45 USC 231d - Annuity beginning and ending dates

(a) Annuities under section 231a of this title 
Subject to the limitations set forth below, an annuity under section 231a of this title shall begin with the month in which eligibility therefor was otherwise acquired, but
(i) not earlier than the date specified in the application therefor;
(ii) in the case of an applicant otherwise entitled to an annuity under paragraph (iv) or (v) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title or under section 231a (d)(1)(i) of this title on the basis of disability, not earlier than the later of (A) the first day of the sixth month following the onset date of the disability for which such annuity is awarded or (B) the first day of the twelfth month before the month in which the application therefor was filed;
(iii) in the case of an applicant otherwise entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1), 231a (c), or 231a (d) of this title where paragraph (ii) does not apply, not earlier than the latest of (A) the first day of the sixth month before the month in which the application therefor was filed, (B) the first day of the month in which the application therefor was filed if the effect of beginning such annuity in an earlier month would result in a greater age reduction in the annuity, unless beginning the annuity in the earlier month would enable an annuity under section 231a (c) of this title which is not subject to an age reduction to be payable in such earlier month, (C) in the case of an applicant otherwise entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) or 231a (c) of this title, the date following the last day of compensated service of the applicant, or (D) in the case of an applicant otherwise entitled to an annuity under section 231a (a)(1) or 231a (c) of this title, the first day of the first month throughout which the applicant meets the age requirement for the annuity applied for;

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(iv) in the case of an applicant otherwise entitled to an annuity under section 231a (c)(4) or (d)(1)(v) of this title, not earlier than the month an annuity would begin to accrue to such individual under such section if section 202 (j)(1) and section 202(j)(4) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402 (j)(1), (4)] were applicable to this subchapter.[1]
(v) an annuity amount provided by section 231b (h)(1) or 231b (h)(2) of this title shall not be paid to an individual otherwise eligible therefor for any month before the month such individual would be entitled, upon filing an application therefor, to an old-age insurance benefit or a disability insurance benefit under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.] and an annuity amount provided by section 231b (h)(3) or section 231b (h)(4) of this title shall not be paid to an individual otherwise eligible therefor for any month before the month such individual would be entitled, upon filing an application therefore,[2] to an insurance benefit as a wife, husband, widow, or widower under title II of the Social Security Act;
(vi) an annuity amount provided by section 231c (e)(1) or 231c (e)(2) of this title shall not be paid to a spouse otherwise eligible therefor for any month prior to the month such spouse would be entitled, upon filing an application therefor, to an old-age or disability insurance benefit under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.]; and
(vii) an annuity amount provided by section 231c (e)(3) of this title shall not be paid to a spouse otherwise eligible therefor for any month prior to the month such spouse would be entitled, upon filing an application therefor, to a wifes or husbands insurance benefit under title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.].

For the purpose of determining annuity amounts provided under sections 231b (a), 231c (a), and 231c (f) of this title, the provisions with respect to the beginning dates of annuities set forth in this subsection shall be deemed to govern the beginning dates of monthly benefits provided under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.].

(b) Applications for payment 
An application for any payment under this subchapter shall be made and filed in such manner and form as the Board may prescribe. An application filed with the Board for an employee annuity, spouse annuity, or divorced spouse annuity on the basis of the employment record of an employee who will have completed less than ten years of service shall be deemed to be an application for any benefit to which such applicant may be entitled under this subchapter or section 202 (a), section 202(b), or section 202(c) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 402 (a), (b), (c)]. An application filed with the Board for an annuity on the basis of the employment record of an employee who will have completed ten years of service shall, unless the applicant specified otherwise, be deemed to be an application for any benefit to which such applicant may be entitled under this subchapter or title II of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.]. An individual who was entitled to an annuity under paragraph (iv) or (v) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title for the month preceding the month in which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 416 (l)]), shall be deemed to have filed an application for an annuity under paragraph (i) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title on the date on which he attained retirement age (as defined in section 216(l) of the Social Security Act), and a widow or widower who was entitled to an annuity under section 231a (d)(1) of this title on the basis of disability for the month preceding the month in which she or he attained age 60, shall be deemed to have filed an application for an annuity under such section 231a (d)(1) of this title on the basis of age on the date on which she or he attained age 60.
(c) Individual’s entitlement 

(1) An individuals entitlement to an annuity under paragraph (i), (ii), or (iii) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title or to a supplemental annuity under section 231a (b) of this title shall end with the month preceding the month in which he dies.
(2) An individuals entitlement to an annuity under paragraph (iv) or (v) of section 231a (a)(1) of this title shall end on
(A)  the last day of the second month following the month in which he ceases to be disabled as provided for purposes of such paragraphs,
(B)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which he attains retirement age (as defined in section 216(l) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 416 (l)]) or

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(C)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which he dies, whichever first occurs.
(3) The entitlement of a spouse of an individual to an annuity under section 231a (c) of this title shall end on the last day of the month preceding the month in which
(A)  the spouse or the individual dies,
(B)  the spouse and the individual are absolutely divorced, or
(C)  in the case of a wife who does not satisfy the requirements of clause (ii)(A) or (ii)(B) of section 231a (c)(1) of this title (other than a wife who is receiving such annuity by reason of an election under section 231a (c)(2) of this title), such wife no longer has in her care a child described in clause (ii)(C) of section 231a (c)(1) of this title, whichever first occurs. The entitlement of the divorced wife of an individual to an annuity under section 231a (c) of this title shall end on the last day of the month preceding the month in which
(A)  the divorced wife or the individual dies or
(B)  the divorced wife remarries.
(4) The entitlement of a widow or widower of a deceased employee to an annuity under paragraph (i) of section 231a (d)(1) of this title on the basis of age shall end on
(A)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she or he dies or
(B)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she or he remarries after the employees death, whichever first occurs.
(5) The entitlement of a widow or widower of a deceased employee to an annuity under paragraph (i) of section 231a (d)(1) of this title on the basis of disability shall end on
(A)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she or he dies,
(B)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she or he remarries after the employees death,
(C)  the last day of the second month following the month in which she or he ceases to be disabled as provided for purposes of such paragraph, or
(D)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she or he attains age 60, whichever first occurs.
(6) The entitlement of a widow of a deceased employee to an annuity under paragraph (ii) of section 231a (d)(1) of this title shall end on
(A)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she dies,
(B)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she remarries after the employees death, or
(C)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which she no longer has in her care a child described in clause (B) of such paragraph (ii) whichever first occurs.
(7) The entitlement of a child of a deceased employee to an annuity under paragraph (iii) of section 231a (d)(1) of this title shall end on
(A)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which he or she dies,
(B)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which he or she marries,
(C)  the last day of the month preceding the month in which he or she attains age 18 and does not meet the qualifications set forth in clause (B) or (C) of such paragraph (iii), (D) the last day of the month preceding
(i)  the month during no part of which he or she is a full-time elementary or secondary school student or
(ii)  the month in which he or she attains age 19, and does not meet the qualifications set forth in clause (A) or (C) of such paragraph (iii), or (E) the last day of the second month following the month in which he or she ceases to be disabled for purposes of such paragraph (iii) and does not meet the qualifications set forth in clause (A) or (B) of such paragraph (iii), whichever first occurs. A child whose entitlement to an annuity under paragraph (iii) of section 231a (d)(1) of this title terminated by reason of clause (E) of this subdivision because he or she ceased to be disabled and who again becomes disabled as provided in clause (C) of such paragraph (iii), may become reentitled to an annuity on the basis of such disability upon his or her application for such reentitlement. A child whose entitlement to an annuity under paragraph (iii) of section 231a (d)(1) of this title terminated with the month preceding the month in which he or she attained age 18, or with a subsequent month, may again become entitled to such an annuity (providing no event to disqualify the child has occurred) beginning with the first month thereafter in which he or she meets the qualifications set forth in clause (B) or (C) of such paragraph (iii), if he or she has filed an application for such reentitlement.
(8) The entitlement of a parent of a deceased employee to an annuity under paragraph (iv) of section 231a (d)(1) of this title shall end on the last day of the month preceding the month in which
(A)  such parent dies or
(B)  such parent remarries after the employees death, whichever first occurs.
(9) No annuity shall accrue with respect to the calendar month in which an annuitant dies. In cases where an individual entitled to an annuity under this subchapter disappears, no annuity shall accrue to that individual with respect to any month until and unless such individual is shown, by evidence satisfactory to the Board, to have continued in life throughout such month, but
(A) where an annuity would accrue for such month under section 231a (a)(1) of this title to an individual who had a current connection with the railroad industry at the time of such individuals disappearance, and under section 231a (c) of this title to such individuals spouse, had such individual been shown to be alive during such month, such individual shall be deemed, for the purposes of benefits under section 231a (d) of this title, to have died in the month in which such individual disappeared, and where an annuity would accrue for such month under section 231a (a)(1) of this title to an individual who did not have a current connection with the railroad industry at the time of such individuals disappearance, and under section 231a (c) of this title to such individuals spouse, had such individual been shown to be alive during such month, such individual shall be deemed, for purposes of benefits payable under section 231a (c) of this title, to be alive during such month unless the death of such individual has been established or the annuity of the spouse of such individual is otherwise terminated under subsection (c)(3) of this section, and
(B) if such individual is later determined to have been alive during any of such months, recovery of any benefits paid on the basis of such individuals compensation under section 231a (d) of this title for the months in which such individual was not known to be alive, minus the total of the amounts that would have been paid as a spouses annuity during such months (treating the application for a widows or widowers annuity as an application for spouses annuity), shall be made in accordance with section 231l of this title.

For purposes of the payment of benefits under this subchapter, the death of an individual shall be presumed based on such individuals unexplained absence of not less than seven years, except that whenever the death of an individual is so established, such individual shall be deemed to have died in the month in which such individual disappeared.

(d) Annuities to surviving former spouses under section 231b (b) of this title 
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the payment of any portion of an annuity computed under section 231b (b) of this title to a surviving former spouse in accordance with a court decree of divorce, annulment, or legal separation or the terms of any court-approved property settlement incident to any such court decree shall not be terminated upon the death of the individual who performed the service with respect to which such annuity is so computed unless such termination is otherwise required by the terms of such court decree.
[1] So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.
[2] So in original. Probably should be “therefor,”.