42 USC 1396o - Use of enrollment fees, premiums, deductions, cost sharing, and similar charges

(a) Imposition of certain charges under plan in case of individuals described in section 1396a (a)(10)(A) or (E) 
Subject to subsections (g) and (i) of this section, the State plan shall provide that in the case of individuals described in subparagraph (A) or (E)(i) of section 1396a (a)(10) of this title who are eligible under the plan
(1) no enrollment fee, premium, or similar charge will be imposed under the plan (except for a premium imposed under subsection (c) of this section);
(2) no deduction, cost sharing or similar charge will be imposed under the plan with respect to
(A) services furnished to individuals under 18 years of age (and, at the option of the State, individuals under 21, 20, or 19 years of age, or any reasonable category of individuals 18 years of age or over),

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(B) services furnished to pregnant women, if such services relate to the pregnancy or to any other medical condition which may complicate the pregnancy (or, at the option of the State, any services furnished to pregnant women),
(C) services furnished to any individual who is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or other medical institution, if such individual is required, as a condition of receiving services in such institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of his income required for personal needs,
(D) emergency services (as defined by the Secretary), family planning services and supplies described in section 1396d (a)(4)(C) of this title, or
(E) services furnished to an individual who is receiving hospice care (as defined in section 1396d (o) of this title); and
(3) any deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge imposed under the plan with respect to other such individuals or other care and services will be nominal in amount (as determined by the Secretary in regulations which shall, if the definition of nominal under the regulations in effect on July 1, 1982 is changed, take into account the level of cash assistance provided in such State and such other criteria as the Secretary determines to be appropriate); except that a deduction, cost-sharing, or similar charge of up to twice the nominal amount established for outpatient services may be imposed by a State under a waiver granted by the Secretary for services received at a hospital emergency room if the services are not emergency services (referred to in paragraph (2)(D)) and the State has established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that individuals eligible for services under the plan have actually available and accessible to them alternative sources of nonemergency, outpatient services.
(b) Imposition of certain charges under plan in case of individuals other than those described in section 1396a (a)(10)(A) or (E) 
The State plan shall provide that in the case of individuals other than those described in subparagraph (A) or (E) of section 1396a (a)(10) of this title who are eligible under the plan
(1) there may be imposed an enrollment fee, premium, or similar charge, which (as determined in accordance with standards prescribed by the Secretary) is related to the individuals income,
(2) no deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge will be imposed under the plan with respect to
(A) services furnished to individuals under 18 years of age (and, at the option of the State, individuals under 21, 20, or 19 years of age, or any reasonable category of individuals 18 years of age or over),
(B) services furnished to pregnant women, if such services relate to the pregnancy or to any other medical condition which may complicate the pregnancy (or, at the option of the State, any services furnished to pregnant women),

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(C) services furnished to any individual who is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded, or other medical institution, if such individual is required, as a condition of receiving services in such institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of his income required for personal needs,
(D) emergency services (as defined by the Secretary), family planning services and supplies described in section 1396d (a)(4)(C) of this title, or
(E) services furnished to an individual who is receiving hospice care (as defined in section 1396d (o) of this title); and
(3) any deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge imposed under the plan with respect to other such individuals or other care and services will be nominal in amount (as determined by the Secretary in regulations which shall, if the definition of nominal under the regulations in effect on July 1, 1982 is changed, take into account the level of cash assistance provided in such State and such other criteria as the Secretary determines to be appropriate); except that a deduction, cost-sharing, or similar charge of up to twice the nominal amount established for outpatient services may be imposed by a State under a waiver granted by the Secretary for services received at a hospital emergency room if the services are not emergency services (referred to in paragraph (2)(D)) and the State has established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that individuals eligible for services under the plan have actually available and accessible to them alternative sources of nonemergency, outpatient services.
(c) Imposition of monthly premium; persons affected; amount; prepayment; failure to pay; use of funds from other programs 

(1) The State plan of a State may at the option of the State provide for imposing a monthly premium (in an amount that does not exceed the limit established under paragraph (2)) with respect to an individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1396a (l)(1) of this title who is receiving medical assistance on the basis of section 1396a (a)(10)(A)(ii)(IX) of this title and whose family income (as determined in accordance with the methodology specified in section 1396a (l)(3) of this title) equals or exceeds 150 percent of the income official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, and revised annually in accordance with section 9902 (2) of this title) applicable to a family of the size involved.
(2) In no case may the amount of any premium imposed under paragraph (1) exceed 10 percent of the amount by which the family income (less expenses for the care of a dependent child) of an individual exceeds 150 percent of the line described in paragraph (1).
(3) A State shall not require prepayment of a premium imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) and shall not terminate eligibility of an individual for medical assistance under this subchapter on the basis of failure to pay any such premium until such failure continues for a period of not less than 60 days. The State may waive payment of any such premium in any case where the State determines that requiring such payment would create an undue hardship.
(4) A State may permit State or local funds available under other programs to be used for payment of a premium imposed under paragraph (1). Payment of a premium with such funds shall not be counted as income to the individual with respect to whom such payment is made.
(d) Premiums for qualified disabled and working individuals described in section 1396d (s) 
With respect to a qualified disabled and working individual described in section 1396d (s) of this title whose income (as determined under paragraph (3) of that section) exceeds 150 percent of the official poverty line referred to in that paragraph, the State plan of a State may provide for the charging of a premium (expressed as a percentage of the medicare cost-sharing described in section 1396d (p)(3)(A)(i) of this title provided with respect to the individual) according to a sliding scale under which such percentage increases from 0 percent to 100 percent, in reasonable increments (as determined by the Secretary), as the individuals income increases from 150 percent of such poverty line to 200 percent of such poverty line.
(e) Prohibition of denial of services on basis of individual’s inability to pay certain charges 
The State plan shall require that no provider participating under the State plan may deny care or services to an individual eligible for such care or services under the plan on account of such individuals inability to pay a deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge. The requirements of this subsection shall not extinguish the liability of the individual to whom the care or services were furnished for payment of the deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge.
(f) Charges imposed under waiver authority of Secretary 
No deduction, cost sharing, or similar charge may be imposed under any waiver authority of the Secretary, except as provided in subsections (a)(3) and (b)(3) of this section and section 1396o–1 of this title, unless such waiver is for a demonstration project which the Secretary finds after public notice and opportunity for comment
(1) will test a unique and previously untested use of copayments,
(2) is limited to a period of not more than two years,
(3) will provide benefits to recipients of medical assistance which can reasonably be expected to be equivalent to the risks to the recipients,
(4) is based on a reasonable hypothesis which the demonstration is designed to test in a methodologically sound manner, including the use of control groups of similar recipients of medical assistance in the area, and
(5) is voluntary, or makes provision for assumption of liability for preventable damage to the health of recipients of medical assistance resulting from involuntary participation.
(g) Individuals provided medical assistance under section 1396a (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XV) or (XVI) 
With respect to individuals provided medical assistance only under subclause (XV) or (XVI) of section 1396a (a)(10)(A)(ii) of this title
(1) a State may (in a uniform manner for individuals described in either such subclause)
(A) require such individuals to pay premiums or other cost-sharing charges set on a sliding scale based on income that the State may determine; and
(B) require payment of 100 percent of such premiums for such year in the case of such an individual who has income for a year that exceeds 250 percent of the income official poverty line (referred to in subsection (c)(1) of this section) applicable to a family of the size involved, except that in the case of such an individual who has income for a year that does not exceed 450 percent of such poverty line, such requirement may only apply to the extent such premiums do not exceed 7.5 percent of such income; and
(2) such State shall require payment of 100 percent of such premiums for a year by such an individual whose adjusted gross income (as defined in section 62 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) for such year exceeds $75,000, except that a State may choose to subsidize such premiums by using State funds which may not be federally matched under this subchapter.

In the case of any calendar year beginning after 2000, the dollar amount specified in paragraph (2) shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of section 415 (i)(2)(A)(ii) of this title.

(h) Indexing nominal cost sharing 
In applying this section and subsections (c) and (e) of section 1396o–1 of this title, with respect to cost sharing that is nominal in amount, the Secretary shall increase such nominal amounts for each year (beginning with 2006) by the annual percentage increase in the medical care component of the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) as rounded up in an appropriate manner.
(i) State option to impose income-related premiums for families of disabled children 

(1) With respect to disabled children provided medical assistance under section 1396a (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX) of this title, subject to paragraph (2), a State may (in a uniform manner for such children) require the families of such children to pay monthly premiums set on a sliding scale based on family income.
(2) A premium requirement imposed under paragraph (1) may only apply to the extent that
(A) in the case of a disabled child described in that paragraph whose family income
(i) does not exceed 200 percent of the poverty line, the aggregate amount of such premium and any premium that the parent is required to pay for family coverage under section 1396a (cc)(2)(A)(i) of this title and other cost-sharing charges do not exceed 5 percent of the familys income; and
(ii) exceeds 200, but does not exceed 300, percent of the poverty line, the aggregate amount of such premium and any premium that the parent is required to pay for family coverage under section 1396a (cc)(2)(A)(i) of this title and other cost-sharing charges do not exceed 7.5 percent of the familys income; and
(B) the requirement is imposed consistent with section 1396a (cc)(2)(A)(ii)(I) of this title.
(3) A State shall not require prepayment of a premium imposed pursuant to paragraph (1) and shall not terminate eligibility of a child under section 1396a (a)(10)(A)(ii)(XIX) of this title for medical assistance under this subchapter on the basis of failure to pay any such premium until such failure continues for a period of at least 60 days from the date on which the premium became past due. The State may waive payment of any such premium in any case where the State determines that requiring such payment would create an undue hardship.