the certificate; or
(2) if the vessel is from a country not a party to the Convention, the vessel has been measured under laws and regulations similar to those of this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter.
(b) For a vessel of a country that is a party to the Convention, if the inspection reveals that the vessel does not have an International Tonnage Certificate (1969) or that the main characteristics of the vessel differ from those stated on the certificate or other records in a way that increases the gross or net tonnage of the vessel, the Secretary promptly shall inform the country whose flag the vessel is flying.
(c) For a vessel of a country not a party to the Convention
(1) if the vessel has been measured under laws and regulations that the Secretary finds are similar to those of this chapter and the regulations prescribed under this chapter, the vessel shall be deemed to have been issued an International Tonnage Certificate (1969); and
(2) if the vessel has not been measured as described in clause (1) of this subsection, the Secretary may measure the vessel.
(d) An inspection under this section shall be conducted in a way that does not delay a vessel of a country that is a party to the Convention.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 145 - REGULATORY MEASUREMENT

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL

46 USC 14501 - Application

This chapter applies to the following:
(1) a vessel not measured under chapter 143 of this title if
(A) the vessel is to be documented under chapter 121 of this title; or
(B) the application of a law of the United States to the vessel depends on the vessels tonnage.
(2) a vessel measured under chapter 143 of this title if the owner requests that the vessel also be measured under this chapter as provided in section 14305 of this title.

46 USC 14502 - Measurement

The Secretary shall measure a vessel to which this chapter applies in the way provided by this chapter.

46 USC 14503 - Certificate of measurement

The Secretary shall prescribe the certificate to be issued as evidence of a vessels measurement under this chapter.

46 USC 14504 - Remeasurement

(a) To the extent necessary, the Secretary shall remeasure a vessel to which this chapter applies if
(1) the Secretary or the owner alleges an error in its measurement;
(2) the vessel or the use of its space is changed in a way that substantially affects its tonnage;
(3) after being measured under subchapter III of this chapter, the vessel becomes subject to subchapter II of this chapter because the vessel or its use is changed; or
(4) although not required to be measured under subchapter II of this chapter, the vessel was measured under subchapter II and the owner requests that the vessel be measured under subchapter III of this chapter.
(b) Except as provided in this section and chapter 143 of this title, a vessel that has been measured does not have to be remeasured to obtain another document or endorsement under chapter 121 of this title.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - FORMAL SYSTEMS

46 USC 14511 - Application

This subchapter applies to a vessel described in section 14501 of this title if
(1) the owner requests; or
(2) the vessel is
(A) self-propelled;
(B) at least 24 meters (79 feet) overall in length; and
(C) not operated only for pleasure.

46 USC 14512 - Standard tonnage measurement

(a) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for measuring the gross and net tonnages of a vessel under this subchapter. The regulations shall provide for tonnages comparable to the tonnages that could have been assigned under sections 4151 and 4153 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, as sections 4151 and 4153 existed immediately before the enactment of this section.
(b) On application of the owner or master of a vessel of the United States used in foreign trade, the Secretary may attach an appendix to the vessels register stating the measurement of spaces that may be deducted from gross tonnage under laws and regulations of other countries but not under those of the United States.

46 USC 14513 - Dual tonnage measurement

(a) On application by the owner and approval by the Secretary, the tonnage of spaces prescribed by the Secretary may be excluded in measuring under this section the gross tonnage of a vessel measured under section 14512 of this title. The spaces prescribed by the Secretary shall be comparable to the spaces that could have been excluded under section 2 of the Act of September 29, 1965 (Public Law 89219, 79 Stat. 891), as section 2 existed immediately before the enactment of this section.
(b) The Secretary shall prescribe the design, location, and dimensions of the tonnage mark to be placed on a vessel measured under this section.
(c) 
(1) If a vessels tonnage mark is below the uppermost part of the load line marks, each certificate stating the vessels tonnages shall state the gross and net tonnages when the mark is submerged and when it is not submerged.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection, a certificate stating a vessels tonnages may state only one set of gross and net tonnages.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM

46 USC 14521 - Application

This subchapter applies to a vessel described in section 14501 of this title that is not measured under subchapter II of this chapter.

46 USC 14522 - Measurement

(a) In this section, length means the horizontal distance of the hull between the foremost part of the stem and the aftermost part of the stern, excluding fittings and attachments.
(b) 
(1) The Secretary shall assign gross and net tonnages to a vessel based on its length, breadth, depth, other dimensions, and appropriate coefficients.
(2) The Secretary shall prescribe the way dimensions (except length) are measured and which coefficients are appropriate.
(c) The resulting gross tonnages, taken as a group, reasonably shall reflect the relative internal volumes of the vessels measured under this subchapter. The resulting net tonnages shall be in approximately the same ratios to corresponding gross tonnages as are the net and gross tonnages of comparable vessels measured under subchapter II of this chapter.
(d) Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the Secretary may determine the gross and net tonnages of a vessel representative of a designated class, model, or type, and then assign those gross and net tonnages to other vessels of the same class, model, or type.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 147 - PENALTIES

46 USC 14701 - General violation

The owner, charterer, managing operator, agent, master, and individual in charge of a vessel violating this part or a regulation prescribed under this part are each liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $20,000. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate violation. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

46 USC 14702 - False statements

A person knowingly making a false statement or representation in a matter in which a statement or representation is required by this part or a regulation prescribed under this part is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $20,000 for each false statement or representation. The vessel also is liable in rem for the penalty.

Subtitle III - Maritime Liability

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 301 - GENERAL LIABILITY PROVISIONS

46 USC 30101 - Extension of jurisdiction to cases of damage or injury on land

(a) In General.— 
The admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States extends to and includes cases of injury or damage, to person or property, caused by a vessel on navigable waters, even though the injury or damage is done or consummated on land.
(b) Procedure.— 
A civil action in a case under subsection (a) may be brought in rem or in personam according to the principles of law and the rules of practice applicable in cases where the injury or damage has been done and consummated on navigable waters.
(c) Actions Against United States.— 

(1) Exclusive remedy.— 
In a civil action against the United States for injury or damage done or consummated on land by a vessel on navigable waters, chapter 309 or 311 of this title, as appropriate, provides the exclusive remedy.
(2) Administrative claim.— 
A civil action described in paragraph (1) may not be brought until the expiration of the 6-month period after the claim has been presented in writing to the agency owning or operating the vessel causing the injury or damage.

46 USC 30102 - Liability to passengers

(a) Liability.— 
The owner and master of a vessel, and the vessel, are liable for personal injury to a passenger or damage to a passengers baggage caused by
(1) a neglect or failure to comply with part B or F of subtitle II of this title; or
(2) a known defect in the steaming apparatus or hull of the vessel.
(b) Not Subject to Limitation.— 
A liability imposed under this section is not subject to limitation under chapter 305 of this title.

46 USC 30103 - Liability of master, mate, engineer, and pilot

A person may bring a civil action against a master, mate, engineer, or pilot of a vessel, and recover damages, for personal injury or loss caused by the masters, mates, engineers, or pilots
(1) negligence or willful misconduct; or
(2) neglect or refusal to obey the laws governing the navigation of vessels.

46 USC 30104 - Personal injury to or death of seamen

(a) Cause of Action.— 
A seaman injured in the course of employment or, if the seaman dies from the injury, the personal representative of the seaman may elect to bring a civil action at law, with the right of trial by jury, against the employer. Laws of the United States regulating recovery for personal injury to, or death of, a railway employee apply to an action under this section.
(b) Venue.— 
An action under this section shall be brought in the judicial district in which the employer resides or the employers principal office is located.

46 USC 30105 - Restriction on recovery by non-citizens and non-resident aliens for incidents in waters of other countries

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, the term continental shelf has the meaning given that term in article I of the 1958 Convention on the Continental Shelf.
(b) Restriction.— 
Except as provided in subsection (c), a civil action for maintenance and cure or for damages for personal injury or death may not be brought under a maritime law of the United States if
(1) the individual suffering the injury or death was not a citizen or permanent resident alien of the United States at the time of the incident giving rise to the action;
(2) the incident occurred in the territorial waters or waters overlaying the continental shelf of a country other than the United States; and
(3) the individual suffering the injury or death was employed at the time of the incident by a person engaged in the exploration, development, or production of offshore mineral or energy resources, including drilling, mapping, surveying, diving, pipelaying, maintaining, repairing, constructing, or transporting supplies, equipment, or personnel, but not including transporting those resources by a vessel constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in the cargo spaces.
(c) Nonapplication.— 
Subsection (b) does not apply if the individual bringing the action establishes that a remedy is not available under the laws of
(1) the country asserting jurisdiction over the area in which the incident occurred; or
(2) the country in which the individual suffering the injury or death maintained citizenship or residency at the time of the incident.

46 USC 30106 - Time limit on bringing maritime action for personal injury or death

Except as otherwise provided by law, a civil action for damages for personal injury or death arising out of a maritime tort must be brought within 3 years after the cause of action arose.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 303 - DEATH ON THE HIGH SEAS

46 USC 30301 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Death on the High Seas Act.

46 USC 30302 - Cause of action

When the death of an individual is caused by wrongful act, neglect, or default occurring on the high seas beyond 3 nautical miles from the shore of the United States, the personal representative of the decedent may bring a civil action in admiralty against the person or vessel responsible. The action shall be for the exclusive benefit of the decedents spouse, parent, child, or dependent relative.

46 USC 30303 - Amount and apportionment of recovery

The recovery in an action under this chapter shall be a fair compensation for the pecuniary loss sustained by the individuals for whose benefit the action is brought. The court shall apportion the recovery among those individuals in proportion to the loss each has sustained.

46 USC 30304 - Contributory negligence

In an action under this chapter, contributory negligence of the decedent is not a bar to recovery. The court shall consider the degree of negligence of the decedent and reduce the recovery accordingly.

46 USC 30305 - Death of plaintiff in pending action

If a civil action in admiralty is pending in a court of the United States to recover for personal injury caused by wrongful act, neglect, or default described in section 30302 of this title, and the individual dies during the action as a result of the wrongful act, neglect, or default, the personal representative of the decedent may be substituted as the plaintiff and the action may proceed under this chapter for the recovery authorized by this chapter.

46 USC 30306 - Foreign cause of action

When a cause of action exists under the law of a foreign country for death by wrongful act, neglect, or default on the high seas, a civil action in admiralty may be brought in a court of the United States based on the foreign cause of action, without abatement of the amount for which recovery is authorized.

46 USC 30307 - Commercial aviation accidents

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, the term nonpecuniary damages means damages for loss of care, comfort, and companionship.
(b) Beyond 12 Nautical Miles.— 
In an action under this chapter, if the death resulted from a commercial aviation accident occurring on the high seas beyond 12 nautical miles from the shore of the United States, additional compensation is recoverable for nonpecuniary damages, but punitive damages are not recoverable.
(c) Within 12 Nautical Miles.— 
This chapter does not apply if the death resulted from a commercial aviation accident occurring on the high seas 12 nautical miles or less from the shore of the United States.

46 USC 30308 - Nonapplication

(a) State Law.— 
This chapter does not affect the law of a State regulating the right to recover for death.
(b) Internal Waters.— 
This chapter does not apply to the Great Lakes or waters within the territorial limits of a State.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 305 - EXONERATION AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

46 USC 30501 - Definition

In this chapter, the term owner includes a charterer that mans, supplies, and navigates a vessel at the charterers own expense or by the charterers own procurement.

46 USC 30502 - Application

Except as otherwise provided, this chapter (except section 30503) applies to seagoing vessels and vessels used on lakes or rivers or in inland navigation, including canal boats, barges, and lighters.

46 USC 30503 - Declaration of nature and value of goods

(a) In General.— 
If a shipper of an item named in subsection (b), contained in a parcel, package, or trunk, loads the item as freight or baggage on a vessel, without at the time of loading giving to the person receiving the item a written notice of the true character and value of the item and having that information entered on the bill of lading, the owner and master of the vessel are not liable as carriers. The owner and master are not liable beyond the value entered on the bill of lading.
(b) Items.— 
The items referred to in subsection (a) are precious metals, gold or silver plated articles, precious stones, jewelry, trinkets, watches, clocks, glass, china, coins, bills, securities, printings, engravings, pictures, stamps, maps, papers, silks, furs, lace, and similar items of high value and small size.

46 USC 30504 - Loss by fire

The owner of a vessel is not liable for loss or damage to merchandise on the vessel caused by a fire on the vessel unless the fire resulted from the design or neglect of the owner.

46 USC 30505 - General limit of liability

(a) In General.— 
Except as provided in section 30506 of this title, the liability of the owner of a vessel for any claim, debt, or liability described in subsection (b) shall not exceed the value of the vessel and pending freight. If the vessel has more than one owner, the proportionate share of the liability of any one owner shall not exceed that owners proportionate interest in the vessel and pending freight.
(b) Claims Subject to Limitation.— 
Unless otherwise excluded by law, claims, debts, and liabilities subject to limitation under subsection (a) are those arising from any embezzlement, loss, or destruction of any property, goods, or merchandise shipped or put on board the vessel, any loss, damage, or injury by collision, or any act, matter, or thing, loss, damage, or forfeiture, done, occasioned, or incurred, without the privity or knowledge of the owner.
(c) Wages.— 
Subsection (a) does not apply to a claim for wages.

46 USC 30506 - Limit of liability for personal injury or death

(a) Application.— 
This section applies only to seagoing vessels, but does not apply to pleasure yachts, tugs, towboats, towing vessels, tank vessels, fishing vessels, fish tender vessels, canal boats, scows, car floats, barges, lighters, or nondescript vessels.
(b) Minimum Liability.— 
If the amount of the vessel owners liability determined under section 30505 of this title is insufficient to pay all losses in full, and the portion available to pay claims for personal injury or death is less than $420 times the tonnage of the vessel, that portion shall be increased to $420 times the tonnage of the vessel. That portion may be used only to pay claims for personal injury or death.
(c) Calculation of Tonnage.— 
Under subsection (b), the tonnage of a self-propelled vessel is the gross tonnage without deduction for engine room, and the tonnage of a sailing vessel is the tonnage for documentation. However, space for the use of seamen is excluded.
(d) Claims Arising on Distinct Occasions.— 
Separate limits of liability apply to claims for personal injury or death arising on distinct occasions.
(e) Privity or Knowledge.— 
In a claim for personal injury or death, the privity or knowledge of the master or the owners superintendent or managing agent, at or before the beginning of each voyage, is imputed to the owner.

46 USC 30507 - Apportionment of losses

If the amounts determined under sections 30505 and 30506 of this title are insufficient to pay all claims
(1) all claimants shall be paid in proportion to their respective losses out of the amount determined under section 30505 of this title; and
(2) personal injury and death claimants, if any, shall be paid an additional amount in proportion to their respective losses out of the additional amount determined under section 30506 (b) of this title.

46 USC 30508 - Provisions requiring notice of claim or limiting time for bringing action

(a) Application.— 
This section applies only to seagoing vessels, but does not apply to pleasure yachts, tugs, towboats, towing vessels, tank vessels, fishing vessels, fish tender vessels, canal boats, scows, car floats, barges, lighters, or nondescript vessels.
(b) Minimum Time Limits.— 
The owner, master, manager, or agent of a vessel transporting passengers or property between ports in the United States, or between a port in the United States and a port in a foreign country, may not limit by regulation, contract, or otherwise the period for
(1) giving notice of, or filing a claim for, personal injury or death to less than 6 months after the date of the injury or death; or
(2) bringing a civil action for personal injury or death to less than one year after the date of the injury or death.
(c) Effect of Failure To Give Notice.— 
When notice of a claim for personal injury or death is required by a contract, the failure to give the notice is not a bar to recovery if
(1) the court finds that the owner, master, or agent of the vessel had knowledge of the injury or death and the owner has not been prejudiced by the failure;
(2) the court finds there was a satisfactory reason why the notice could not have been given; or
(3) the owner of the vessel fails to object to the failure to give the notice.
(d) Tolling of Period To Give Notice.— 
If a claimant is a minor or mental incompetent, or if a claim is for wrongful death, any period provided by a contract for giving notice of the claim is tolled until the earlier of
(1) the date a legal representative is appointed for the minor, incompetent, or decedents estate; or
(2) 3 years after the injury or death.

46 USC 30509 - Provisions limiting liability for personal injury or death

(a) Prohibition.— 

(1) In general.— 
The owner, master, manager, or agent of a vessel transporting passengers between ports in the United States, or between a port in the United States and a port in a foreign country, may not include in a regulation or contract a provision limiting
(A) the liability of the owner, master, or agent for personal injury or death caused by the negligence or fault of the owner or the owners employees or agents; or
(B) the right of a claimant for personal injury or death to a trial by court of competent jurisdiction.
(2) Voidness.— 
A provision described in paragraph (1) is void.
(b) Emotional Distress, Mental Suffering, and Psychological Injury.— 

(1) In general.— 
Subsection (a) does not prohibit a provision in a contract or in ticket conditions of carriage with a passenger that relieves an owner, master, manager, agent, operator, or crewmember of a vessel from liability for infliction of emotional distress, mental suffering, or psychological injury so long as the provision does not limit such liability when the emotional distress, mental suffering, or psychological injury is
(A) the result of physical injury to the claimant caused by the negligence or fault of a crewmember or the owner, master, manager, agent, or operator;
(B) the result of the claimant having been at actual risk of physical injury, and the risk was caused by the negligence or fault of a crewmember or the owner, master, manager, agent, or operator; or
(C) intentionally inflicted by a crewmember or the owner, master, manager, agent, or operator.
(2) Sexual offenses.— 
This subsection does not limit the liability of a crewmember or the owner, master, manager, agent, or operator of a vessel in a case involving sexual harassment, sexual assault, or rape.

46 USC 30510 - Vicarious liability for medical malpractice with regard to crew

In a civil action by any person in which the owner or operator of a vessel or employer of a crewmember is claimed to have vicarious liability for medical malpractice with regard to a crewmember occurring at a shoreside facility, and to the extent the damages resulted from the conduct of any shoreside doctor, hospital, medical facility, or other health care provider, the owner, operator, or employer is entitled to rely on any statutory limitations of liability applicable to the doctor, hospital, medical facility, or other health care provider in the State of the United States in which the shoreside medical care was provided.

46 USC 30511 - Action by owner for limitation

(a) In General.— 
The owner of a vessel may bring a civil action in a district court of the United States for limitation of liability under this chapter. The action must be brought within 6 months after a claimant gives the owner written notice of a claim.
(b) Creation of Fund.— 
When the action is brought, the owner (at the owners option) shall
(1) deposit with the court, for the benefit of claimants
(A) an amount equal to the value of the owners interest in the vessel and pending freight, or approved security; and
(B) an amount, or approved security, that the court may fix from time to time as necessary to carry out this chapter; or
(2) transfer to a trustee appointed by the court, for the benefit of claimants
(A) the owners interest in the vessel and pending freight; and
(B) an amount, or approved security, that the court may fix from time to time as necessary to carry out this chapter.
(c) Cessation of Other Actions.— 
When an action has been brought under this section and the owner has complied with subsection (b), all claims and proceedings against the owner related to the matter in question shall cease.

46 USC 30512 - Liability as master, officer, or seaman not affected

This chapter does not affect the liability of an individual as a master, officer, or seaman, even though the individual is also an owner of the vessel.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 307 - LIABILITY OF WATER CARRIERS

46 USC 30701 - Definition

In this chapter, the term carrier means the owner, manager, charterer, agent, or master of a vessel.

46 USC 30702 - Application

(a) In General.— 
Except as otherwise provided, this chapter applies to a carrier engaged in the carriage of goods to or from any port in the United States.
(b) Live Animals.— 
Sections 30703 and 30704 of this title do not apply to the carriage of live animals.

46 USC 30703 - Bills of lading

(a) Issuance.— 
On demand of a shipper, the carrier shall issue a bill of lading or shipping document.
(b) Contents.— 
The bill of lading or shipping document shall include a statement of
(1) the marks necessary to identify the goods;
(2) the number of packages, or the quantity or weight, and whether it is carriers or shippers weight; and
(3) the apparent condition of the goods.
(c) Prima Facie Evidence of Receipt.— 
A bill of lading or shipping document issued under this section is prima facie evidence of receipt of the goods described.

46 USC 30704 - Loading, stowage, custody, care, and delivery

A carrier may not insert in a bill of lading or shipping document a provision avoiding its liability for loss or damage arising from negligence or fault in loading, stowage, custody, care, or proper delivery. Any such provision is void.

46 USC 30705 - Seaworthiness

(a) Prohibition.— 
A carrier may not insert in a bill of lading or shipping document a provision lessening or avoiding its obligation to exercise due diligence to
(1) make the vessel seaworthy; and
(2) properly man, equip, and supply the vessel.
(b) Voidness.— 
A provision described in subsection (a) is void.

46 USC 30706 - Defenses

(a) Due Diligence.— 
If a carrier has exercised due diligence to make the vessel in all respects seaworthy and to properly man, equip, and supply the vessel, the carrier and the vessel are not liable for loss or damage arising from an error in the navigation or management of the vessel.
(b) Other Defenses.— 
A carrier and the vessel are not liable for loss or damage arising from
(1) dangers of the sea or other navigable waters;
(2) acts of God;
(3) public enemies;
(4) seizure under legal process;
(5) inherent defect, quality, or vice of the goods;
(6) insufficiency of package;
(7) act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods or their agent; or
(8) saving or attempting to save life or property at sea, including a deviation in rendering such a service.

46 USC 30707 - Criminal penalty

(a) In General.— 
A carrier that violates this chapter shall be fined under title 18.
(b) Lien.— 
The amount of the fine and costs for the violation constitute a lien on the vessel engaged in the carriage. A civil action in rem to enforce the lien may be brought in the district court of the United States for any district in which the vessel is found.
(c) Disposition of Fine.— 
Half of the fine shall go to the person injured by the violation and half to the United States Government.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 309 - SUITS IN ADMIRALTY AGAINST THE UNITED STATES

46 USC 30901 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Suits in Admiralty Act.

46 USC 30902 - Definition

In this chapter, the term federally-owned corporation means a corporation in which the United States owns all the outstanding capital stock.

46 USC 30903 - Waiver of immunity

(a) In General.— 
In a case in which, if a vessel were privately owned or operated, or if cargo were privately owned or possessed, or if a private person or property were involved, a civil action in admiralty could be maintained, a civil action in admiralty in personam may be brought against the United States or a federally-owned corporation. In a civil action in admiralty brought by the United States or a federally-owned corporation, an admiralty claim in personam may be filed or a setoff claimed against the United States or corporation.
(b) Non-Jury.— 
A claim against the United States or a federally-owned corporation under this section shall be tried without a jury.

46 USC 30904 - Exclusive remedy

If a remedy is provided by this chapter, it shall be exclusive of any other action arising out of the same subject matter against the officer, employee, or agent of the United States or the federally-owned corporation whose act or omission gave rise to the claim.

46 USC 30905 - Period for bringing action

A civil action under this chapter must be brought within 2 years after the cause of action arose.

46 USC 30906 - Venue

(a) In General.— 
A civil action under this chapter shall be brought in the district court of the United States for the district in which
(1) any plaintiff resides or has its principal place of business; or
(2) the vessel or cargo is found.
(b) Transfer.— 
On a motion by a party, the court may transfer the action to any other district court of the United States.

46 USC 30907 - Procedure for hearing and determination

(a) In General.— 
A civil action under this chapter shall proceed and be heard and determined according to the principles of law and the rules of practice applicable in like cases between private parties.
(b) In Rem.— 

(1) Requirements.— 
The action may proceed according to the principles of an action in rem if
(A) the plaintiff elects in the complaint; and
(B) it appears that an action in rem could have been maintained had the vessel or cargo been privately owned and possessed.
(2) Effect on relief in personam.— 
An election under paragraph (1) does not prevent the plaintiff from seeking relief in personam in the same action.

46 USC 30908 - Exemption from arrest or seizure

The following are not subject to arrest or seizure by judicial process in the United States:
(1) A vessel owned by, possessed by, or operated by or for the United States or a federally-owned corporation.
(2) Cargo owned or possessed by the United States or a federally-owned corporation.

46 USC 30909 - Security

Neither the United States nor a federally-owned corporation may be required to give a bond or admiralty stipulation in a civil action under this chapter.

46 USC 30910 - Exoneration and limitation

The United States is entitled to the exemptions from and limitations of liability provided by law to an owner, charterer, operator, or agent of a vessel.

46 USC 30911 - Costs and interest

(a) In General.— 
A judgment against the United States or a federally-owned corporation under this chapter may include costs and interest at the rate of 4 percent per year until satisfied. Interest shall run as ordered by the court, except that interest is not allowable for the period before the action is filed.
(b) Contract Providing for Interest.— 
Notwithstanding subsection (a), if the claim is based on a contract providing for interest, interest may be awarded at the rate and for the period provided in the contract.

46 USC 30912 - Arbitration, compromise, or settlement

The Secretary of a department of the United States Government, or the board of trustees of a federally-owned corporation, may arbitrate, compromise, or settle a claim under this chapter.

46 USC 30913 - Payment of judgment or settlement

(a) In General.— 
The proper accounting officer of the United States shall pay a final judgment, arbitration award, or settlement under this chapter on presentation of an authenticated copy.
(b) Source of Payment.— 
Payment shall be made from an appropriation or fund available specifically for the purpose. If no appropriation or fund is specifically available, there is hereby appropriated, out of money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, an amount sufficient to pay the judgment, award, or settlement.

46 USC 30914 - Release of privately owned vessel after arrest or attachment

If a privately owned vessel not in the possession of the United States or a federally-owned corporation is arrested or attached in a civil action arising or alleged to have arisen from prior ownership, possession, or operation by the United States or corporation, the vessel shall be released without bond or stipulation on a statement by the United States, through the Attorney General or other authorized law officer, that the United States is interested in the action, desires release of the vessel, and assumes liability for the satisfaction of any judgment obtained by the plaintiff. After the vessel is released, the action shall proceed against the United States in accordance with this chapter.

46 USC 30915 - Seizures and other proceedings in foreign jurisdictions

(a) In General.— 
If a vessel or cargo described in section 30908 or 30914 of this title is arrested, attached, or otherwise seized by judicial process in a foreign country, or if an action is brought in a court of a foreign country against the master of such a vessel for a claim arising from the ownership, possession, or operation of the vessel, or the ownership, possession, or carriage of such cargo, the Secretary of State, on request of the Attorney General or another officer authorized by the Attorney General, may direct the United States consul residing at or nearest the place at which the action was brought
(1) to claim the vessel or cargo as immune from arrest, attachment, or other seizure, and to execute an agreement, stipulation, bond, or undertaking, for the United States or federally-owned corporation, for the release of the vessel or cargo and the prosecution of any appeal; or
(2) if an action has been brought against the master of such a vessel, to enter the appearance of the United States or corporation and to pledge the credit of the United States or corporation to the payment of any judgment and costs in the action.
(b) Arranging Bond or Stipulation.— 
The Attorney General may
(1) arrange with a bank, surety company, or other person, whether in the United States or a foreign country, to execute a bond or stipulation; and
(2) pledge the credit of the United States to secure the bond or stipulation.
(c) Payment of Judgment.— 
The appropriate accounting officer of the United States or corporation may pay a judgment in an action described in subsection (a) on presentation of a copy of the judgment if certified by the clerk of the court and authenticated by
(1) the certificate and seal of the United States consul claiming the vessel or cargo, or by the consuls successor; and
(2) the certificate of the Secretary as to the official capacity of the consul.
(d) Right To Claim Immunity Not Affected.— 
This section does not affect the right of the United States to claim immunity of a vessel or cargo from foreign jurisdiction.

46 USC 30916 - Recovery by the United States for salvage services

(a) Civil Action.— 
The United States, and the crew of a merchant vessel owned or operated by the United States, or a federally-owned corporation, may bring a civil action to recover for salvage services provided by the vessel and crew.
(b) Deposit of Amounts Recovered.— 
Any amount recovered under this section by the United States for its own benefit, and not for the benefit of the crew, shall be deposited in the Treasury to the credit of the department of the United States Government, or the corporation, having control of the possession or operation of the vessel.

46 USC 30917 - Disposition of amounts recovered by the United States

Amounts recovered in a civil action brought by the United States on a claim arising from the ownership, possession, or operation of a merchant vessel, or the ownership, possession, or carriage of cargo, shall be deposited in the Treasury to the credit of the department of the United States Government, or the federally-owned corporation, having control of the vessel or cargo, for reimbursement of the appropriation, insurance fund, or other fund from which the compensation for which the judgment was recovered was or will be paid.

46 USC 30918 - Reports

The Secretary of each department of the United States Government, and the board of trustees of each federally-owned corporation, shall report to Congress at each session thereof all arbitration awards and settlements agreed to under this chapter since the previous session, for which the time to appeal has expired or been waived.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 311 - SUITS INVOLVING PUBLIC VESSELS

46 USC 31101 - Short title

This chapter may be cited as the Public Vessels Act.

46 USC 31102 - Waiver of immunity

(a) In General.— 
A civil action in personam in admiralty may be brought, or an impleader filed, against the United States for
(1) damages caused by a public vessel of the United States; or
(2) compensation for towage and salvage services, including contract salvage, rendered to a public vessel of the United States.
(b) Counterclaim or Setoff.— 
If the United States brings a civil action in admiralty for damages caused by a privately owned vessel, the owner of the vessel, or the successor in interest, may file a counterclaim in personam, or claim a setoff, against the United States for damages arising out of the same subject matter.

46 USC 31103 - Applicable procedure

A civil action under this chapter is subject to the provisions of chapter 309 of this title except to the extent inconsistent with this chapter.

46 USC 31104 - Venue

(a) In General.— 
A civil action under this chapter shall be brought in the district court of the United States for the district in which the vessel or cargo is found within the United States.
(b) Vessel or Cargo Outside Territorial Waters.— 
If the vessel or cargo is outside the territorial waters of the United States
(1) the action shall be brought in the district court of the United States for any district in which any plaintiff resides or has an office for the transaction of business; or
(2) if no plaintiff resides or has an office for the transaction of business in the United States, the action may be brought in the district court of the United States for any district.

46 USC 31105 - Security when counterclaim filed

If a counterclaim is filed for a cause of action for which the original action is filed under this chapter, the respondent to the counterclaim shall give security in the usual amount and form to respond to the counterclaim, unless the court for cause shown orders otherwise. The proceedings in the original action shall be stayed until the security is given.

46 USC 31106 - Exoneration and limitation

The United States is entitled to the exemptions from and limitations of liability provided by law to an owner, charterer, operator, or agent of a vessel.

46 USC 31107 - Interest

A judgment in a civil action under this chapter may not include interest for the period before the judgment is issued unless the claim is based on a contract providing for interest.

46 USC 31108 - Arbitration, compromise, or settlement

The Attorney General may arbitrate, compromise, or settle a claim under this chapter if a civil action based on the claim has been commenced.

46 USC 31109 - Payment of judgment or settlement

The proper accounting officer of the United States shall pay a final judgment, arbitration award, or settlement under this chapter on presentation of an authenticated copy. Payment shall be made from any money in the Treasury appropriated for the purpose.

46 USC 31110 - Subpoenas to officers or members of crew

An officer or member of the crew of a public vessel may not be subpoenaed in a civil action under this chapter without the consent of
(1) the Secretary of the department or the head of the independent establishment having control of the vessel at the time the cause of action arose; or
(2) the master or commanding officer of the vessel at the time the subpoena is issued.

46 USC 31111 - Claims by nationals of foreign countries

A national of a foreign country may not maintain a civil action under this chapter unless it appears to the satisfaction of the court in which the action is brought that the government of that country, in similar circumstances, allows nationals of the United States to sue in its courts.

46 USC 31112 - Lien not recognized or created

This chapter shall not be construed as recognizing the existence of or as creating a lien against a public vessel of the United States.

46 USC 31113 - Reports

The Attorney General shall report to Congress at each session thereof all claims settled under this chapter.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 313 - COMMERCIAL INSTRUMENTS AND MARITIME LIENS

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER I - GENERAL

46 USC 31301 - Definitions

In this chapter
(1) acknowledge means making
(A) an acknowledgment or notarization before a notary public or other official authorized by a law of the United States or a State to take acknowledgments of deeds; or
(B) a certificate issued under the Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents, 1961;
(2) district court means
(A) a district court of the United States (as defined in section 451 of title 28);
(B) the District Court of Guam;
(C) the District Court of the Virgin Islands;
(D) the District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands;
(E) the High Court of American Samoa; and
(F) any other court of original jurisdiction of a territory or possession of the United States;
(3) mortgagee means
(A) a person to whom property is mortgaged; or
(B) when a mortgage on a vessel involves a trust, the trustee that is designated in the trust agreement;
(4) necessaries includes repairs, supplies, towage, and the use of a dry dock or marine railway;
(5) preferred maritime lien means a maritime lien on a vessel
(A) arising before a preferred mortgage was filed under section 31321 of this title;
(B) for damage arising out of maritime tort;
(C) for wages of a stevedore when employed directly by a person listed in section 31341 of this title;
(D) for wages of the crew of the vessel;
(E) for general average; or
(F) for salvage, including contract salvage; and
(6) preferred mortgage
(A) means a mortgage that is a preferred mortgage under section 31322 of this title; and
(B) also means in sections 31325 and 31326 of this title, a mortgage, hypothecation, or similar charge that is established as a security on a foreign vessel if the mortgage, hypothecation, or similar charge was executed under the laws of the foreign country under whose laws the ownership of the vessel is documented and has been registered under those laws in a public register at the port of registry of the vessel or at a central office.

46 USC 31302 - Availability of instruments, copies, and information

The Secretary of Transportation shall
(1) make any instrument filed or recorded with the Secretary under this chapter available for public inspection;
(2) on request, provide a copy, including a certified copy, of any instrument made available for public inspection under this chapter; and
(3) on request, provide a certificate containing information included in an instrument filed or recorded under this chapter.

46 USC 31303 - Certain civil actions not authorized

If a mortgage covers a vessel and additional property that is not a vessel, this chapter does not authorize a civil action in rem to enforce the rights of the mortgagee under the mortgage against the additional property.

46 USC 31304 - Liability for noncompliance

(a) If a person makes a contract secured by, or on the credit of, a vessel covered by a mortgage filed or recorded under this chapter and sustains a monetary loss because the mortgagor or the master or other individual in charge of the vessel does not comply with a requirement imposed on the mortgagor, master, or individual under this chapter, the mortgagor is liable for the loss.
(b) A civil action may be brought to recover for losses referred to in subsection (a) of this section. The district courts have original jurisdiction of the action, regardless of the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties. If the plaintiff prevails, the court shall award costs and attorney fees to the plaintiff.

46 USC 31305 - Waiver of lien rights

This chapter does not prevent a mortgagee or other lien holder from waiving or subordinating at any time by agreement or otherwise the lien holders right to a lien, the priority or, if a preferred mortgage lien, the preferred status of the lien.

46 USC 31306 - Declaration of citizenship

(a) Except as provided by the Secretary of Transportation, when an instrument transferring an interest in a vessel is presented to the Secretary for filing or recording, the transferee shall file with the instrument a declaration, in the form the Secretary may prescribe by regulation, stating information about citizenship and other information the Secretary may require to show the transaction involved does not violate section 56102 or 56103 of this title.
(b) A declaration under this section filed by a corporation must be signed by its president, secretary, treasurer, or other official authorized by the corporation to execute the declaration.
(c) Except as provided by the Secretary, an instrument transferring an interest in a vessel is not valid against any person until the declaration required by this section has been filed.
(d) A person knowingly making a false statement of a material fact in a declaration filed under this section shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.

46 USC 31307 - State statutes superseded

This chapter supersedes any State statute conferring a lien on a vessel to the extent the statute establishes a claim to be enforced by a civil action in rem against the vessel for necessaries.

46 USC 31308 - Secretary of Commerce or Transportation as mortgagee

When the Secretary of Commerce or Transportation is a mortgagee under this chapter, the Secretary may foreclose on a lien arising from a right established under a mortgage under chapter 537 of this title, subject to section 362 (b) of title 11.

46 USC 31309 - General civil penalty

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a person violating this chapter or a regulation prescribed under this chapter is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER II - COMMERCIAL INSTRUMENTS

46 USC 31321 - Filing, recording, and discharge

(a) 
(1) A bill of sale, conveyance, mortgage, assignment, or related instrument, whenever made, that includes any part of a documented vessel or a vessel for which an application for documentation is filed, must be filed with the Secretary of Transportation to be valid, to the extent the vessel is involved, against any person except
(A) the grantor, mortgagor, or assignor;
(B) the heir or devisee of the grantor, mortgagor, or assignor; and
(C) a person having actual notice of the sale, conveyance, mortgage, assignment, or related instrument.
(2) Each bill of sale, conveyance, mortgage, assignment, or related instrument that is filed in substantial compliance with this section is valid against any person from the time it is filed with the Secretary.
(3) The parties to an instrument or an application for documentation shall use diligence to ensure that the parts of the instrument or application for which they are responsible are in substantial compliance with the filing and documentation requirements.
(4) A bill of sale, conveyance, mortgage, assignment, or related instrument may be filed electronically under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(b) To be filed, a bill of sale, conveyance, mortgage, assignment, or related instrument must
(1) identify the vessel;
(2) state the name and address of each party to the instrument;
(3) state, if a mortgage, the amount of the direct or contingent obligations (in one or more units of account as agreed to by the parties) that is or may become secured by the mortgage, excluding interest, expenses, and fees;
(4) state the interest of the grantor, mortgagor, or assignor in the vessel;
(5) state the interest sold, conveyed, mortgaged, or assigned; and
(6) be signed and acknowledged.
(c) If a bill of sale, conveyance, mortgage, assignment, or related document is filed that involves a vessel for which an application for documentation is filed, and the Secretary decides that the vessel cannot be documented by an applicant
(1) the Secretary shall send notice of the Secretarys decision, including reasons for the decision, to each interested party to the instrument filed for recording; and
(2) 90 days after sending the notice as provided under clause (1) of this subsection, the Secretary
(A) may terminate the filing; and
(B) may return the instrument filed without recording it under subsection (e) of this section.
(d) A person may withdraw an application for documentation of a vessel for which a mortgage has been filed under this section only if the mortgagee consents.
(e) The Secretary shall
(1) record the bills of sale, conveyances, mortgages, assignments, and related instruments of a documented vessel complying with subsection (b) of this section in the order they are filed; and
(2) maintain appropriate indexes, for use by the public, of instruments filed or recorded, or both.
(f) On full and final discharge of the indebtedness under a mortgage recorded under subsection (e)(1) of this section, a mortgagee, on request of the Secretary or mortgagor, shall provide the Secretary with an acknowledged certificate of discharge of the indebtedness in a form prescribed by the Secretary. The Secretary shall record the certificate.
(g) The mortgage or related instrument of a vessel covered by a preferred mortgage under section 31322 (d) of this title, that is later filed under this section at the time an application for documentation is filed, is valid under this section from the time the mortgage or instrument representing financing became a preferred mortgage under section 31322 (d).
(h) On full and final discharge of the indebtedness under a mortgage deemed to be a preferred mortgage under section 31322 (d) of this title, a mortgagee, on request of the Secretary, a State, or mortgagor, shall provide the Secretary or the State, as appropriate, with an acknowledged certificate of discharge of the indebtedness in a form prescribed by the Secretary or the State, as applicable. If filed with the Secretary, the Secretary shall enter that information in the vessel identification system under chapter 125 of this title.

46 USC 31322 - Preferred mortgages

(a) A preferred mortgage is a mortgage, whenever made, that
(1) includes the whole of the vessel;
(2) is filed in substantial compliance with section 31321 of this title;
(3) 
(A) covers a documented vessel; or
(B) covers a vessel for which an application for documentation is filed that is in substantial compliance with the requirements of chapter 121 of this title and the regulations prescribed under that chapter; and
(4) with respect to a vessel with a fishery endorsement that is 100 feet or greater in registered length, has as the mortgagee
(A) a person eligible to own a vessel with a fishery endorsement under section 12113 (c) of this title;
(B) a state[1] or federally chartered financial institution that is insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;
(C) a farm credit lender established under title 12, chapter 23 of the United States Code;
(D) a commercial fishing and agriculture bank established pursuant to State law;
(E) a commercial lender organized under the laws of the United States or of a State and eligible to own a vessel for purposes of documentation under section 12103 of this title; or
(F) a mortgage trustee under subsection (f) of this section.
(b) Any indebtedness secured by a preferred mortgage that is filed or recorded under this chapter, or that is subject to a mortgage, security agreement, or instruments granting a security interest that is deemed to be a preferred mortgage under subsection (d) of this section, may have any rate of interest to which the parties agree.
(c) 
(1) If a preferred mortgage includes more than one vessel or property that is not a vessel, the mortgage may provide for the separate discharge of each vessel and all property not a vessel by the payment of a part of the mortgage indebtedness.
(2) If a vessel covered by a preferred mortgage that includes more than one vessel or property that is not a vessel is to be sold on the order of a district court in a civil action in rem, and the mortgage does not provide for separate discharge as provided under paragraph (1) of this subsection
(A) the mortgage constitutes a lien on that vessel in the full amount of the outstanding mortgage indebtedness; and
(B) an allocation of mortgage indebtedness for purposes of separate discharge may not be made among the vessel and other property covered by the mortgage.
(d) 
(1) A mortgage, security agreement, or instrument granting a security interest perfected under State law covering the whole of a vessel titled in a State is deemed to be a preferred mortgage if
(A) the Secretary certifies that the State titling system complies with the Secretarys guidelines for a titling system under section 13107 (b)(8) of this title; and
(B) information on the vessel covered by the mortgage, security agreement, or instrument is made available to the Secretary under chapter 125 of this title.
(2) This subsection applies to mortgages, security agreements, or instruments covering vessels titled in a State after
(A) the Secretarys certification under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection; and
(B) the State begins making information available to the Secretary under chapter 125 of this title.
(3) A preferred mortgage under this subsection continues to be a preferred mortgage even if the vessel is no longer titled in the State where the mortgage, security agreement, or instrument granting a security interest became a preferred mortgage under this subsection.
(e) If a vessel is already covered by a preferred mortgage when an application for titling or documentation is filed
(1) the status of the preferred mortgage covering the vessel to be titled in the State is determined by the law of the jurisdiction where the vessel is currently titled or documented; and
(2) the status of the preferred mortgage covering the vessel to be documented under chapter 121 is determined by subsection (a) of this section.
(f) 
(1) A mortgage trustee may hold in trust, for an individual or entity, an instrument or evidence of indebtedness, secured by a mortgage of the vessel to the mortgage trustee, provided that the mortgage trustee
(A) is eligible to be a preferred mortgagee under subsection (a)(4), subparagraphs (A)(E) of this section;
(B) is organized as a corporation, and is doing business, under the laws of the United States or of a State;
(C) is authorized under those laws to exercise corporate trust powers;
(D) is subject to supervision or examination by an official of the United States Government or a State;
(E) has a combined capital and surplus (as stated in its most recent published report of condition) of at least $3,000,000; and
(F) meets any other requirements prescribed by the Secretary.
(2) If the beneficiary under the trust arrangement is not a commercial lender, a lender syndicate or eligible to be a preferred mortgagee under subsection (a)(4), subparagraphs (A)(E) of this section, the Secretary must determine that the issuance, assignment, transfer, or trust arrangement does not result in an impermissible transfer of control of the vessel to a person not eligible to own a vessel with a fishery endorsement under section 12113 (c) of this title.
(3) A vessel with a fishery endorsement may be operated by a mortgage trustee only with the approval of the Secretary.
(4) A right under a mortgage of a vessel with a fishery endorsement may be issued, assigned, or transferred to a person not eligible to be a mortgagee of that vessel under this section only with the approval of the Secretary.
(5) The issuance, assignment, or transfer of an instrument or evidence of indebtedness contrary to this subsection is voidable by the Secretary.
(g) For purposes of this section a commercial lender means an entity primarily engaged in the business of lending and other financing transactions with a loan portfolio in excess of $100,000,000, of which not more than 50 per centum in dollar amount consists of loans to borrowers in the commercial fishing industry, as certified to the Secretary by such lender.
(h) For purposes of this section a lender syndicate means an arrangement established for the combined extension of credit of not less than $20,000,000 made up of four or more entities that each have a beneficial interest, held through an agent, under a trust arrangement established pursuant to subsection (f), no one of which may exercise powers thereunder without the concurrence of at least one other unaffiliated beneficiary.
[1] So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

46 USC 31323 - Disclosing and incurring obligations before executing preferred mortgages

(a) On request of the mortgagee and before executing a preferred mortgage, the mortgagor shall disclose in writing to the mortgagee the existence of any obligation known to the mortgagor on the vessel to be mortgaged.
(b) After executing a preferred mortgage and before the mortgagee has had a reasonable time to file the mortgage, the mortgagor may not incur, without the consent of the mortgagee, any contractual obligation establishing a lien on the vessel except a lien for
(1) wages of a stevedore when employed directly by a person listed in section 31341 of this title;
(2) wages for the crew of the vessel;
(3) general average; or
(4) salvage, including contract salvage.
(c) On conviction of a mortgagor under section 31330 (a)(1)(A) or (B) of this title for violating this section, the mortgage indebtedness, at the option of the mortgagee, is payable immediately.

46 USC 31324 - Retention and examination of mortgages of vessels covered by preferred mortgages

(a) On request, the owner, master, or individual in charge of a vessel covered by a preferred mortgage shall permit a person to examine the mortgage if the person has business with the vessel that may give rise to a maritime lien or the sale, conveyance, mortgage, or assignment of a mortgage of the vessel.
(b) A mortgagor of a preferred mortgage covering a self-propelled vessel shall use diligence in keeping a certified copy of the mortgage on the vessel.

46 USC 31325 - Preferred mortgage liens and enforcement

(a) A preferred mortgage is a lien on the mortgaged vessel in the amount of the outstanding mortgage indebtedness secured by the vessel.
(b) On default of any term of the preferred mortgage, the mortgagee may
(1) enforce the preferred mortgage lien in a civil action in rem for a documented vessel, a vessel to be documented under chapter 121 of this title, a vessel titled in a State, or a foreign vessel;
(2) enforce a claim for the outstanding indebtedness secured by the mortgaged vessel in
(A) a civil action in personam in admiralty against the mortgagor, maker, comaker, or guarantor for the amount of the outstanding indebtedness or any deficiency in full payment of that indebtedness; and
(B) a civil action against the mortgagor, maker, comaker, or guarantor for the amount of the outstanding indebtedness or any deficiency in full payment of that indebtedness; and
(3) enforce the preferred mortgage lien or a claim for the outstanding indebtedness secured by the mortgaged vessel, or both, by exercising any other remedy (including an extrajudicial remedy) against a documented vessel, a vessel for which an application for documentation is filed under chapter 121 of this title, a vessel titled in a State, a foreign vessel, or a mortgagor, maker, comaker, or guarantor for the amount of the outstanding indebtedness or any deficiency in full payment of that indebtedness, if
(A) the remedy is allowed under applicable law; and
(B) the exercise of the remedy will not result in a violation of section 56101 or 56102 of this title.
(c) The district courts have original jurisdiction of a civil action brought under subsection (b)(1) or (2) of this section. However, for a documented vessel, a vessel to be documented under chapter 121 of this title, a vessel titled in a State, or a foreign vessel, this jurisdiction is exclusive of the courts of the States for a civil action brought under subsection (b)(1) of this section.
(d) 
(1) Actual notice of a civil action brought under subsection (b)(1) of this section, or to enforce a maritime lien, must be given in the manner directed by the court to
(A) the master or individual in charge of the vessel;
(B) any person that recorded under section 31343 (a) or (d) of this title an unexpired notice of a claim of an undischarged lien on the vessel; and
(C) a mortgagee of a mortgage filed or recorded under section 31321 of this title that is an undischarged mortgage on the vessel.
(2) Notice under paragraph (1) of this subsection is not required if, after search satisfactory to the court, the person entitled to the notice has not been found in the United States.
(3) Failure to give notice required by this subsection does not affect the jurisdiction of the court in which the civil action is brought. However, unless notice is not required under paragraph (2) of this subsection, the party required to give notice is liable to the person not notified for damages in the amount of that persons interest in the vessel terminated by the action brought under subsection (b)(1) of this section. A civil action may be brought to recover the amount of the terminated interest. The district courts have original jurisdiction of the action, regardless of the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties. If the plaintiff prevails, the court may award costs and attorney fees to the plaintiff.
(e) In a civil action brought under subsection (b)(1) of this section
(1) the court may appoint a receiver and authorize the receiver to operate the mortgaged vessel and shall retain in rem jurisdiction over the vessel even if the receiver operates the vessel outside the district in which the court is located; and
(2) when directed by the court, a United States marshal may take possession of a mortgaged vessel even if the vessel is in the possession or under the control of a person claiming a possessory common law lien.
(f) 
(1) Before title to the documented vessel or vessel for which an application for documentation is filed under chapter 121 is transferred by an extrajudicial remedy, the person exercising the remedy shall give notice of the proposed transfer to the Secretary, to the mortgagee of any mortgage on the vessel filed in substantial compliance with section 31321 of this title before notice of the proposed transfer is given to the Secretary, and to any person that recorded an unexpired notice of a claim of an undischarged lien on the vessel under section 31343 (a) or (d) of this title before notice of the proposed transfer is given to the Secretary.
(2) Failure to give notice as required by this subsection shall not affect the transfer of title to a vessel. However, the rights of any holder of a maritime lien or a preferred mortgage on the vessel shall not be affected by a transfer of title by an extrajudicial remedy exercised under this section, regardless of whether notice is required by this subsection or given.
(3) The Secretary shall prescribe regulations establishing the time and manner for providing notice under this subsection.

46 USC 31326 - Court sales to enforce preferred mortgage liens and maritime liens and priority of claims

(a) When a vessel is sold by order of a district court in a civil action in rem brought to enforce a preferred mortgage lien or a maritime lien, any claim in the vessel existing on the date of sale is terminated, including a possessory common law lien of which a person is deprived under section 31325 (e)(2) of this title, and the vessel is sold free of all those claims.
(b) Each of the claims terminated under subsection (a) of this section attaches, in the same amount and in accordance with their priorities to the proceeds of the sale, except that
(1) the preferred mortgage lien, including a preferred mortgage lien on a foreign vessel whose mortgage has been guaranteed under chapter 537 of this title, has priority over all claims against the vessel (except for expenses and fees allowed by the court, costs imposed by the court, and preferred maritime liens); and
(2) for a foreign vessel whose mortgage has not been guaranteed under chapter 537 of this title, the preferred mortgage lien is subordinate to a maritime lien for necessaries provided in the United States.

46 USC 31327 - Forfeiture of mortgagee interest

The interest of a mortgagee in a documented vessel or a vessel covered by a preferred mortgage under section 31322 (d) of this title may be terminated by a forfeiture of the vessel for a violation of a law of the United States only if the mortgagee authorized, consented, or conspired to do the act, failure, or omission that is the basis of the violation.

46 USC 31328 - Repealed. Pub. L. 104324, title XI, 1113(b)(1), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3970]

Section, Pub. L. 100–710, title I, § 102(c), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4746, related to limitations on parties serving as trustees of mortgaged vessel interests.

46 USC 31329 - Court sales of documented vessels

(a) A documented vessel may be sold by order of a district court only to
(1) a person eligible to own a documented vessel under section 12103 of this title; or
(2) a mortgagee of that vessel.
(b) When a vessel is sold to a mortgagee not eligible to own a documented vessel
(1) the vessel must be held by the mortgagee for resale;
(2) the vessel held by the mortgagee is subject to chapter 563 of this title; and
(3) the sale of the vessel to the mortgagee is not a sale to a person not a citizen of the United States under section 12132 of this title.
(c) Unless waived by the Secretary of Transportation, a person purchasing a vessel by court order under subsection (a)(1) of this section or from a mortgagee under subsection (a)(2) of this section must document the vessel under chapter 121 of this title.
(d) The vessel may be operated by the mortgagee not eligible to own a documented vessel only with the approval of the Secretary.
(e) A sale of a vessel contrary to this section is void.
(f) This section does not apply to a documented vessel that has been operated only for pleasure.

46 USC 31330 - Penalties

(a) 
(1) A mortgagor shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 2 years, or both, if the mortgagor
(A) with intent to defraud, does not disclose an obligation on a vessel as required by section 31323 (a) of this title;
(B) with intent to defraud, incurs a contractual obligation in violation of section 31323 (b) of this title;
(C) with intent to hinder or defraud an existing or future creditor of the mortgagor or a lienor of the vessel, files a mortgage with the Secretary of Transportation; or
(D) with intent to defraud, does not comply with section 31321 (h) of this title.
(2) A mortgagor is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 if the mortgagor
(A) does not disclose an obligation on a vessel as required by section 31323 (a) of this title;
(B) incurs a contractual obligation in violation of section 31323 (b) of this title;
(C) files with the Secretary a mortgage made not in good faith; or
(D) does not comply with section 31321 (h) of this title.
(b) 
(1) A person that knowingly violates section 31329 of this title shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 3 years, or both.
(2) A person violating section 31329 of this title is liable to the Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000.
(3) A vessel involved in a violation under section 31329 of this title and its equipment may be seized by, and forfeited to, the Government.
(c) If a person not an individual violates this section, the president or chief executive of the person also is subject to any penalty provided under this section.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - SUBCHAPTER III - MARITIME LIENS

46 USC 31341 - Persons presumed to have authority to procure necessaries

(a) The following persons are presumed to have authority to procure necessaries for a vessel:
(1) the owner;
(2) the master;
(3) a person entrusted with the management of the vessel at the port of supply; or
(4) an officer or agent appointed by
(A) the owner;
(B) a charterer;
(C) an owner pro hac vice; or
(D) an agreed buyer in possession of the vessel.
(b) A person tortiously or unlawfully in possession or charge of a vessel has no authority to procure necessaries for the vessel.

46 USC 31342 - Establishing maritime liens

(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, a person providing necessaries to a vessel on the order of the owner or a person authorized by the owner
(1) has a maritime lien on the vessel;
(2) may bring a civil action in rem to enforce the lien; and
(3) is not required to allege or prove in the action that credit was given to the vessel.
(b) This section does not apply to a public vessel.

46 USC 31343 - Recording and discharging notices of claim of maritime lien

(a) Except as provided under subsection (d) of this section, a person claiming a lien on a vessel documented, or for which an application for documentation has been filed, under chapter 121 may record with the Secretary of Transportation a notice of that persons lien claim on the vessel. To be recordable, the notice must
(1) state the nature of the lien;
(2) state the date the lien was established;
(3) state the amount of the lien;
(4) state the name and address of the person; and
(5) be signed and acknowledged.
(b) 
(1) The Secretary shall record a notice complying with subsection (a) of this section if, when the notice is presented to the Secretary for recording, the person having the claim files with the notice a declaration stating the following:
(A) The information in the notice is true and correct to the best of the knowledge, information, and belief of the individual who signed it.
(B) A copy of the notice, as presented for recordation, has been sent to each of the following:
(i) The owner of the vessel.
(ii) Each person that recorded under subsection (a) of this section an unexpired notice of a claim of an undischarged lien on the vessel.
(iii) The mortgagee of each mortgage filed or recorded under section 31321 of this title that is an undischarged mortgage on the vessel.
(2) A declaration under this subsection filed by a person that is not an individual must be signed by the president, member, partner, trustee, or other individual authorized to execute the declaration on behalf of the person.
(c) 
(1) On full and final discharge of the indebtedness that is the basis for a notice of claim of lien recorded under subsection (b) of this section, the person having the claim shall provide the Secretary with an acknowledged certificate of discharge of the indebtedness. The Secretary shall record the certificate.
(2) The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction over a civil action in Admiralty to declare that a vessel is not subject to a lien claimed under subsection (b) of this section, or that the vessel is not subject to the notice of claim of lien, or both, regardless of the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties. Venue in such an action shall be in the district where the vessel is found or where the claimant resides or where the notice of claim of lien is recorded. The court may award costs and attorneys fees to the prevailing party, unless the court finds that the position of the other party was substantially justified or other circumstances make an award of costs and attorneys fees unjust. The Secretary shall record any such declaratory order.
(d) A person claiming a lien on a vessel covered by a preferred mortgage under section 31322 (d) of this title must record and discharge the lien as provided by the law of the State in which the vessel is titled.
(e) A notice of claim of lien recorded under subsection (b) of this section shall expire 3 years after the date the lien was established, as such date is stated in the notice under subsection (a) of this section.
(f) This section does not alter in any respect the law pertaining to the establishment of a maritime lien, the remedy provided by such a lien, or the defenses thereto, including any defense under the doctrine of laches.

Subtitle IV - Regulation of Ocean Shipping

Part A - Ocean Shipping

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 401 - GENERAL

46 USC 40101 - Purposes

The purposes of this part are to
(1) establish a nondiscriminatory regulatory process for the common carriage of goods by water in the foreign commerce of the United States with a minimum of government intervention and regulatory costs;
(2) provide an efficient and economic transportation system in the ocean commerce of the United States that is, insofar as possible, in harmony with, and responsive to, international shipping practices;
(3) encourage the development of an economically sound and efficient liner fleet of vessels of the United States capable of meeting national security needs; and
(4) promote the growth and development of United States exports through competitive and efficient ocean transportation and by placing a greater reliance on the marketplace.

46 USC 40102 - Definitions

In this part:
(1) Agreement.— 
The term agreement
(A) means a written or oral understanding, arrangement, or association, and any modification or cancellation thereof; but
(B) does not include a maritime labor agreement.
(2) Antitrust laws.— 
The term antitrust laws means
(A) the Sherman Act (15 U.S.C. 1 et seq.);
(B) sections 73 and 74 of the Wilson Tariff Act (15 U.S.C. 8, 9);
(C) the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12 et seq.);
(D) the Act of June 19, 1936 (15 U.S.C. 13, 13a, 13b, 21a);
(E) the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.);
(F) the Antitrust Civil Process Act (15 U.S.C. 1311 et seq.); and
(G) Acts supplementary to those Acts.
(3) Assessment agreement.— 
The term assessment agreement means an agreement, whether part of a collective bargaining agreement or negotiated separately, to the extent the agreement provides for the funding of collectively bargained fringe-benefit obligations on other than a uniform worker-hour basis, regardless of the cargo handled or type of vessel or equipment used.
(4) Bulk cargo.— 
The term bulk cargo means cargo that is loaded and carried in bulk without mark or count.
(5) Chemical parcel-tanker.— 
The term chemical parcel-tanker means a vessel that has
(A) a cargo-carrying capability consisting of individual cargo tanks for bulk chemicals that
(i) are a permanent part of the vessel; and
(ii) have segregation capability with piping systems to permit simultaneous carriage of several bulk chemical cargoes with minimum risk of cross-contamination; and
(B) a valid certificate of fitness under the International Maritime Organization Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk.
(6) Common carrier.— 
The term common carrier
(A) means a person that
(i) holds itself out to the general public to provide transportation by water of passengers or cargo between the United States and a foreign country for compensation;
(ii) assumes responsibility for the transportation from the port or point of receipt to the port or point of destination; and
(iii) uses, for all or part of that transportation, a vessel operating on the high seas or the Great Lakes between a port in the United States and a port in a foreign country; but
(B) does not include a carrier engaged in ocean transportation by ferry boat, ocean tramp, or chemical parcel-tanker, or by vessel when primarily engaged in the carriage of perishable agricultural commodities
(i) if the carrier and the owner of those commodities are wholly-owned, directly or indirectly, by a person primarily engaged in the marketing and distribution of those commodities; and
(ii) only with respect to the carriage of those commodities.
(7) Conference.— 
The term conference
(A) means an association of ocean common carriers permitted, pursuant to an approved or effective agreement, to engage in concerted activity and to use a common tariff; but
(B) does not include a joint service, consortium, pooling, sailing, or transshipment agreement.
(8) Controlled carrier.— 
The term controlled carrier means an ocean common carrier that is, or whose operating assets are, directly or indirectly, owned or controlled by a government, with ownership or control by a government being deemed to exist for a carrier if
(A) a majority of the interest in the carrier is owned or controlled in any manner by that government, an agency of that government, or a public or private person controlled by that government; or
(B) that government has the right to appoint or disapprove the appointment of a majority of the directors, the chief operating officer, or the chief executive officer of the carrier.
(9) Deferred rebate.— 
The term deferred rebate means a return by a common carrier of any freight money to a shipper, where the return is
(A) consideration for the shipper giving all or any portion of its shipments to that or any other common carrier over a fixed period of time;
(B) deferred beyond the completion of the service for which it was paid; and
(C) made only if the shipper has agreed to make a further shipment with that or any other common carrier.
(10) Forest products.— 
The term forest products includes lumber in bundles, rough timber, ties, poles, piling, laminated beams, bundled siding, bundled plywood, bundled core stock or veneers, bundled particle or fiber boards, bundled hardwood, wood pulp in rolls, wood pulp in unitized bales, and paper and paper board in rolls or in pallet or skid-sized sheets.
(11) Inland division.— 
The term inland division means the amount paid by a common carrier to an inland carrier for the inland portion of through transportation offered to the public by the common carrier.
(12) Inland portion.— 
The term inland portion means the charge to the public by a common carrier for the non-ocean portion of through transportation.
(13) Loyalty contract.— 
The term loyalty contract means a contract with an ocean common carrier or agreement providing for
(A) a shipper to obtain lower rates by committing all or a fixed portion of its cargo to that carrier or agreement; and
(B) a deferred rebate arrangement.
(14) Marine terminal operator.— 
The term marine terminal operator means a person engaged in the United States in the business of providing wharfage, dock, warehouse, or other terminal facilities in connection with a common carrier, or in connection with a common carrier and a water carrier subject to subchapter II of chapter 135 of title 49.
(15) Maritime labor agreement.— 
The term maritime labor agreement
(A) means
(i) a collective bargaining agreement between an employer subject to this part, or a group of such employers, and a labor organization representing employees in the maritime or stevedoring industry;
(ii) an agreement preparatory to such a collective bargaining agreement among members of a multi-employer bargaining group; or
(iii) an agreement specifically implementing provisions of such a collective bargaining agreement or providing for the formation, financing, or administration of a multi-employer bargaining group; but
(B) does not include an assessment agreement.
(16) Non-vessel-operating common carrier.— 
The term non-vessel-operating common carrier means a common carrier that
(A) does not operate the vessels by which the ocean transportation is provided; and
(B) is a shipper in its relationship with an ocean common carrier.
(17) Ocean common carrier.— 
The term ocean common carrier means a vessel-operating common carrier.
(18) Ocean freight forwarder.— 
The term ocean freight forwarder means a person that
(A) in the United States, dispatches shipments from the United States via a common carrier and books or otherwise arranges space for those shipments on behalf of shippers; and
(B) processes the documentation or performs related activities incident to those shipments.
(19) Ocean transportation intermediary.— 
The term ocean transportation intermediary means an ocean freight forwarder or a non-vessel-operating common carrier.
(20) Service contract.— 
The term service contract means a written contract, other than a bill of lading or receipt, between one or more shippers, on the one hand, and an individual ocean common carrier or an agreement between or among ocean common carriers, on the other, in which
(A) the shipper or shippers commit to providing a certain volume or portion of cargo over a fixed time period; and
(B) the ocean common carrier or the agreement commits to a certain rate or rate schedule and a defined service level, such as assured space, transit time, port rotation, or similar service features.
(21) Shipment.— 
The term shipment means all of the cargo carried under the terms of a single bill of lading.
(22) Shipper.— 
The term shipper means
(A) a cargo owner;
(B) the person for whose account the ocean transportation of cargo is provided;
(C) the person to whom delivery is to be made;
(D) a shippers association; or
(E) a non-vessel-operating common carrier that accepts responsibility for payment of all charges applicable under the tariff or service contract.
(23) Shippers’ association.— 
The term shippers association means a group of shippers that consolidates or distributes freight on a nonprofit basis for the members of the group to obtain carload, truckload, or other volume rates or service contracts.
(24) Through rate.— 
The term through rate means the single amount charged by a common carrier in connection with through transportation.
(25) Through transportation.— 
The term through transportation means continuous transportation between origin and destination for which a through rate is assessed and which is offered or performed by one or more carriers, at least one of which is a common carrier, between a United States port or point and a foreign port or point.

46 USC 40103 - Administrative exemptions

(a) In General.— 
The Federal Maritime Commission, on application or its own motion, may by order or regulation exempt for the future any class of agreements between persons subject to this part or any specified activity of those persons from any requirement of this part if the Commission finds that the exemption will not result in substantial reduction in competition or be detrimental to commerce. The Commission may attach conditions to an exemption and may, by order, revoke an exemption.
(b) Opportunity for Hearing.— 
An order or regulation of exemption or revocation of an exemption may be issued only if the Commission has provided an opportunity for a hearing to interested persons and departments and agencies of the United States Government.

46 USC 40104 - Reports filed with the Commission

(a) In General.— 
The Federal Maritime Commission may require a common carrier or an officer, receiver, trustee, lessee, agent, or employee of the carrier to file with the Commission a periodical or special report, an account, record, rate, or charge, or a memorandum of facts and transactions related to the business of the carrier. The report, account, record, rate, charge, or memorandum shall be made under oath if the Commission requires, and shall be filed in the form and within the time prescribed by the Commission.
(b) Conference Minutes.— 
Conference minutes required to be filed with the Commission under this section may not be released to third parties or published by the Commission.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 403 - AGREEMENTS

46 USC 40301 - Application

(a) Ocean Common Carrier Agreements.— 
This part applies to an agreement between or among ocean common carriers to
(1) discuss, fix, or regulate transportation rates, including through rates, cargo space accommodations, and other conditions of service;
(2) pool or apportion traffic, revenues, earnings, or losses;
(3) allot ports or regulate the number and character of voyages between ports;
(4) regulate the volume or character of cargo or passenger traffic to be carried;
(5) engage in an exclusive, preferential, or cooperative working arrangement between themselves or with a marine terminal operator;
(6) control, regulate, or prevent competition in international ocean transportation; or
(7) discuss and agree on any matter related to a service contract.
(b) Marine Terminal Operator Agreements.— 
This part applies to an agreement between or among marine terminal operators, or between or among one or more marine terminal operators and one or more ocean common carriers, to
(1) discuss, fix, or regulate rates or other conditions of service; or
(2) engage in exclusive, preferential, or cooperative working arrangements, to the extent the agreement involves ocean transportation in the foreign commerce of the United States.
(c) Acquisitions.— 
This part does not apply to an acquisition by any person, directly or indirectly, of any voting security or assets of any other person.
(d) Maritime Labor Agreements.— 
This part does not apply to a maritime labor agreement. However, this subsection does not exempt from this part any rate, charge, regulation, or practice of a common carrier that is required to be set forth in a tariff or is an essential term of a service contract, whether or not the rate, charge, regulation, or practice arises out of, or is otherwise related to, a maritime labor agreement.
(e) Assessment Agreements.— 
This part (except sections 40305 and 40307 (a)) does not apply to an assessment agreement.

46 USC 40302 - Filing requirements

(a) In General.— 
A true copy of every agreement referred to in section 40301 (a) or (b) of this title shall be filed with the Federal Maritime Commission. If the agreement is oral, a complete memorandum specifying in detail the substance of the agreement shall be filed.
(b) Exceptions.— 
Subsection (a) does not apply to
(1) an agreement related to transportation to be performed within or between foreign countries; or
(2) an agreement among common carriers to establish, operate, or maintain a marine terminal in the United States.
(c) Regulations.— 
The Commission may by regulation prescribe the form and manner in which an agreement shall be filed and any additional information and documents necessary to evaluate the agreement.

46 USC 40303 - Content requirements

(a) Ocean Common Carrier Agreements.— 

(1) Restrictions.— 
An ocean common carrier agreement may not
(A) prohibit or restrict a member of the agreement from engaging in negotiations for a service contract with a shipper;
(B) require a member of the agreement to disclose a negotiation on a service contract, or the terms of a service contract, other than those terms required to be published under section 40502 (d) of this title; or
(C) adopt mandatory rules or requirements affecting the right of an agreement member to negotiate and enter into a service contract.
(2) Voluntary guidelines.— 
An ocean common carrier agreement may provide authority to adopt voluntary guidelines relating to the terms and procedures of an agreement members service contracts if the guidelines explicitly state the right of members of the agreement not to follow the guidelines. Any guidelines adopted shall be submitted confidentially to the Federal Maritime Commission.
(b) Conference Agreements.— 
Each conference agreement must
(1) state its purpose;
(2) provide reasonable and equal terms for admission and readmission to conference membership for any ocean common carrier willing to serve the particular trade or route;
(3) permit any member to withdraw from conference membership on reasonable notice without penalty;
(4) at the request of any member, require an independent neutral body to police fully the obligations of the conference and its members;
(5) prohibit the conference from engaging in conduct prohibited by section 41105 (1) or (3) of this title;
(6) provide for a consultation process designed to promote
(A) commercial resolution of disputes; and
(B) cooperation with shippers in preventing and eliminating malpractices;
(7) establish procedures for promptly and fairly considering requests and complaints of shippers; and
(8) provide that
(A) any member of the conference may take independent action on a rate or service item on not more than 5 days notice to the conference; and
(B) except for an exempt commodity not published in the conference tariff, the conference will include the new rate or service item in its tariff for use by that member, effective no later than 5 days after receipt of the notice, and by any other member that notifies the conference that it elects to adopt the independent rate or service item on or after its effective date, in lieu of the existing conference tariff provision for that rate or service item.
(c) Interconference Agreements.— 
Each agreement between carriers not members of the same conference must provide the right of independent action for each carrier. Each agreement between conferences must provide the right of independent action for each conference.
(d) Vessel Sharing Agreements.— 

(1) In general.— 
An ocean common carrier that is the owner, operator, or bareboat, time, or slot charterer of a liner vessel documented under section 12103 or 12111 (c) of this title may agree with an ocean common carrier described in paragraph (2) to which it charters or subcharters the vessel or space on the vessel that the charterer or subcharterer may not use or make available space on the vessel for the carriage of cargo reserved by law for vessels of the United States.
(2) Carrier described.— 
An ocean common carrier described in this paragraph is one that is not the owner, operator, or bareboat charterer for at least one year of liner vessels of the United States that are eligible to be included in the Maritime Security Fleet Program and are enrolled in an Emergency Preparedness Program under chapter 531 of this title.

46 USC 40304 - Commission action

(a) Notice of Filing.— 
Within 7 days after an agreement is filed, the Federal Maritime Commission shall transmit a notice of the filing to the Federal Register for publication.
(b) Preliminary Review and Rejection.— 
After preliminary review, the Commission shall reject an agreement that it finds does not meet the requirements of sections 40302 and 40303 of this title. The Commission shall notify in writing the person filing the agreement of the reason for rejection.
(c) Review and Effective Date.— 
Unless rejected under subsection (b), an agreement (other than an assessment agreement) is effective
(1) on the 45th day after filing, or on the 30th day after notice of the filing is published in the Federal Register, whichever is later; or
(2) if additional information or documents are requested under subsection (d)
(A) on the 45th day after the Commission receives all the additional information and documents; or
(B) if the request is not fully complied with, on the 45th day after the Commission receives the information and documents submitted and a statement of the reasons for noncompliance with the request.
(d) Request for Additional Information.— 
Before the expiration of the period specified in subsection (c)(1), the Commission may request from the person filing the agreement any additional information and documents the Commission considers necessary to make the determinations required by this section.
(e) Modification of Review Period.— 

(1) Shortening.— 
On request of the party filing an agreement, the Commission may shorten a period specified in subsection (c), but not to a date that is less than 14 days after notice of the filing of the agreement is published in the Federal Register.
(2) Extension.— 
The period specified in subsection (c)(2) may be extended only by the United States District Court for the District of Columbia in a civil action brought by the Commission under section 41307 (c) of this title.
(f) Fixed Terms.— 
The Commission may not limit the effectiveness of an agreement to a fixed term.

46 USC 40305 - Assessment agreements

(a) Filing Requirement.— 
An assessment agreement shall be filed with the Federal Maritime Commission and is effective on filing.
(b) Complaints.— 
If a complaint is filed with the Commission within 2 years after the date of an assessment agreement, the Commission shall disapprove, cancel, or modify the agreement, or an assessment or charge pursuant to the agreement, that the Commission finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, to be unjustly discriminatory or unfair as between carriers, shippers, or ports. The Commission shall issue its final decision in the proceeding within one year after the date the complaint is filed.
(c) Adjustments of Assessments and Charges.— 
To the extent that the Commission finds under subsection (b) that an assessment or charge is unjustly discriminatory or unfair as between carriers, shippers, or ports, the Commission shall adjust the assessment or charge for the period between the filing of the complaint and the final decision by awarding prospective credits or debits to future assessments and charges. However, if the complainant has ceased activities subject to the assessment or charge, the Commission may award reparations.

46 USC 40306 - Nondisclosure of information

Information and documents (other than an agreement) filed with the Federal Maritime Commission under this chapter are exempt from disclosure under section 552 of title 5 and may not be made public except as may be relevant to an administrative or judicial proceeding. This section does not prevent disclosure to either House of Congress or to a duly authorized committee or subcommittee of Congress.

46 USC 40307 - Exemption from antitrust laws

(a) In General.— 
The antitrust laws do not apply to
(1) an agreement (including an assessment agreement) that has been filed and is effective under this chapter;
(2) an agreement that is exempt under section 40103 of this title from any requirement of this part;
(3) an agreement or activity within the scope of this part, whether permitted under or prohibited by this part, undertaken or entered into with a reasonable basis to conclude that it is
(A) pursuant to an agreement on file with the Federal Maritime Commission and in effect when the activity takes place; or
(B) exempt under section 40103 of this title from any filing or publication requirement of this part;
(4) an agreement or activity relating to transportation services within or between foreign countries, whether or not via the United States, unless the agreement or activity has a direct, substantial, and reasonably foreseeable effect on the commerce of the United States;
(5) an agreement or activity relating to the foreign inland segment of through transportation that is part of transportation provided in a United States import or export trade;
(6) an agreement or activity to provide wharfage, dock, warehouse, or other terminal facilities outside the United States; or
(7) an agreement, modification, or cancellation approved before June 18, 1984, by the Commission under section 15 of the Shipping Act, 1916, or permitted under section 14b of that Act, and any properly published tariff, rate, fare, or charge, or classification, rule, or regulation explanatory thereof implementing that agreement, modification, or cancellation.
(b) Exceptions.— 
This part does not extend antitrust immunity to
(1) an agreement with or among air carriers, rail carriers, motor carriers, or common carriers by water not subject to this part relating to transportation within the United States;
(2) a discussion or agreement among common carriers subject to this part relating to the inland divisions (as opposed to the inland portions) of through rates within the United States;
(3) an agreement among common carriers subject to this part to establish, operate, or maintain a marine terminal in the United States; or
(4) a loyalty contract.
(c) Retroactive Effect of Determinations.— 
A determination by an agency or court that results in the denial or removal of the immunity to the antitrust laws under subsection (a) does not remove or alter the antitrust immunity for the period before the determination.
(d) Relief Under Clayton Act.— 
A person may not recover damages under section 4 of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 15), or obtain injunctive relief under section 16 of that Act (15 U.S.C. 26), for conduct prohibited by this part.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 405 - TARIFFS, SERVICE CONTRACTS, REFUNDS, AND WAIVERS

46 USC 40501 - General rate and tariff requirements

(a) Automated Tariff System.— 

(1) In general.— 
Each common carrier and conference shall keep open to public inspection in an automated tariff system, tariffs showing all its rates, charges, classifications, rules, and practices between all points or ports on its own route and on any through transportation route that has been established. However, a common carrier is not required to state separately or otherwise reveal in tariffs the inland divisions of a through rate.
(2) Exceptions.— 
Paragraph (1) does not apply with respect to bulk cargo, forest products, recycled metal scrap, new assembled motor vehicles, waste paper, or paper waste.
(b) Contents of Tariffs.— 
A tariff under subsection (a) shall
(1) state the places between which cargo will be carried;
(2) list each classification of cargo in use;
(3) state the level of compensation, if any, of any ocean freight forwarder by a carrier or conference;
(4) state separately each terminal or other charge, privilege, or facility under the control of the carrier or conference and any rules that in any way change, affect, or determine any part or the total of the rates or charges;
(5) include sample copies of any bill of lading, contract of affreightment, or other document evidencing the transportation agreement; and
(6) include copies of any loyalty contract, omitting the shippers name.
(c) Electronic Access.— 
A tariff under subsection (a) shall be made available electronically to any person, without time, quantity, or other limitation, through appropriate access from remote locations. A reasonable fee may be charged for such access, except that no fee may be charged for access by a Federal agency.
(d) Time-Volume Rates.— 
A rate contained in a tariff under subsection (a) may vary with the volume of cargo offered over a specified period of time.
(e) Effective Dates.— 

(1) Increases.— 
A new or initial rate or change in an existing rate that results in an increased cost to a shipper may not become effective earlier than 30 days after publication. However, for good cause, the Federal Maritime Commission may allow the rate to become effective sooner.
(2) Decreases.— 
A change in an existing rate that results in a decreased cost to a shipper may become effective on publication.
(f) Marine Terminal Operator Schedules.— 
A marine terminal operator may make available to the public a schedule of rates, regulations, and practices, including limitations of liability for cargo loss or damage, pertaining to receiving, delivering, handling, or storing property at its marine terminal. Any such schedule made available to the public is enforceable by an appropriate court as an implied contract without proof of actual knowledge of its provisions.
(g) Regulations.— 

(1) In general.— 
The Commission shall by regulation prescribe the requirements for the accessibility and accuracy of automated tariff systems established under this section. The Commission, after periodic review, may prohibit the use of any automated tariff system that fails to meet the requirements established under this section.
(2) Remote terminals.— 
The Commission may not require a common carrier to provide a remote terminal for electronic access under subsection (c).
(3) Marine terminal operator schedules.— 
The Commission shall by regulation prescribe the form and manner in which marine terminal operator schedules authorized by this section shall be published.

46 USC 40502 - Service contracts

(a) In General.— 
An individual ocean common carrier or an agreement between or among ocean common carriers may enter into a service contract with one or more shippers subject to the requirements of this part.
(b) Filing Requirements.— 

(1) In general.— 
Each service contract entered into under this section by an individual ocean common carrier or an agreement shall be filed confidentially with the Federal Maritime Commission.
(2) Exceptions.— 
Paragraph (1) does not apply to contracts regarding bulk cargo, forest products, recycled metal scrap, new assembled motor vehicles, waste paper, or paper waste.
(c) Essential Terms.— 
Each service contract shall include
(1) the origin and destination port ranges;
(2) the origin and destination geographic areas in the case of through intermodal movements;
(3) the commodities involved;
(4) the minimum volume or portion;
(5) the line-haul rate;
(6) the duration;
(7) service commitments; and
(8) the liquidated damages for nonperformance, if any.
(d) Publication of Certain Terms.— 
When a service contract is filed confidentially with the Commission, a concise statement of the essential terms specified in paragraphs (1), (3), (4), and (6) of subsection (c) shall be published and made available to the general public in tariff format.
(e) Disclosure of Certain Terms.— 

(1) Definitions.— 
In this subsection, the terms dock area and within the port area have the same meaning and scope as in the applicable collective bargaining agreement between the requesting labor organization and the carrier.
(2) Disclosure.— 
An ocean common carrier that is a party to or is otherwise subject to a collective bargaining agreement with a labor organization shall, in response to a written request by the labor organization, state whether it is responsible for the following work at a dock area or within a port area in the United States with respect to cargo transportation under a service contract:
(A) The movement of the shippers cargo on a dock area or within the port area or to or from railroad cars on a dock area or within the port area.
(B) The assignment of intraport carriage of the shippers cargo between areas on a dock or within the port area.
(C) The assignment of the carriage of the shippers cargo between a container yard on a dock area or within the port area and a rail yard adjacent to the container yard.
(D) The assignment of container freight station work and container maintenance and repair work performed at a dock area or within the port area.
(3) Within reasonable time.— 
The common carrier shall provide the information described in paragraph (2) to the requesting labor organization within a reasonable period of time.
(4) Existence of collective bargaining agreement.— 
This subsection does not require the disclosure of information by an ocean common carrier unless there exists an applicable and otherwise lawful collective bargaining agreement pertaining to that carrier. A disclosure by an ocean common carrier may not be deemed an admission or an agreement that any work is covered by a collective bargaining agreement. A dispute about whether any work is covered by a collective bargaining agreement and the responsibility of an ocean common carrier under a collective bargaining agreement shall be resolved solely in accordance with the dispute resolution procedures contained in the collective bargaining agreement and the National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. 151 et seq.), and without reference to this subsection.
(5) Effect under other laws.— 
This subsection does not affect the lawfulness or unlawfulness under this part or any other Federal or State law of any collective bargaining agreement or element thereof, including any element that constitutes an essential term of a service contract.
(f) Remedy for Breach.— 
Unless the parties agree otherwise, the exclusive remedy for a breach of a service contract is an action in an appropriate court. The contract dispute resolution forum may not be controlled by or in any way affiliated with a controlled carrier or by the government that owns or controls the carrier.

46 USC 40503 - Refunds and waivers

The Federal Maritime Commission, on application of a carrier or shipper, may permit a common carrier or conference to refund a portion of the freight charges collected from a shipper, or to waive collection of a portion of the charges from a shipper, if
(1) there is an error in a tariff, a failure to publish a new tariff, or an error in quoting a tariff, and the refund or waiver will not result in discrimination among shippers, ports, or carriers;
(2) the common carrier or conference, before filing an application for authority to refund or waive any charges for an error in a tariff or a failure to publish a tariff, has published a new tariff setting forth the rate on which the refund or waiver would be based; and
(3) the application for the refund or waiver is filed with the Commission within 180 days from the date of shipment.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 407 - CONTROLLED CARRIERS

46 USC 40701 - Rates

(a) In General.— 
A controlled carrier may not
(1) maintain a rate or charge in a tariff or service contract, or charge or assess a rate, that is below a just and reasonable level; or
(2) establish, maintain, or enforce in a tariff or service contract a classification, rule, or regulation that results, or is likely to result, in the carriage or handling of cargo at a rate or charge that is below a just and reasonable level.
(b) Commission Prohibition.— 
The Federal Maritime Commission, at any time after notice and opportunity for a hearing, may prohibit the publication or use of a rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation that a controlled carrier has failed to demonstrate is just and reasonable.
(c) Burden of Proof.— 
In a proceeding under this section, the burden of proof is on the controlled carrier to demonstrate that its rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation is just and reasonable.
(d) Voidness.— 
A rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation that has been suspended or prohibited by the Commission is void and its use is unlawful.

46 USC 40702 - Rate standards

(a) Definition.— 
In this section, the term constructive costs means the costs of another carrier, other than a controlled carrier, operating similar vessels and equipment in the same or a similar trade.
(b) Standards.— 
In determining whether a rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation of a controlled carrier is just and reasonable, the Federal Maritime Commission
(1) shall take into account whether the rate or charge that has been published or assessed, or that would result from the pertinent classification, rule, or regulation, is below a level that is fully compensatory to the controlled carrier based on the carriers actual costs or constructive costs; and
(2) may take into account other appropriate factors, including whether the rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation is
(A) the same as, or similar to, those published or assessed by other carriers in the same trade;
(B) required to ensure movement of particular cargo in the same trade; or
(C) required to maintain acceptable continuity, level, or quality of common carrier service to or from affected ports.

46 USC 40703 - Effective date of rates

Notwithstanding section 40501 (e) of this title and except for service contracts, a rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation of a controlled carrier may not become effective, without special permission of the Federal Maritime Commission, until the 30th day after publication.

46 USC 40704 - Commission review

(a) Request for Justification.— 
On request of the Federal Maritime Commission, a controlled carrier shall file with the Commission, within 20 days of the request, a statement of justification that sufficiently details the carriers need and purpose for an existing or proposed rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation and upon which the Commission may reasonably base a determination of its lawfulness.
(b) Determination.— 
Within 120 days after receipt of information requested under subsection (a), the Commission shall determine whether the rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation may be unjust and unreasonable.
(c) Show Cause Order.— 
Whenever the Commission is of the opinion that a rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation published or assessed by a controlled carrier may be unjust and unreasonable, the Commission shall issue an order to the controlled carrier to show cause why the rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation should not be prohibited.
(d) Suspension Pending Determination.— 

(1) Not yet effective.— 
Pending a determination of the lawfulness of a rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation in a proceeding under subsection (c), the Commission may suspend the rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation at any time before its effective date.
(2) Already effective.— 
If a rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation has already become effective, the Commission, on issuance of an order to show cause, may suspend the rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation on at least 30 days notice to the controlled carrier.
(3) Maximum suspension.— 
A period of suspension under this subsection may not exceed 180 days.
(e) Replacement During Suspension.— 
Whenever the Commission has suspended a rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation under this section, the controlled carrier may publish a new rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation to take effect immediately during the suspension in lieu of the suspended rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation. However, the Commission may reject the new rate, charge, classification, rule, or regulation if the Commission believes it is unjust and unreasonable.

46 USC 40705 - Presidential review of Commission orders

(a) Transmission to President.— 
The Federal Maritime Commission shall transmit to the President, concurrently with publication thereof, each order of suspension or final order of prohibition issued under section 40704 of this title.
(b) Presidential Request and Commission Action.— 
Within 10 days after receipt or the effective date of a Commission order referred to in subsection (a), the President, in writing, may request the Commission to stay the effect of the order if the President finds that the stay is required for reasons of national defense or foreign policy. The reasons shall be specified in the request. The Commission shall immediately grant the request by issuing an order in which the Presidents request shall be described. During a stay, the President shall, whenever practicable, attempt to resolve the matter by negotiating with representatives of the applicable foreign governments.

46 USC 40706 - Exceptions

This chapter does not apply to
(1) a controlled carrier of a foreign country whose vessels are entitled by a treaty of the United States to receive national or most-favored-nation treatment; or
(2) a trade served only by controlled carriers.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 409 - OCEAN TRANSPORTATION INTERMEDIARIES

46 USC 40901 - License requirement

(a) In General.— 
A person in the United States may not act as an ocean transportation intermediary unless the person holds an ocean transportation intermediarys license issued by the Federal Maritime Commission. The Commission shall issue a license to a person that the Commission determines to be qualified by experience and character to act as an ocean transportation intermediary.
(b) Exception.— 
A person whose primary business is the sale of merchandise may forward shipments of the merchandise for its own account without an ocean transportation intermediarys license.

46 USC 40902 - Financial responsibility

(a) In General.— 
A person may not act as an ocean transportation intermediary unless the person furnishes a bond, proof of insurance, or other surety
(1) in a form and amount determined by the Federal Maritime Commission to insure financial responsibility; and
(2) issued by a surety company found acceptable by the Secretary of the Treasury.
(b) Scope of Financial Responsibility.— 
A bond, insurance, or other surety obtained under this section
(1) shall be available to pay any penalty assessed under section 41109 of this title or any order for reparation issued under section 41305 of this title;
(2) may be available to pay any claim against an ocean transportation intermediary arising from its transportation-related activities
(A) with the consent of the insured ocean transportation intermediary and subject to review by the surety company; or
(B) when the claim is deemed valid by the surety company after the ocean transportation intermediary has failed to respond to adequate notice to address the validity of the claim; and
(3) shall be available to pay any judgment for damages against an ocean transportation intermediary arising from its transportation-related activities, if the claimant has first attempted to resolve the claim under paragraph (2) and the claim has not been resolved within a reasonable period of time.
(c) Regulations on Court Judgments.— 
The Commission shall prescribe regulations for the purpose of protecting the interests of claimants, ocean transportation intermediaries, and surety companies with respect to the process of pursuing claims against ocean transportation intermediary bonds, insurance, or sureties through court judgments. The regulations shall provide that a judgment for monetary damages may not be enforced except to the extent that the damages claimed arise from the transportation-related activities of the insured ocean transportation intermediary, as defined by the Commission.
(d) Resident Agent.— 
An ocean transportation intermediary not domiciled in the United States shall designate a resident agent in the United States for receipt of service of judicial and administrative process, including subpoenas.

46 USC 40903 - Suspension or revocation of license

(a) Failure To Maintain Qualifications or To Comply.— 
The Federal Maritime Commission, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, shall suspend or revoke an ocean transportation intermediarys license if the Commission finds that the ocean transportation intermediary
(1) is not qualified to provide intermediary services; or
(2) willfully failed to comply with a provision of this part or with an order or regulation of the Commission.
(b) Failure To Maintain Bond, Proof of Insurance, or Other Surety.— 
The Commission may revoke an ocean transportation intermediarys license for failure to maintain a bond, proof of insurance, or other surety as required by section 40902 (a) of this title.

46 USC 40904 - Compensation by common carriers

(a) Certification of License and Services.— 
A common carrier may compensate an ocean freight forwarder for a shipment dispatched for others only when the ocean freight forwarder has certified in writing that it holds an ocean transportation intermediarys license (if required under section 40901 of this title) and has
(1) engaged, booked, secured, reserved, or contracted directly with the carrier or its agent for space aboard a vessel or confirmed the availability of the space; and
(2) prepared and processed the ocean bill of lading, dock receipt, or other similar document for the shipment.
(b) Dual Compensation.— 
A common carrier may not pay compensation for services described in subsection (a) more than once on the same shipment.
(c) Beneficial Interest Shipments.— 
An ocean freight forwarder may not receive compensation from a common carrier for a shipment in which the ocean freight forwarder has a direct or indirect beneficial interest. A common carrier may not knowingly pay compensation on that shipment.
(d) Limits on Authority of Conference or Group.— 
A conference or group of two or more ocean common carriers in the foreign commerce of the United States that is authorized to agree on the level of compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder may not
(1) deny a member of the conference or group the right, upon notice of not more than 5 days, to take independent action on any level of compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder; or
(2) agree to limit the payment of compensation to an ocean freight forwarder to less than 1.25 percent of the aggregate of all rates and charges applicable under a tariff and assessed against the cargo on which the services of the ocean freight forwarder are provided.

TITLE 46 - US CODE - CHAPTER 411 - PROHIBITIONS AND PENALTIES

46 USC 41101 - Joint ventures and consortiums

In this chapter, a joint venture or consortium of two or more common carriers operating as a single entity is deemed to be a single common carrier.

46 USC 41102 - General prohibitions

(a) Obtaining Transportation at Less Than Applicable Rates.— 
A person may not knowingly and willfully, directly or indirectly, by means of false billing, false classification, false weighing, false report of weight, false measurement, or any other unjust or unfair device or means, obtain or attempt to obtain ocean transportation for property at less than the rates or charges that would otherwise apply.
(b) Operating Contrary to Agreement.— 
A person may not operate under an agreement required to be filed under section 40302 or 40305 of this title if
(1) the agreement has not become effective under section 40304 of this title or has been rejected, disapproved, or canceled; or
(2) the operation is not in accordance with the terms of the agreement or any modifications to the agreement made by the Federal Maritime Commission.
(c) Practices in Handling Property.— 
A common carrier, marine terminal operator, or ocean transportation intermediary may not fail to establish, observe, and enforce just and reasonable regulations and practices relating to or connected with receiving, handling, storing, or delivering property.

46 USC 41103 - Disclosure of information

(a) Prohibition.— 
A common carrier, marine terminal operator, or ocean freight forwarder, either alone or in conjunction with any other person, directly or indirectly, may not knowingly disclose, offer, solicit, or receive any information concerning the nature, kind, quantity, destination, consignee, or routing of any property tendered or delivered to a common carrier, without the consent of the shipper or consignee, if the information
(1) may be used to the detriment or prejudice of the shipper, the consignee, or any common carrier; or
(2) may improperly disclose its business transaction to a competitor.
(b) Exceptions.— 
Subsection (a) does not prevent providing the information
(1) in response to legal process;
(2) to the Federal Maritime Commission or an agency of the United States Government; or
(3) to an independent neutral body operating within the scope of its authority to fulfill the policing obligations of the parties to an agreement effective under this part.
(c) Disclosure for Determining Breach or Compiling Statistics.— 
An ocean common carrier that is a party to a conference agreement approved under this part, a receiver, trustee, lessee, agent, or employee of the carrier, or any other person authorized by the carrier to receive information
(1) may give information to the conference or any person or agency designated by the conference, for the purpose of
(A) determining whether a shipper or consignee has breached an agreement with the conference or its member lines;
(B) determining whether a member of the conference has breached the conference agreement; or
(C) compiling statistics of cargo movement; and
(2) may not prevent the conference or its designee from soliciting or receiving information for any of those purposes.

46 USC 41104 - Common carriers

A common carrier, either alone or in conjunction with any other person, directly or indirectly, may not
(1) allow a person to obtain transportation for property at less than the rates or charges established by the carrier in its tariff or service contract by means of false billing, false classification, false weighing, false measurement, or any other unjust or unfair device or means;
(2) provide service in the liner trade that is
(A) not in accordance with the rates, charges, classifications, rules, and practices contained in a tariff published or a service contract entered into under chapter 405 of this title, unless excepted or exempted under section 40103 or 40501 (a)(2) of this title; or
(B) under a tariff or service contract that has been suspended or prohibited by the Federal Maritime Commission under chapter 407 or 423 of this title;
(3) retaliate against a shipper by refusing, or threatening to refuse, cargo space accommodations when available, or resort to other unfair or unjustly discriminatory methods because the shipper has patronized another carrier, or has filed a complaint, or for any other reason;
(4) for service pursuant to a tariff, engage in any unfair or unjustly discriminatory practice in the matter of
(A) rates or charges;
(B) cargo classifications;
(C) cargo space accommodations or other facilities, with due regard being given to the proper loading of the vessel and the available tonnage;
(D) loading and landing of freight; or
(E) adjustment and settlement of claims;
(5) for service pursuant to a service contract, engage in any unfair or unjustly discriminatory practice in the matter of rates or charges with respect to any port;
(6) use a vessel in a particular trade for the purpose of excluding, preventing, or reducing competition by driving another ocean common carrier out of that trade;
(7) offer or pay any deferred rebates;
(8) for service pursuant to a tariff, give any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage;
(9) for service pursuant to a service contract, give any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage with respect to any port;
(10) unreasonably refuse to deal or negotiate;
(11) knowingly and willfully accept cargo from or transport cargo for the account of an ocean transportation intermediary that does not have a tariff as required by section 40501 of this title and a bond, insurance, or other surety as required by section 40902 of this title; or
(12) knowingly and willfully enter into a service contract with an ocean transportation intermediary that does not have a tariff as required by section 40501 of this title and a bond, insurance, or other surety as required by section 40902 of this title, or with an affiliate of such an ocean transportation intermediary.

46 USC 41105 - Concerted action

A conference or group of two or more common carriers may not
(1) boycott or take any other concerted action resulting in an unreasonable refusal to deal;
(2) engage in conduct that unreasonably restricts the use of intermodal services or technological innovations;
(3) engage in any predatory practice designed to eliminate the participation, or deny the entry, in a particular trade of a common carrier not a member of the conference, a group of common carriers, an ocean tramp, or a bulk carrier;
(4) negotiate with a non-ocean carrier or group of non-ocean carriers (such as truck, rail, or air operators) on any matter relating to rates or services provided to ocean common carriers within the United States by those non-ocean carriers, unless the negotiations and any resulting agreements are not in violation of the antitrust laws and are consistent with the purposes of this part, except that this paragraph does not prohibit the setting and publishing of a joint through rate by a conference, joint venture, or association of ocean common carriers;
(5) deny in the export foreign commerce of the United States compensation to an ocean freight forwarder or limit that compensation to less than a reasonable amount;
(6) allocate shippers among specific carriers that are parties to the agreement or prohibit a carrier that is a party to the agreement from soliciting cargo from a particular shipper, except as
(A) authorized by section 40303 (d) of this title;
(B) required by the law of the United States or the importing or exporting country; or
(C) agreed to by a shipper in a service contract;
(7) for service pursuant to a service contract, engage in any unjustly discriminatory practice in the matter of rates or charges with respect to any locality, port, or person due to the persons status as a shippers association or ocean transportation intermediary; or
(8) for service pursuant to a service contract, give any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage with respect to any locality, port, or person due to the persons status as a shippers association or ocean transportation intermediary.

46 USC 41106 - Marine terminal operators

A marine terminal operator may not
(1) agree with another marine terminal operator or with a common carrier to boycott, or unreasonably discriminate in the provision of terminal services to, a common carrier or ocean tramp;
(2) give any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage or impose any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage with respect to any person; or
(3) unreasonably refuse to deal or negotiate.

46 USC 41107 - Monetary penalties

(a) In General.— 
A person that violates this part or a regulation or order of the Federal Maritime Commission issued under this part is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty. Unless otherwise provided in this part, the amount of the penalty may not exceed $5,000 for each violation or, if the violation was willfully and knowingly committed, $25,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation is a separate violation.
(b) Lien on Carrier’s Vessels.— 
The amount of a civil penalty imposed on a common carrier under this section constitutes a lien on the vessels operated by the carrier. Any such vessel is subject to an action in rem to enforce the lien in the district court of the United States for the district in which it is found.

46 USC 41108 - Additional penalties

(a) Suspension of Tariffs.— 
For a violation of section 41104 (1), (2), or (7) of this title, the Federal Maritime Commission may suspend any or all tariffs of the common carrier, or that common carriers right to use any or all tariffs of conferences of which it is a member, for a period not to exceed 12 months.
(b) Operating Under Suspended Tariff.— 
A common carrier that accepts or handles cargo for carriage under a tariff that has been suspended, or after its right to use that tariff has been suspended, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each shipment.
(c) Failure To Provide Information.— 

(1) Penalties.— 
If the Commission finds, after notice and opportunity for a hearing, that a common carrier has failed to supply information ordered to be produced or compelled by subpoena under section 41303 of this title, the Commission may
(A) suspend any or all tariffs of the carrier or the carriers right to use any or all tariffs of conferences of which it is a member; and