26 USC 883 - Exclusions from gross income

(a) Income of foreign corporations from ships and aircraft 
The following items shall not be included in gross income of a foreign corporation, and shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle:
(1) Ships operated by certain foreign corporations 
Gross income derived by a corporation organized in a foreign country from the international operation of a ship or ships if such foreign country grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States.
(2) Aircraft operated by certain foreign corporations 
Gross income derived by a corporation organized in a foreign country from the international operation of aircraft if such foreign country grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States.
(3) Railroad rolling stock of foreign corporations 
Earnings derived from payments by a common carrier for the use on a temporary basis (not expected to exceed a total of 90 days in any taxable year) of railroad rolling stock owned by a corporation of a foreign country which grants an equivalent exemption to corporations organized in the United States.

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(4) Special rules 
The rules of paragraphs (6), (7), and (8) of section 872 (b) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.
(5) Special rule for countries which tax on residence basis 
For purposes of this subsection, there shall not be taken into account any failure of a foreign country to grant an exemption to a corporation organized in the United States if such corporation is subject to tax by such foreign country on a residence basis pursuant to provisions of foreign law which meets such standards (if any) as the Secretary may prescribe.
(b) Earnings derived from communications satellite system 
The earnings derived from the ownership or operation of a communications satellite system by a foreign entity designated by a foreign government to participate in such ownership or operation shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle, if the United States, through its designated entity, participates in such system pursuant to the Communications Satellite Act of 1962 (47 U.S.C. 701 and following).
(c) Treatment of certain foreign corporations 

(1) In general 
Paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) (as the case may be) shall not apply to any foreign corporation if 50 percent or more of the value of the stock of such corporation is owned by individuals who are not residents of such foreign country or another foreign country meeting the requirements of such paragraph.
(2) Treatment of controlled foreign corporations 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any foreign corporation which is a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957 (a)).
(3) Special rules for publicly traded corporations 

(A) Exception 
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any corporation which is organized in a foreign country meeting the requirements of paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) (as the case may be) and the stock of which is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in such foreign country, another foreign country meeting the requirements of such paragraph, or the United States.
(B) Treatment of stock owned by publicly traded corporation 
Any stock in another corporation which is owned (directly or indirectly) by a corporation meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A) shall be treated as owned by individuals who are residents of the foreign country in which the corporation meeting the requirements of subparagraph (A) is organized.
(4) Stock ownership through entities 
For purposes of paragraph (1), stock owned (directly or indirectly) by or for a corporation, partnership, trust, or estate shall be treated as being owned proportionately by its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. Stock considered to be owned by a person by reason of the application of the preceding sentence shall, for purposes of applying such sentence, be treated as actually owned by such person.